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Assessment and fishery of shellfish stocks in the Barents and White Seas in 2000–2020Vestnik of MSTUHydrobionts have a high nutritional value and are the most important component of the food supply for the population of Russia. In the course of the study, the characteristics of the stocks and fisheries of the king crab, opilio snow crab, northern shrimp, Icelandic scallop, sea green urchin and other commercial invertebrates in 2000–2020 are presented. The raw material base of the fishery of the king crab and snow crab is used in full; the indices of their commercial biomass are 215 and 430 thousand tons, respectively; development of TAC – more than 90 %. While maintaining the current management strategy, their commercial stocks will be at a stable level or increase. The commercial stock of the northern shrimp in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters is in a satisfactory condition (at the end of 2020 it was estimated at 2.2 million tons); the distribution density of shrimp in the Russian EEZ has halved. The resource base of the Icelandic scallop fishery in the Barents Sea is not exploited due to the depressive state of the stock: the median of commercial biomass is at the level of 200 thousand tons, which is below the boundary biomass target (224 thousand tons). The growth in the catch of the sea urchin is due to the increased interest of fishers in this object. The annual catch of the sea urchin does not exceed 10 % of the recommended one, fishing efforts are unevenly distributed over different parts of the Murman coast. Cucumaria, mussel, trumpeter, shrimp bear cub, clema, euphausiids are caught in small quantities and remain in the category of underutilized fishery objects.
Investigation of the effect of structure-regulating additives on the properties of minced fish systemsVestnik of MSTUThe search for new effective structure-forming agents of natural origin in order to improve the technology of fish molded products is an urgent scientific and industrial problem. In the course of the study, to obtain minced fish systems, frozen pollock and pink salmon have been used that meet the technical requirements of the current regulatory documentation. Mixtures of cryoconcentrates from seafood, rice and wheat flour, and the enzyme transglutaminase are used as structure-regulating additives. Cryoconcentrates have been made from cucumaria, squid, Pacific herring milt, octopus skin, seaweed, and scallop mantle. The introduction of dry powdered cryoconcentrates of seafood, containing a significant amount of protein substances, has contributed to the binding of water and an increase in the water-retaining capacity of minced pink salmon and pollock. Based on the results of studying the physical, chemical, rheological and organoleptic properties of dispersed minced fish systems, rational amounts of structure-regulating additives have been established: seafood cryoconcentrates – 4.0–5.0 %; transglutaminase – 0.5 %; rice flour – 2.0 %; wheat flour – 1.0–2.0 %. Molded fish products (cutlets, sausages) containing structure-regulating additives had high organoleptic properties after heat treatment. The results of the research should be used in the development of formulations of fish dispersed compositions in the technologies of molded, emulsion and structured products. The established high water-binding capacity of seafood cryoconcentrates justifies the need to study them as natural cryoprotectors in refrigeration technologies.
Analysis of complex changes in salmon salting by injection using the food additive PRE-LACKSVestnik of MSTUThe paper presents the results of a comprehensive assessment of the quality of delicacy fish products – salmon fillets of weak salt made using the food additive PRE-LACKS (LLC "Vash technologist", St. Petersburg, Russia) and curing by injection. For the first time, the influence of technological factors has been studied (the concentration of a food additive (in the range recommended by the manufacturer from 3 to 5 % with a step of 1 %), as well as the value of the hydromodulus (in the range from 5 to 20 % with a step of 5 %) characterizing the ratio of masses of the fillet introduced into the thickness when injecting brine and a salted fillet piece) on the formation of a complex indicator of the finished product quality. The developed scale for a comprehensive assessment of the quality (K) of lightly salted salmon fillet of injection salting is presented, including the main groups of indicators – organoleptic and rheological, nutritional value and physico-chemical. The scale includes weighting coefficients based on the results of experimental and sensory studies – both group and for each quality indicator taken into account. It has been shown that using the fuzzy logic method made it possible to obtain the values of the selected influencing factors optimized according to the criterion of achieving the maximum value of K (in the range from 0.9 to 1.0 conventional units, corresponding to the category "delicacy product") – the concentration of the food additive and the value of the hydromodulus – 4 and 15 %, respectively. The results of assessing the influence of selected technological factors on the yield of a semi-finished product immediately after salting by injection, on the yield of finished low-salted products (after ripening), on indicators characterizing the completeness of its maturation (buffering, the ratio of the mass fraction of non-protein nitrogen to the mass fraction of total nitrogen, total acidity, mass fraction of amine nitrogen) have been presented. Based on the results of the research, technological recommendations are formulated for salting salmon by injection using the PRE-LACKS food additive to increase the yield of finished products and improve its consumer properties.
Guiding biological control of alligator weed by Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) at macroscale: where are the potential global areas suitable to apply it and how it can change in climate change scenarios.Invasive species can have many negative impacts on the biodiversity, ecosystem services, human health and the economy, and therefore need to be managed. An amphibious weed of global importance, Alternanthera philoxeroides, and the macroecological patterns of its biological control were evaluated using one of its main specialist herbivores, Agasicles hygrophila. This was considered the first successful case of biological control of an aquatic plant, although it is not equally effective on a global scale. Due to their different environmental tolerances and the greater phenotypic plasticity of the plant, the distribution of both species do not always overlap in the globe, creating geographic variability in the efficiency of biocontrol. The first approach was to analyze the current global potential distribution of A. philoxeroides and A. hygrophila to seek the areas of overlaps and gaps between them. The overlapping areas would be the most relevant for using A. hygrophila as alligator weed biological control in the globe. However, in response of climate change, it seems that the alligator weed is worryingly spreading across the globe, which can worsen in future scenarios and alter its distribution in the next decades. The second approach evaluated the effects of climate change on the global distribution of A. philoxeroides and A. hygrophila. New distribution areas for both species in future global warming scenarios and new overlapping and non-overlapping areas across the globe were identified. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) were applied in both chapters to predict the potential distribution of the two species in present and future scenarios considering different environmental predictors in each one. Currently, the southeast coast of the USA, southeast China and New South Wales, Australia are the most favorable areas in the world to apply alligator weed biocontrol, while the west coast and mid-latitudes in the east of the USA and the eastern Australia are not favorable. The results were corroborated by reports in the literature that demonstrated successful control in overlapping areas and failures in non-overlapping areas of the models’ distributions. However, while general geographic patterns will hold in future scenarios, it is predicted a major northward expansion of the alligator weed, but not of the insect, especially in the USA, Canada, Europe, China, South Korea and Japan, which will create a new zone of low or no control efficiency at higher latitudes. These macroecological patterns will help direct efforts to apply the biological control for the alligator weed not only today, but also in future climate change scenarios.
Pacific Islands Marine Bioinvasions Alert Network (PacMAN) monitoring plan.Invasive species pose a major risk to marine biodiversity and ecosystem health (Bax et al. 2003, Molnar et al. 2008, Costello et al. 2010), and consequently to ecosystem services that are crucial for livelihoods and human well-being. The increasing movement of goods and services across the globe has enhanced the risk of invasive species throughout the world. Fiji is considered a hub of marine traffic among the Pacific Islands, and therefore is an entry point for high-risk invasive species in the area. Currently, the information on local marine biodiversity, and consequently marine invasive alien species (MIAS) is lacking in the Pacific Islands at large. While the Government of Fiji is active in biodiversity monitoring through the Biosecurity Authority of Fiji (BAF), the Fiji Invasive Alien Species Task Force (FIST), the National Invasive Species Framework and Action Plan (NISFSAP) currently under construction through Fiji’s national invasive species project and the Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) program, many of these initiatives are focused on terrestrial biosecurity and lack a robust approach to address the problem at the marine ecosystem level. Consultation with local stakeholders revealed that increased efforts on marine biodiversity conservation should go hand in hand with increased efforts in MIAS management. National priorities for Fiji’s National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan (NBSAP) addresses this link through its Focus Area 4: Management of Invasive Alien Species (IAS). Concerted efforts in this focus area are geared towards the establishment of an Invasive Species Database, the strengthening of the FIST, increased coordination between local and regional networks on IAS management and a renewed surge in national effort to raise the standard of biosecurity surveillance programs such as those found under the Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) program for BAF. The successful development of these national programs, requires enhanced collection of information on marine biodiversity, knowledge on the existing presence of marine invasive species, and the development of routine monitoring to enable rapid responses to known highly invasive species. Existing frameworks at BAF utilized for terrestrial IAS management will be used to guide the development of future management plans for MIAS. BAF is the lead implementing agency for a GEF 6 project “Building Capacities to Address Invasive Alien Species to Enhance the Chances of Long-term Survival of Terrestrial Endemic and Threatened Species on Taveuni Island and Surrounding Islets” aimed at establishing and enhancing national and local capacity to prevent, detect, control and manage invasive alien species. A key planned outcome of the project is development of a clearinghouse mechanism to collate and make accessible IAS information to all stakeholders. The PaCMAN project will partner with the GEF6 IAS project in this regard so that MIAS data generated from the PacMAN project is curated, verified, uploaded and available through this clearing house. Through PacMAN outcomes, the Ministry of Environment has indicated to initiate a management policy on marine invasive species as a by-product of the management recommendations from the project. Technical capacity in molecular methods exists in pockets in Fiji, however further capacity development is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of eDNA in routine marine conservation efforts. BAF has been identified as a partner through local stakeholder consultations that will assist with technological gaps with its DNA analysis capacity through a recently acquired qPCR unit. Considering marine invasive species, Fiji is also one of the Lead Partnering Countries (LPCs) in the GEF/UNDP-IMO project “Building Partnerships to Assist Developing Countries Minimize the Impacts from Aquatic Biofouling (GloFouling Partnerships (https://www.glofouling.imo.org), indicating its willingness to establish a national strategic action plan to manage biofouling. The Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) which is the regional coordinator for the Glofouling partnerships is committed to develop a MIAS toolkit as well as conduct capacity building training for local MIAS managers as well as key technical working groups such as the FIST. SPREP has expressed a need for data on marine biodiversity, as well as monitoring guidelines that will be developed through PacMAN. The interest and involvement of SPREP shows that there is a need for MIAS monitoring also in other regional countries in the Pacific. Further linkages can be observed from SPREP’s increased efforts in building capacity on IAS management in the region through its GEF 6 project and its Managing Invasive Species for Climate Change Adaptation in the Pacific (MISCCAP).