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Resposta à inundação de plantas jovens de Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth.) Burkart.Floodplains provide a unique environment, periodic floods cause low rates of diffusion and solubility of oxygen in the soil and represent the main restriction to plant community development. Among the strategies presented by plants that allow them to survive these flooding events are morphophysiological and anatomical adjustments, reducing the damage caused by oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with the objective of experimentally observing the adaptive strategies of survival to the flooding, thus, young plants of Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth.) Burkart were submitted to water saturation conditions. The following treatments were submitted to the plants: flooded (only the soil submerged in water), submersion (plants totally under the water) and the control group (maintained at field capacity). For morphological evaluation, we collected data from shoot height, root length, biomass (leaves, stem and root). For the anatomical analysis of the root, we measured the diameter of the vascular cylinder of the root and the total diameter of the root, in addition to data about chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and total chlorophyll. Analyzes were performed 15, 30 and 60 days after the start of the treatments. Results were statistically compared by mean tests (ANOVA, Kruskal-wallis and t-test). In general, the control group presented higher growth averages in the parameters: shoot height, root length, biomass of leaves and root, diameter of the central cylinder of the root and total diameter of the root, compared to the other treatments, in all studied periods. The values of chlorophyll a, b and total and carotenoids showed little variation at 15 days after the beginning of treatments and only at 30 days the control and flooded groups obtained higher values, compared to the totally submerged, indicating changes in the metabolism of plants kept in submersion. Anatomical analysis showed greater development in the control group, with roots in advanced secondary tissue growth and reduced total root diameter in treatments when it was in hypoxia. We observed The presence of lenticels and adventitious roots in the flooded plants. At 60 days after the start of treatments, subjects in the submerged treatment were dead. Flooding represented a negative effect on the growth of individuals as well as substrate flooding. The death of plants under submersion treatment indicates that Albizia niopoides does not tolerate long periods of total submersion, while the morphoanatomical characteristics developed suggest that the plant is considered tolerant to the stress caused by the flooding of the substrate.
Diversidade taxonômica, funcional e filogenética de protistas ciliados em uma planície de inundação Neotropical: determinantes dos padrões espaciais e temporais da diversidade β e sincronia de comunidade.Patterns of species richness are driven by biotic and abiotic factors and the way in which they operate at spatial and temporal scales. In continental aquatic environments, communities may differ in important aspects such as taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic structure, and the detection of biodiversity may vary between these different facets. For the development of this study, to test important ecological theories, we used the spatial and temporal database of ciliate protists from the upper Paraná River floodplain, from a long-term ecological program - PELD. The spatial and temporal β diversity was verified in three facets of biodiversity (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic) of the ciliate community, and the contribution of different environmental predictors, using data on composition (presence/absence) and structure (abundance) of the community. It was found that different facets of diversity are influenced by different environmental predictors, but with more evident results for the functional and phylogenetic facets, especially when using data on the structure of the ciliate community. The synchrony between ciliate species in time and space was also evaluated, and the relation of this synchrony with the facets of diversity. Significant relationships were observed between ciliate synchrony and phylogenetic distance, but not for community functional distance. It is concluded that systematic and more precise advances in the community are needed to further improve knowledge about phylogenetic proximities of species and ecosystem functions performed by ciliate protists in limnic environments. Therefore, studies with functional and phylogenetic characteristics of ciliate species are recommended, in future research with application in other ecological theories, with significant contributions in the field of ecology, taxonomy and conservation of this community.
Priorização espacial para conservação e restauração da interação entre peixes frugívoros e floresta na bacia Paraná-Paraguai.Interactions between frugivorous fish and forests contribute to seed dispersal and the structuring of plant communities in riverine habitat and floodplain forests. However, fish-forest interactions that contribute to maintaining biodiversity are threatened by climate and landscape changes. The objective was to identify areas suitable for the conservation and restoration of fish-forest interaction and related ecosystem services in the Parana-Paraguay River basin, integrating climatically suitable areas for Myloplus tiete and Piaractus mesopotamicus, two species of frugivorous habit, native to the basin, and at risk of becoming extinct. The predictions show a reduction in climate-environmental suitability for the two species at different times (present, 2050, and 2080) and different carbon emission scenarios and low availability of vegetation cover. By multiplying the values of climate suitability with the availability of vegetation, generated the Environmental Optimum Index, which allowed us to identify areas for conservation and restoration. The models demonstrated priority areas for conservation concentrated in the southern portion of the Pantanal and the headwater regions of the upper Parana River basin. At the same time, classified the restoration areas concentrated in the mouth region between the Tietê and Paranapanema rivers. It reinforces the essential that decision-makers prioritize the investment of limited resources for the conservation and restoration of riparian landscapes and develop efficient policies and practices to integrate biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services, and social well-being.
Les observateurs scientifiques des pêches.Ce rapport de stage résume les principales techniques évoquées lors d’une formation à Alicante à bord du navire INTERMARES A-41 et reprend la majorité des cas d’études présentés lors des cours spécialisés et des séances pratiques par des experts reconnus en la matière. Le nom de chaque expert (voir annexe) sera donné devant chaque thème qu’il a dirigé. Le stage de formation sur l’observation scientifique à bord a été organisé afin de fournir une vision globale sur ce sujet pour les instituts de recherche, les administrations et le secteur de la pêche. L’objectif de ce rapport est de communiquer le maximum de savoir acquis, lors de la participation à cette formation, sur les techniques d’observations scientifiques de la pêche et ceci à ceux qui s’intéressent au domaine de la pêche et surtout ceux qui sont en relation directe avec la gestion durable de la pêche en Tunisie. Ce rapport constitue un bon guide pour la formation des professionnels de différentes disciplines souhaitant participer à des campagnes de suivi des pêches en tant qu’observateurs scientifiques. L’intérêt principal de ce rapport est donc l’aide des observateurs scientifiques de la pêche en Tunisie et aussi ceux qui souhaitent entamer cette expérience à réaliser tous les objectifs attendus par cette formation.