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Assessment on the Occurrence of Anisakid and other Endoparasitic Nematodes Infecting Commercially-Important Fishes at Tayabas BayAnisakid nematodes are parasites commonly present in the marine environment. Parasites belonging to the family Anisakidae or the genus Anisakis can cause two different clinical manifestations: gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions known as anisakiasis. In this study, we examined 7,126 marine fishes belonging to four different commercially-important fish species; Rastrelliger kanagurta, Sardinella lemuru, Atule mate, and Selar crumenophthalmus for the presence of anisakid and other endoparasitic nematode infection. The fishes caught from Tayabas Bay were bought from three different landing sites from March 2017 to February 2018. The gonads, liver, and stomach of each fish species were incubated for 12-18 hours for rapid isolation and endoparasite evaluation. After the isolation of parasites, anisakid nematodes were fixed in vials with 70% ethanol for morphological analysis under the microscope. Six anisakid groups of genera, including Hysterothylacium, Terranova, Anisakis, Contracaecum, Raphidascaris, and Camallanus, and a non-anisakid group Echinorhynchus were identified. The results showed that the prevalence of anisakid infection in all species was 24.18 %, with a mean intensity of infection of 1.91. Rastrelliger kanagurta (Dalahican), Atule mate, and Selar crumenophthalmus were the most infected with 50.90%, 38.98%, and 30.52% prevalence rate, respectively, followed by Rastrelliger kanagurta (San Francisco) (24.18%) and Sardinella lemuru (7.46%). The collected data suggest that commercially-important fish caught in the Tayabas Bay waters are susceptible to parasitization by larvae of the genus Camallanus followed by Hysterothylacium and Terranova in their visceral organs. The prevalence of anisakid infection was almost similar between female (45.3 %) and male (47.21 %) fishes with a mean intensity of 1.95 & 1.96, respectively. Also, larger fishes were heavily infected with anisakid larvae than small fishes. Thus, the intensity and prevalence of the fish parasite can be used as a biological tag for benchmarking and stock assessment purposes.
Estimation of condition factor of Bengal Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus cynoglossus) in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh.The Bay of Bengal is rich with its biological diversity, which plays an important role in the country's economic and social development. This study describes the condition factor of Cynoglossus cynoglossus in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from the Bay of Bengal during January to December 2020. Body weight (BW) of fishes were taken by an electric balance with 0.01 g precision, and total length (TL) was measured using a measuring board to the nearest 0.1 cm accuracy. The Fulton’s condition factor was estimated by the equation: KF =100 × (BW/TL3). Total length and body weight ranged from 10.0-38.7 cm (mean ± SD = 24.24 ± 6.30) and 9.1-280.6 g (98.44 ± 57.79), respectively. The value of Fulton’s condition factor was observed as 0.6469 (SD = 0.1148), indicating unstable physiological condition of fish in Bay of Bengal. The outcomes of this study will be helpful for sustainable management of C. cynoglossus in the Bay of Bengal and use as baseline information for further studies.
Re-discription of Calappa exanthematosa Alcock and Anderson, 1894 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Calappidae) from the coastal waters of Pakistan.The box crab Calappa exanthematosa Alcock and Anderson, (1894) re-described from the coastal waters of Pakistan. C. exanthematosa was collected as a bycatch during the shrimp trawling. This species previously synonymised under C. japonica Ortmann, (1892) from the Bay of Bengal, (type locality Japan), since 1937 to till date (Galil, 1997; Spiridinov and Apel, 2007). Ng et al., (2011) re-described and illustrated the C exanthematosa after comparison of freshly collected specimen of Calappa japonica from the Gulf of Oman and India and revealed that the both species have resemblance to each other, but few marked differences exist between both species. Current study re-described the morphological characteristic of C. exanthematosa from the coastal waters of Pakistan.
Estimation of growth pattern and form factor of Torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh.The horse mackerel, Megalaspis cordyla is one of the commercially valuable fish species in the Bay of Bengal. This study was defined the growth pattern and form factor (a3.0) of M. cordyla in the Bay of Bengal. Total of 105 specimens were analyzed, caught from the Bay of Bengal during January to December 2020. Total length (TL) was measured by measuring board with 0.01 cm and body weight (BW) was taken by digital balance with 0.01 g accuracy. The TL and BW varied between 16.8 to 41.0 cm and 67.15 to 544.0 g, respectively. The length-weight relationship (LWR) was significantly related (p < 0.0001), with r2 value 0.984. The evaluated allometric co-efficient (b) was 2.50 that indicated negative allometric growth (< 3.0) in the Bay of Bengal. The estimated a3.0 was 0.0102 for M. cordyla in the Bay of Bengal. The assessed a3.0 was varied from 0.0069 to 0.0182 in worldwide waterbodies. The computed median (0.0102) and 95% confidence limit (0.0099-0.0132) specified that M. cordyla poses the typical torpedo body shape ‘fusiform’. This study will provide information on growth pattern and form factor as well as body shape alternation between geographic distributions which would be effective for its stock assessment and management in the Bay of Bengal and else-where.
The first assessment on metal contamination in the critically endangered Sawback Angel Shark (Squatina aculeata) from north-eastern Mediterranean.A Sawback angel shark (Squatina aculeata) classified as “Critically Endangered” Global Red List by the IUCN (2017) and CITES (2017) is one of the threated elasmobranch groups and the increased pollution in the marine environment negatively impact angel shark species. Despite this, limited information exists about the effects of toxic chemical contamination in angel sharks. Therefore, present study was conducted to elucidate heavy metal accumulation in Squatina aculeata captured from the Iskenderun Bay, North-Eastern Mediterranean by electrochemical technique. Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Mangan (Mn) were found by electrochemical analyzer. Among the gill and liver tissue samples of S. aculeata, Fe and Zn were detected as highest concentrations followed by As, Hg, Mn and Cu; Among the muscle tissue of S. aculeata, Fe and Zn were detected as highest followed by Hg, As, Mn and Cu. Average total arsenic contents in S. aculeata was 7.5416±0.6548 μg g-1, which exceeded maximum limit legalized for any kind of food. Similarly, Total mercury average content in S. aculeata was 19.9942±1.6116 μg g -1, which exceeded the proposed limit value which is 0.2-2 μg g-1, confirming that the consumption of S. aculeata is a high risk threating the health of consumer. These results confirmed that the metal contamination in North-Eastern Mediterranean area may pose a potential threat to the sustainability of S. aculeata in marine ecosystem and the concentrations detected is the above the safety limits for angel shark that should be taken into consideration regarding human consumption.