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On the 100th Anniversary of the Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (YugNIRO). Main milestones of the Institute’s growth and research in the Azov and Black Sea Basin and the World OceanВодные биоресурсы и среда обитанияIn dedication to the 100th Anniversary of the Azov-Black Sea Research Institute for Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (AzCherNIRO), its main historical milestones and research results have been presented. On March 13, 1921, under the aegis of the regional administration of “Glavryba” (Central Administration on Fishing and Fisheries Industry of the People’s Commissariat for Food), Kerch Ichthyological Laboratory was founded, which acquired the status of an independent organization in 1922 and became the basis upon which AzCherNIRO was created in 1933, renamed into the Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (YugNIRO) in 1988. Investigation of aquatic resources, started by the institute in the Kerch Strait, later covered the Azov Sea and the Northern and Eastern Black Sea; in 1957, they extended to ocean waters, with the Central Eastern Atlantic Ocean as their initial area. In 1960, the Ministry of Fisheries of the USSR appointed the Indian Ocean and Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean to AzCherNIRO as the survey areas in the World Ocean. From 1961 to 1990, in the course of hundreds scientific and exploratory expeditions to the Indian Ocean riparian waters, the researchers and other employees of AzCherNIRO/YugNIRO and Yugrybpromrazvedka (South Fish Exploratory Service) for the first time discovered and contributed to the production sector the aggregation sites of tropical fish and invertebrates, deepwater species at underwater ridges, and stocks of notothens, ice fishes and krill in the Antarctic. In 1970–1980, the institute maintained laboratories on stock assessment of the Black Sea and oceanic fish species and invertebrates, on fish physiology and aquaculture, on processing technology for aquatic living organisms, on commercial oceanology and industrial fishing, and many others. Currently, the scope of the Kerch Department of the Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (“AzNIIRKH”) covers the research concerning bioresources of the Azov and Black Sea Basin, World Ocean and Antarctic, processing technologies and practices, development and improvement of fishing gear, hydrobiology and aquaculture, parasitology and commercial oceanology.
Technological standardization as a method of verification of catch volumes for sharks and rays in the Black and Azov SeasВодные биоресурсы и среда обитанияIn the fisheries industry, the output norms for the the products of aquatic bioresources processing are used to verify the actual catch volumes. Establishing of the scientifically substantiated coefficients of raw material consumption per unit of output is one of the key factors in resources exploitation. This work is aimed at technological standardization—establishment of the norms of wastes, losses and the output of processed products obtained from cartilaginous fish species caught in the Black Sea. This investigation has been targeting spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca, and thornback ray Raja clavata. Exsanguination of live cartilaginous fish immediately after it has been caught is a prerequisite of its processing. Following the research and testing on identification of wastes and losses during the processing of spiny dogfish and rays, the average output values of processed fish have been identified and the coefficients of raw material consumption have been calculated, which makes it possible, based on the volumes of processed and dressed product, to evaluate the volumes of caught cartilaginous fishes, which is especially crucial for the sharks and stingrays, extremely sensitive to fishing pressure. In has been shown that the average output values for the spiny dogfish, dressed, gutted and headed, are 44.9 %. The output values for the split carcass (wings) of stingray and thornback ray slightly differ (50.4 and 51.8 %, respectively). Statistical processing of the output values for split carcasses of the rays has shown their adherence to the law of normal distribution. Thus, it seems practical to establish a unified coefficient of raw material consumption for all rays (1.938), without the distinction between their species. The coefficient of raw material consumption for the production of gutted (exsanguinated) spiny dogfish was 1.454, and upon its further processing (beheading) it became 2.398.
Structure and status of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L., 1758) population, wintering off the coast of Abkhazia, in the 2020/2021 fishing seasonВодные биоресурсы и среда обитанияThis paper presents the results of analytical processing of the data collected over the course of the 2020/2021 fishing season on the ecological structure and fishing biological parameters of the European anchovy (E. encrasicolus L., 1758), wintering in the coastal waters of Abkhazia. The dynamic parameters of the Azov and Black Sea stocks of the European anchovy have also been analyzed, and a comparative analysis of the main biometric parameters has been carried out. This work is aimed at the assessment of the state of migratory anchovy aggregations in winter based on the results of the 2020/2021 fishing season and identification of the changes in the main population parameters with application of the generally accepted ichthyological methods. Following the data on the anchovy catches for the investigated period, this paper presents the dynamics of the length–age catch composition and intra-annual patterns of the anchovy fishery for the both forms (Black Sea and Azov Sea). The changes in population characteristics as evidenced from the catch composition as compared to the previous years were recorded, as well as the spatial distribution of the anchovy aggregations wintering in the Abkhazian Black Sea. The monthly absolute values are given for the catch sizes, as well as their fluctuations. The results showing the main dynamic changes in the wintering aggregations of anchovy have been obtained; they characterized the status of the anchovy population as stable with a tendency for low biomass development. It provides the basis for a conclusion that an increase in fishing effort in the next 2–3 years is unacceptable.
Bathymetric distribution of сommon mollusc species depending on the properties of soft substrates near the coast of the Western CrimeaВодные биоресурсы и среда обитанияUp to the present day, the bathymetric distribution of zoobenthos under hydrodynamic load and subordinate changes in grain size composition and density of bottom substrate have not been fully investigated. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1) to evaluate the density of bottom sediments at different depths off the coast of the Western Crimea; 2) to calculate the pressure force exerted on substrate by the common species of bivalve molluscs (Veneridae); 3) to reveal the reasons for the changes in mollusc species composition due to differences in the properties of bottom sediments in different locations. According to the results of the underwater studies, strongly pronounced storm-induced re-sedimentation of sandy fractions is observed to the depth of 12–14 m. Sandy substrates with density of 4–8 conventional units (c. u.) are formed within this zone, and here prevails striped venus clam Chamelea gallina. These molluscs, characterized by a bulky shell (up to 30 mm) and high values of specific ground pressure (80–90 mg/mm2), can dwell near the dense sandy surface, avoiding contact with the subsurface redox layer located 6–10 cm deeper. At the depth of 16–25 m, the effect of storm hydrodynamics on the bottom weakens and only sandy aleurite fractions with density of up to 2.5 c. u. are getting re-sedimented. Sediment redox conditions develop at the depth of 4–5 cm. Within this zone, the most abundant species is rough pitar venus Pitar rudis, represented by the individuals with shells up to 13 mm in length and specific ground pressure of 35–40 mg/mm2, which allows the molluscs to stay on the surface of substrate and avoid the contact with the redox layer. At the depth of more than 27–30 m, during the storm-induced mixing processes, the sedimentation of small ground particles prevails over their horizontal transfer. In the grain size composition of the substrate, aleurite-pelitic fractions prevail, and redox layer develops deeper than 2.5 cm from the bottom surface. Only the thin surface layer consisting of loose silt with density of 0.8–1.0 c. u. remains suitable for habitation of macrozoobenthos; here, golden carpet shell Polititapes aureus, characterized by a thin shell and the lowest ground pressure (25–30 mg/mm2), prevails in terms of abundance. The results of this investigation can facilitate the understanding of spatial distribution patterns and adaptive features of the most abundant macrobenthos species under the influence of key environmental factors.
Modelo de asignación y colocalización de actividades marítimas para el ordenamiento marino-costero en el departamento de Bolívar, ColombiaBoletín Científico CIOHLa tendencia al crecimiento del sector marítimo debido al aumento en la población, al desarrollo urbanístico y a la industrialización, han generado la diversificación de usos en las zonas marino-costeras, causando conflictos por la relación uso/espacio. Por esto la Dirección General Marítima colombiana (Dimar), ha desarrollado una metodología que permite analizar las condiciones futuras para el desarrollo de actividades marítimas en las aguas y costas colombianas, a través del Ordenamiento Marino Costero: Visión de Autoridad Marítima (OMC:VAM), que en su proceso metodológico plantea el modelo de asignación y colocalización (MAYC), el cual busca establecer la localización espacial de las áreas más adecuadas para actividades marítimas, teniendo en cuenta criterios técnicos, ambientales y variables de eficiencia/eficacia establecidos por la Dimar, tipo de actividad marítima, disponibilidad y cobertura de la información. El modelo se aplicó en la zona marino-costera del departamento de Bolívar, encontrando, con base en los criterios seleccionados para las diferentes actividades, que un 90 % del área es apta para llevar a cabo actividades de acuicultura, un 84 % es apta para instalación de parques eólicos y un 0.39 % de área es adecuado para construcción de marinas-embarcaderos