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New Scales to Guide the Assessment of Hard Coral Cover and Diversity in the PhilippinesKey Points: -Coral reefs supply vital ecosystem services to the Philippines. -Safeguarding these services requires the rapid identification of reefs that provide most services, and identification is best made by measuring hard coral cover and diversity and using updated and locally relevant assessment scales on these measurements. -The use of these assessment scales has advantages and is recommended to update and improve Philippine laws.
Development of technology of sauce from regional raw materials with the addition of pectinThe production technology of sauce from cranberries and apple pectin has been described. The characteristics of the main raw material have been considered. The results of marketing researches of assortment of sauces, realized in large trading networks of Murmansk, technological scheme and a recipe of cowberry sauce with addition of apple pectin have been presented. The properties of pectin and its effect on the consistency and organoleptic characteristics of sauce have been studied, and the effect of citric acid on the color palette of finished products has been established. To search for a composition close to the optimal composition of the sauce, the method of planning the experiment has been used with the processing of results by the nonlinear regression method using the computer program Datafit 9.0. The results of the determination of the amount of ascorbic acid and the dynamics of the vitamin C content during storage in a cooled and frozen shocked ready-made sauce by the method of direct iodometry have been presented. It has been established that in the frozen product vitamin C is kept better than in the cooled product, the use of a portion of fresh sauce in an amount of 30 g covers 11 % of the daily physiological rate of vitamin C intake. The amount of pectin substances has been determined using the gravimetric method in the prepared sauce and raw materials. The amount of pectin substances in cowberries is 0.31 %, and in the finished sauce – 4.94 %. The comparative analysis of the obtained results with normative documents has been given. The influence of ultraviolet irradiation on the microbiological parameters of the finished product during storage has been studied. The results of microbiological studies of the sauce before and after ultraviolet irradiation have been presented. The bactericidal effectiveness and the volume bactericidal dose (exposure) have been calculated. The time of irradiation sufficient for the death of pathogenic microflora has been calculated. To achieve the required bactericidal effectiveness, the exposure time is 3 seconds. The effect of ultraviolet bactericidal irradiation on the tested products has been studied in accordance with the calculated data, a comparative analysis of the results obtained has been carried out. The approximate shelf life of the cowberry sauce has been stated.
Cryoextrusion in technology of fish feed productionThe process of grinding the frozen fish raw materials using the useful model of a piston-type extruder with cooled working bodies has been investigated. A new feed product – cryo minced fish feed – has been obtained. The possibility of replacing the standard manufacturing operations of the defrosting and subsequent grinding of raw materials by one operation of cryoextrusion has been justified. Planning of the experimental part has been performed by the method of combination squares. During the experiment, the volume of samples, their specific surface area, mass, initial and final temperatures of the working chamber, the temperature of raw materials, the temperature of the resulting minced meat, the pressure force, the time of the experiment, the mass of waste have been determined. The rational shape and size of the die holes for the extrusion of raw materials have been determined. It has been found that when using a nozzle with the "hourglass" shape of holes with a diameter of 4.5 mm and 7 mm, the duration of the extrusion process for the studied fish species is 47 to 130 s. The finished product – cryo minced fish feed – has a fairly homogeneous structure and juicy texture, the temperature in the thickness of the product is equal to the temperature of the raw material before its processing (–18 °C). The granulometric composition of the cryo minced fish feed using the sieve analysis has been determined. The statistical processing of the results of experiments to determine the pressure of frozen fish raw material by the method of nonlinear regression has been carried out using the program DataFit version 9.1.32. The regression equation describing the influence of the complex parameter – the coefficient of the hole shape, taking into account the diameter and shape of the matrix hole, and the degree of grinding of raw materials on the force of extrusion has been obtained. The expediency of using the matrix "hourglass" which allows to obtain the lowest pressure force for bony fish of the North Sea basin has been proved.
Improving the process of heat treatment of the stingray stellateThe results of developing a method for combined blanching (water – steam) of a stingray stellate have been presented. The proposed method completely excludes the process of preliminary wetting and, as a consequence the hydration of stingray meat; allows one to get a semi-finished product suitable for further processing for culinary purposes, as well as for canning. Analysis of the mass-size characteristics of wings of stingray stellate, caught in the Barents Sea, made it possible to identify a group of raw materials with a specific surface area 0.2560 ± 0.05 m2/kg, which corresponds to 75 % of the block weighing 10 kg with an average mass of the sample equal to 161.33 g. The presented experimental setup allows investigating the process of blanching with water, steam or a combined method of raw materials of both plant and animal origin. To plan the experiment, the combinatorial squares method has been applied. The effectiveness of urea removal from the stingray stellate meat has been confirmed experimentally by comparing the mass fraction of carbamide in muscle scate tissue before and after preliminary heat treatment accounting the characteristics of the product under study. The developed mode of combined blanching (water – steam) for stingray is characterized by an effective removal of urea (42.5 %) and can be used for industrial blanchers of processing lines. The mathematical model of the duration of steam treatment depending on the water temperature and the duration of water treatment, makes it possible to predict the regime of preliminary heat treatment of raw materials.
Enzymatic conversion as a method of producing biologically active peptidesThe growth of food products output volume including dairy products enriched by food ingredients with different biological effects is caused by deterioration of socioeconomic conditions, unstable ecological situation and unbalanced nutrition. The basic types of milk proteins proteolysis and the benefit of enzymatic catalysis over alkaline and acid have been considered. The data relating to usage of milk proteins hydrolysates in different fields of specialized and medioprophylactic nutrition depending on degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight of peptides have been presented. The substrate specificity of enzymatic preparations used in dairy industry in respect to impart the specified functional properties to milk protein has been analyzed. The impact of free amino-acids content in hydrolysates and the necessity to select enzymatic composition subject to the data relating to amino-acid sequence of protein and ferment substrate specificity has been described. Herewith protein hydrolysate obtaining with acceptable organoleptic properties and predicted biological effects is possible. The investigation analysis in the field of the functional products manufacture using protein containing milk raw material for production of protein compositions with the following creation of products on their basis has been carried out. The possibility to use the strategies of the directed enzymatic hydrolysis on obtaining of peptide compositions possessing hypotensive properties due to inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting ferment (ACF) by short oligopeptides has been demonstrated. Moreover, milk protein hydrolysates contain short peptides possessing cytoprotective and immunomodulatory action. Besides, milk protein hydrolysates exhibited the presence of antioxidant activity regarding different radicals in the systems with lipids oxidation.