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AquaDocs is the joint open access repository of the UNESCO/IOC InternationaI Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) and the International Association of Aquatic and Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC) with support from the FAO Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts. It is a thematic repository covering the natural marine, coastal, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments and includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects. [see About]
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Aqua-LAC, Volume 10, No. 1, March 2018.The holistic methodology DRIFT (Downstream Response to Imposed Flow Transformations) and four other ecological flow methods (Tennant Modified for Mexico, IHA, Multivariate Analysis and PHABSIM) were used to calculate the environmental flow in the Río Verde (Oaxaca). The results indicate similar values for the flows calculated with the different methods. The multidisciplinary integration of biophysical information (hydrology, hydrodynamics, geohydrology, topography, aquatic and terrestrial vegetation, soil, water quality, ichthyology, entomology, hydrophytes, mangrove) and socioeconomic information (waste, risks, irrigation, technification and temporality Agriculture, industrial and agricultural activities, transit areas, planted areas, customs, culture, migration, employment and tourism) of the Río Verde, in relation to the evaluation and projection of environmental flows (for the dry and wet season) as a measure of Management and mitigation of environmental impacts in the “Paso de la Reina” dam project were considered. The recommended ecological flows in (m3 / s) were: Extreme Low Flows from 12.75 to 30.0; Small Flows from 32.1 to 70.15; High Flows from 150 to 260; High Flow Pulses from 350 to 500; Small Floods 548.52 to 1000 and Large Floods from 3000 to 4000.Flow strategy covering frequency characteristics, length of time to maintain hydraulic conditions, channel geometry, sediment types, water balance at the mouth, and distribution of terrestrial and aquatic organisms along the river. The consequences of partial or total alteration of the environmental flow components are described. Likewise, the multidisciplinary analysis generated the environmental flow scenarios, in relation to a certain condition of ecological status for the river and the analyzed species, as well as the impact assessments, mitiga- tion measures and management plans of the Rio Verde basin.
Multiple ocean stressors: a scientific summary for policy makers.This Scientific Summary on Multiple Ocean Stressors for Policy Makers offers a reference for all concerned stakeholders to understand and discuss all types of ocean stressors. This document will help coordinate action to better understand how multiple stressors interact and how the cumulative pressures they cause can be tackled and managed. It is a first step towards increased socio-ecological resilience to multiple ocean stressors (Figure 1). Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM)1 recognizes the complex and interconnected nature of ecosystems, and the integral role of humans in these ecosystems. EBM integrates ecological, social and governmental principles. It considers the tradeoffs and interactions between ocean stakeholders (e.g. fishing, shipping, energy extraction) and their goals, while addressing the reduction of conflicts and the negative cumulative impacts of human activities on ecosystem resilience and sustainability. Thus, EBM is an ideal science-based approach for managing the impacts of cumulative stressors on marine ecosystems. The United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030; Ocean Decade), which is based on a multi-stakeholder consultative process, identified 10 Ocean Decade Challenges. Challenge 2: Understand the effects of multiple stressors on ocean ecosystems, and develop solutions to monitor, protect, manage and restore ecosystems and their biodiversity under changing environmental, social and climate conditions addresses the overall outcomes of the Decade. In particular, outcomes aimed at a clean, healthy and resilient, safe and predicted, sustainably harvested and productive, and accessible ocean, with open and equitable access to data, information and technology and innovation by 2030. This Scientific Summary for Policy Makers is also a call to action underlining the urgency to understand, model and manage multiple ocean stressors now. We cannot manage what we do not understand, and we cannot be efficient without prioritization of ocean actions appropriate to the place and time.
Climate Change Vulnerability Hotspots in the East African Indian Ocean Islands.Climate change exacerbates the multiple stressors of the economies of African countries frustrating the achievement of key development priorities. Like many Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the world, the East African Indian Ocean islands are particularly at risk. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts current impacts of climate change may likely exceed coping strategies making some islands and SIDS uninhabitable. The Indian Ocean Islands feel the impacts of climate change immediately and intensely because of their high exposure to natural disasters and their coastal and oceanic geographies. They are vulnerable to sea level rise and extreme weather events, which are becoming more severe and more frequent (due to climate change), causing damages to property and infrastructure, and even loss of life. The size and remoteness make SIDS and Indian Ocean Islands dependent on recourses imported and tourism revenue, increasing their vulnerabilities to pandemic threats such as COVID-19. According to the recently published IPCC report, the Indian Ocean has warmed faster than the global average, which means the region is likely to witness a continuous sea level rise, resulting in coastal erosion. As a United Nations specialized body with a mandate in science, UNESCO is highly committed to assisting the SIDS and Indian Ocean Islands to apply science, technology and innovation to build the adaptive capacities and resilience of communities and ecosystems to climate change. Over 30 UNESCO programmes in the sciences, education, culture and communication contribute to creating knowledge, educating and communicating about climate change, and to understanding the ethical implications for present and future generations. UNESCO supports policy makers so that Member States can meet their obligations under the Paris Agreement. Together with UNFCCC and other partners, UNESCO continues to provide guidance on the implementation of the education articles of the Climate Convention and of the Paris Agreement. At the policy level, UNESCO supports Member States in order to accelerate progress towards achievement of their commitments to the 2015 Paris Agreement. The Organization also ensures coherence between the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 4, Target 4.7 (which addresses Education for Sustainable Development, among others) and Sustainable Development Goal 13 (which addresses climate change). This publication, which accentuates the climate vulnerability hotspots of the East African Indian Ocean Islands is timely and will help stakeholders identify areas needing critical interventions to avert climate-related risks. We are hopeful that the findings will also stimulate policy decisions that drive investments for resilience building in the Indian Ocean Islands in the East African region.
Sargassum and Oil Spills Monitoring Pilot Projects for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Workshop, México D.F., México 2–May 2018.In recent years, the Caribbean region has faced challenges from oil spills and an influx of floating sargassum seaweed. Large-scale oil spill incidents have included an April 2017 spill at Pointe-à-Pierre, Trinidad and Tobago and a July 2017 oil spill in Kingston Harbor, Jamaica. Illegal dumping of oil-contaminated waste by ships operating in the region is also a common occurrence. An increase in the frequency and volume of sargassum beachings and coastal overabundance has caused another challenge for the region with mats preventing the deployment and retrieval of fishing gear and clogging popular beaches, harbors and bays. Based on the amounts of Sargassum detected in the Central West Atlantic and the Caribbean and in January–April 2018, researchers at the University of South Florida (USF) predict high amounts of Sargassum in Caribbean in coming months. In response to these challenges, a meeting of 40 experts from 15 countries was held in May f this year to discuss sargassum and oil spill monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent egions. The participants included representatives from various United Nations entities, academia, governments, private companies and international initiatives. The workshop was organized by IOCARIBE of IOC UNESCO and its Global Ocean Observing System Regional Alliance, IOCARIBE-GOOS, and the GEO Blue Planet Initiative, and hosted by the Ministry of Education of Mexico and Mexico National Council of Sciences. The overarching goal of the workshop was to develop a plan for the development of a region-wide system for monitoring and forecasting oil spills and sargassum presence. At the workshop, experts reviewed the existing technologies and challenges for monitoring and forecasting oil spills and sargassum in the Caribbean and adjacent regions and ultimately drafted a plan to create an information system based on existing efforts. It was determined that the objective of the information service will be to provide a publicly available monitoring platform and alerting system for oil spills and sargassum based on publically available data (e.g. satellite data and in situ data from countries with open data sharing policies). The service will initially be based on existing technologies and activities, working to augment and improve the framework for information management and delivery and mechanisms for the region and demonstrate the utility of ocean observations and products. It was agreed that the initial development of the service would be done by partner organizations, and the NOAA CoastWatch program and the Caribbean Marine Atlas volunteered to host service components initially. The long-term goal is to have the information service coordinated and built upon by a regional body in a model similar to that of the International Tsunami Information Centre.
Ecohydrology Workshop and Scientific Advisory Committee: Ecohydrology, engineering for a sustainable world, Institute of Engineering, Civil Engineering Building, 28 Feb -02 Mar 2018.The Ecohydrology Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) aims to prepare a global strategy and vision for the next 4 years of IHP phase 8 (ending in 2021), and start planning and considering, in light of the new global water agendas, the role that Ecohydrology could play in the next phase of IHP 9 (starting in 2022). This meeting will be attended by several Category 2 Water related Centres and Water Chairs working in Ecohydrology, by UNESCO Regional Hydrologists, and representatives from all Regions. Youth participation is also encouraged, and a dedicated session on “Early Career Researchers in Ecohydrology” is part of the events. The Ecohydrology programme benefits from a Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) to guide the IHP Secretariat on strategic directions, new dimensions, activities, programme execution, and communication of scientific and practical way forward. The SAC is composed of representatives of Category 2 Centres under the auspices of UNESCO (C2C), water-related UNESCO Chairs and Regional Focal Points: • The European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology (ERCE, Poland) • The International Centre for Coastal Ecohydrology (ICCE, Portugal) • The African Regional Centre for Ecohydrology (ARCE, Ethiopia) • The Asia Pacific Centre for Ecohydrology (APCE, Indonesia) • The IHE Delft Chair in Ecohydrology, the Netherlands • The UNESCO Water Chair in Ecohydrology and Hydroinformatics, China • The UNESCO Water Chair in Ecohydrology Water Ecosystem for Societies, Portugal • The Focal point for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The Committee will address the following topics: 1. Report on current and past global activities (particularly during the period 2014-2017) 2. Ecohydrology Demosites updates and new publications. 3. Discussion on future activities and strategies (including UNESCO Priority Africa and Gender). 4. Engage in a dialogue on scientific challenges to achieve the water-related SDGs involving visions from young researchers and professionals. Expected outcomes: dentifying gaps and opportunities in the dissemination the Ecohydrology concept and potential research and scientific questions for future strategies. 2. Highlighting the role of international networks working with ecohydrological solution-oriented approaches for the enhancement of ecosystem services for the benefit of societies in demonstration sites. 3. Identifying region priorities and showcasing innovative solutions and adaptation strategies to address water security challenges, including interlinkages with both UNESCO Programmes (MAB) and other international ones. 4. General strategy to include ecohydrological concepts in national development plans, with priority in Africa.