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Value Chain Analysis of Maliputo, Caranx ignobilis in the PhilippinesMaliputo (Caranx ignobilis) is a high-value food fish in the Philippines with limited studies on market potential. This value chain analysis study was conducted to understand the industry, to identify the key actors, supply and value chain, and to identify issues and concerns to support the development of C. ignobilis industry. A survey interview was conducted using purposive sampling in nine maliputo-producing regions with 224 respondents, and focus group discussion validated the analyzed data. Key chain actors identified are fishers, fish cage operators, fish buyers categorized as small-scale (local vendors and peddlers) and large-scale intermediaries (commission agents and wholesalers), and processors (restaurants and resorts). Annual production was 188,722 kg valued at PHP 33,752,859.79 with 58.12% coming from capture fisheries and 41.88% from aquaculture. Major producing regions for captured and cultured C. ignobilis are Regions 2 (Cagayan), 6 (Iloilo), and 3 (Central Luzon). The industry’s value chain map showed a gross value addition of PHP 116.58, 135.65, 75.04, 23.58, and 749.71 per kg maliputo for capture, aquaculture, small-scale fish buyer, large-scale fish buyer, and processors, respectively. Processors attained the highest net returns while fishers got the lowest. This study noted that C. ignobilis is a non-target species in capture fisheries resulting in an inconsistent supply of the fish. For aquaculture, there is a need to improve its culture technology, develop seed production technology, and formulate an artificial diet. Various upgrading strategies to improve the industry and to increase the benefits derived by the key actors had been identified and presented in the paper.
Reproductive Biological Performance of Otolithes ruber (Bloch and Schneider 1801) in San Miguel Bay, PhilippinesThe tigertooth croaker, Otolithes ruber (Bloch and Schneider 1801), was studied to determine its reproductive biology characteristics for 34 months from March 2015 to November 2017. A total of 7,977 individuals were sampled and the measured total lengths (TL) ranged from 8.1 cm to 32.1 cm (16.70 ± 2.53 cm ) and 10.0 cm to 33.5 cm (17.95 ± 2.95 cm) for male and female, respectively. The length-weight relationship can be summarized as W = 0.00521 L3.18 and W = 0.00837 L3.01 for female and male, respectively. The length at first maturity of this species was determined to be 13.95 cm, which is smaller compared to other studies. The overall sex ratio of this species was 1:0.8, with males dominating the female sex (P < 0.05, X2 = 64.3). In addition, synchronized development of male and female gonads was observed. It was also verified that mature individuals were present all throughout the study period indicating that this species spawn continuously and the presence of juveniles during the sampling period indicated continuous recruitment. Mean monthly GSIs indicate July to November as the main spawning season of this species. The in-site occurrence of mature and juvenile stocks in the bay further implicates that San Miguel Bay is a nursery ground for this species. The fecundity varied between 3,420 to 422,100 with an average fecundity of 86,142 eggs. Lastly, the spawning potential ratio is still above the limit reference point (SPR = 0.36), indicating that the stock can still replenish their biomass.
New Scales to Guide the Assessment of Hard Coral Cover and Diversity in the PhilippinesKey Points: -Coral reefs supply vital ecosystem services to the Philippines. -Safeguarding these services requires the rapid identification of reefs that provide most services, and identification is best made by measuring hard coral cover and diversity and using updated and locally relevant assessment scales on these measurements. -The use of these assessment scales has advantages and is recommended to update and improve Philippine laws.
Development of technology of sauce from regional raw materials with the addition of pectinThe production technology of sauce from cranberries and apple pectin has been described. The characteristics of the main raw material have been considered. The results of marketing researches of assortment of sauces, realized in large trading networks of Murmansk, technological scheme and a recipe of cowberry sauce with addition of apple pectin have been presented. The properties of pectin and its effect on the consistency and organoleptic characteristics of sauce have been studied, and the effect of citric acid on the color palette of finished products has been established. To search for a composition close to the optimal composition of the sauce, the method of planning the experiment has been used with the processing of results by the nonlinear regression method using the computer program Datafit 9.0. The results of the determination of the amount of ascorbic acid and the dynamics of the vitamin C content during storage in a cooled and frozen shocked ready-made sauce by the method of direct iodometry have been presented. It has been established that in the frozen product vitamin C is kept better than in the cooled product, the use of a portion of fresh sauce in an amount of 30 g covers 11 % of the daily physiological rate of vitamin C intake. The amount of pectin substances has been determined using the gravimetric method in the prepared sauce and raw materials. The amount of pectin substances in cowberries is 0.31 %, and in the finished sauce – 4.94 %. The comparative analysis of the obtained results with normative documents has been given. The influence of ultraviolet irradiation on the microbiological parameters of the finished product during storage has been studied. The results of microbiological studies of the sauce before and after ultraviolet irradiation have been presented. The bactericidal effectiveness and the volume bactericidal dose (exposure) have been calculated. The time of irradiation sufficient for the death of pathogenic microflora has been calculated. To achieve the required bactericidal effectiveness, the exposure time is 3 seconds. The effect of ultraviolet bactericidal irradiation on the tested products has been studied in accordance with the calculated data, a comparative analysis of the results obtained has been carried out. The approximate shelf life of the cowberry sauce has been stated.
Cryoextrusion in technology of fish feed productionThe process of grinding the frozen fish raw materials using the useful model of a piston-type extruder with cooled working bodies has been investigated. A new feed product – cryo minced fish feed – has been obtained. The possibility of replacing the standard manufacturing operations of the defrosting and subsequent grinding of raw materials by one operation of cryoextrusion has been justified. Planning of the experimental part has been performed by the method of combination squares. During the experiment, the volume of samples, their specific surface area, mass, initial and final temperatures of the working chamber, the temperature of raw materials, the temperature of the resulting minced meat, the pressure force, the time of the experiment, the mass of waste have been determined. The rational shape and size of the die holes for the extrusion of raw materials have been determined. It has been found that when using a nozzle with the "hourglass" shape of holes with a diameter of 4.5 mm and 7 mm, the duration of the extrusion process for the studied fish species is 47 to 130 s. The finished product – cryo minced fish feed – has a fairly homogeneous structure and juicy texture, the temperature in the thickness of the product is equal to the temperature of the raw material before its processing (–18 °C). The granulometric composition of the cryo minced fish feed using the sieve analysis has been determined. The statistical processing of the results of experiments to determine the pressure of frozen fish raw material by the method of nonlinear regression has been carried out using the program DataFit version 9.1.32. The regression equation describing the influence of the complex parameter – the coefficient of the hole shape, taking into account the diameter and shape of the matrix hole, and the degree of grinding of raw materials on the force of extrusion has been obtained. The expediency of using the matrix "hourglass" which allows to obtain the lowest pressure force for bony fish of the North Sea basin has been proved.