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Change of the high-latitude ionosphere during heating by a powerful short radio wave of the EISCAT/Heating complex according to signals of the GLONASS satellite and the incoherent scattering radarПредставлены результаты наблюдений изменения температуры, электронной концентрации и полного электронного содержания высокоширотной области ионосферы во время ее модификации мощным коротковолновым радиоизлучением нагревного комплекса EISCAT/Heating (Тромсё, Норвегия) по данным сигналов спутников ГЛОНАСС и радара некогерентного рассеяния УВЧ ЕИСКАТ (Тромсё, Норвегия). Рассмотрена геометрия пролетов спутников ГЛОНАСС и GPS для условий работы нагревного комплекса в Тромсё. Показано, что во время экспериментов на комплексе EISCAT/Heating для изучения модифицированной структуры высокоширотной ионосферы удобнее использовать спутники ГЛОНАСС. Параметры орбит этих спутников позволяют исследовать изменения полного электронного содержания в направлении вдоль геомагнитной силовой линии в месте наблюдения. Показано, что во время нагрева ионосферы мощной коротковолновой радиоволной ее структура приобретает неоднородный характер. Работа нагревного комплекса в режиме "включено – выключено" вызывает появление волнообразных вариаций полного электронного содержания с периодом, близким к периоду нагрева. Основными особенностями поведения полного электронного содержания при непрерывном нагреве ионосферы в направлении магнитного зенита по данным спутника ГЛОНАСС явились уменьшение полного электронного содержания в центральной зоне диаграммы направленности антенны нагревного комплекса, т. е. в направлении магнитного зенита, и присутствие повышенных значений полного электронного содержания на краях зоны нагрева. По данным радара некогерентного рассеяния во время нагрева ионосферы вблизи направления на магнитный зенит формируется область повышенной электронной температуры и электронной концентрации. Поведение полного электронного содержания по данным спутника ГЛОНАСС и радара некогерентного рассеяния во многом соответствует друг другу, кроме этой области. Высказываются предположения о причинах такого несоответствия.
Change of the global climate regime at the turn of the XX–XXI centuriesRapid change in the planetary climate regime at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries has been revealed based on the analysis of the observations' data. With respect to the previous climatic regime, evaporation and a latent heat flux have increased from most of the surface of the World Ocean. Recent climatic regime in the XXI century is characterized by a significant increase in the number of strong cyclones, storms, sum of precipitation in wet areas with maritime climate. The number of hazardous extreme weather events is mostly increased in the ocean – continent marginal zone, including the Far East of Russia. The increase in precipitation in 2004 and extreme precipitation in 2015–2016 within the catchment of Lake Khanka in the South of the Russian Far East led to a catastrophic spill of this lake. During the first 17 years of the XXI century the number of extreme precipitation and floods in the warm season has increased in most of the marginal zones of Eurasia and North America. Winter snowfall is also amplified in the zone of temperate latitudes over many continental regions. The observed increase in precipitation is caused due to growth in both the water vapour content in the atmosphere over the ocean and the meridional transfer of heat and water vapour. Decrease in rainfall occurs in some continental areas, including the catchment area of Lake Baikal and the reservoirs of the Angara cascade of hydropower plants.
Pollution of water and bottom sediments of the Polar Front area in the Barents Sea with heavy metalsPollution of the Barents Sea water and bottom sediments in the Polar Front area with heavy metals including Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Hg, Zn, Pb and Cr has been considered based on the long-term data. The existence of a voluminous own database of Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO) on the content of metals in the surface layer of water and bottom sediments of the Barents Sea is the prerequisite for carrying out the research. At the first stage of the study, the data from 32 stations located in the Polar Front zone and obtained in the period from 2001 to 2013 have been derived and processed using GIS technologies and mathematical statistics from the database. Further, based on methods previously proposed by PINRO, the background values of the content of the listed metals in water and bottom sediments of the Polar Front, the zone of contact and transformation of the Atlantic and Arctic water masses have been calculated. In most cases, the values obtained have exceeded those established for neighboring water masses. As a result of the research, the maps of distribution of the pollution of sea water and bottom sediments with heavy metals have been made. Pollution is understood as the content of metals in concentrations exceeding the background level. It has been concluded about the persistent anthropogenic contamination of the Barents Sea Polar Front waters with some heavy metals, as well as of its bottom sediments with mercury in autumn period. The assumption has been made that the frontal zone accumulated the pollution coming from neighbouring contacting Atlantic and Arctic water masses. It has been shown that the pollution of the water in the frontal zone is mostly not accompanied by contamination of the underlying bottom sediments. With respect to the content of Ni, Cr and Pb in bottom sediments, one can speak of the detection of positive local geochemical anomalies.
Ecology and distribution of the Iceland scallop Chlamys islandica (O. F. Müller, 1776) in the Kola Вay (the Barents Sea)Assessment of the current state (distribution, allocation features, size structure, habitat conditions) of the Iceland scallop Chlamys islandica settlements in the Kola Bay has been carried out. Material for the study was collected in the upper subtidal zone by scuba divers at 12 research areas. It has been established that at present in the bay the scallop is widespread. This species occurrence is higher on the hard bottom and shell rock than on the soft bottom. The scallop numbers increases from the inner to the outer region of the bay. The weight-average density varies from 0.01 to 5.56 ind/m2 and the biomass varies from 0.5 to 225.0 g/m2. The scallops can form the local aggregations with density of 15 ind/m2. The mollusks settlement density is comparable with that in other bays of the more environmentally friendly areas. The size structure of mass aggregations has a monomodal character that demonstrates a weak replenishment of shallow-water settlements by juveniles. The Iceland scallop inhabits the upper subtidal zone of the Kola Bay with the water temperature equal to 2.8–11.8 °C and the salinity – 31.4–35.6 ‰. The abundance and size composition of scallop in the middle of the bay is under the influence of illegal non-commercial fishing. The received data on distribution and dimensional structure of the Iceland scallops can form a basis for monitoring conditions of bottom fauna of the Kola Bay and also for monitoring the possible changes in the Arctic ecosystem caused by climatic fluctuations or anthropogenic influence.
Biological features and intraspecific variation of three-spine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758), the Kola PeninsulaThe biological characteristics and intraspecific variability of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus аculeatus, from the estuary of the River Tuloma and lakes Venzin and Kulonga on the Kola Peninsula have been studied. Four morphotypes of threespine stickleback (trachurus with a keel, semiarmatus with а keel, leiurus with а keel, leiurus without keel) have been discovered. There are differences in the number of plates on the body of the stickleback, of plastic traits in different habitats, namely length and body height, the length of the first dorsal, middle dorsal and ventral spines. In the lakes there are morphs with a small number of plates, namely leiurus (3–6), and semiarmatus (13–16). In the estuary of the River Tuloma, the morphotype of trachurus with keel (22–26) is mostly found. The size and weight parameters of stickleback are also different in the investigated water bodies. On average, the length of freshwater stickleback is 53 mm, and the weight is 1.3 g, seawater stickleback, respectively, 72 mm and 4.4 g. These differences point to the adaptation to living in different conditions. In fresh reservoirs, the bone carapace is relieved by reducing the number of plates, while in water with a lower salinity, it is more difficult to extract the calcium needed to build bone plates, than in water with increased salinity. In the estuary of the River Tuloma during the tides there is an increase in salinity from 1 to 22 ‰, therefore, to extract calcium for building these scutes is more easily. Also, many-plate individuals after grasping by predators experience less damage than low-plate, and consequently the chances of escaping from the teeth of a predator increase. The dependence of the size-weight characteristics approximated by the power function equation of the form W = aLb has been determined. The coefficient b > 3 indicates the preservation of the shape of the body as the stickleback grows, and suggests that the rate of increment of mass is similar in the studied reservoirs.