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Estimation of the spawning ground of some fish species in the Nha Trang bayThe paper presents the results of determining the spawning grounds of some fish species in Nha Trang bay MPA, which were sampled in 9/2018, 11/2018, 5/2019 and 7/2019. The analysis results are based on the distribution of the general density and the developmental stages, analysis of decision trees from egg density, location of stations and months by CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), allowing a relatively accurate estimate of the spawning ground of the red anchovy (Encrasicholina punctifer Fowler, 1938) and the species of the genus Scarus. As a result, the main spawning grounds for red anchovy were the east of Hon Rua and the northeast of Hon Tam and that of Scarus is the southwest of Hon Mun island.
Captive culture of two sea snake species Hydrophis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctusAcclimation culture and trial culture of two sea snake species Hydrophis curtus and H. cyanocinctus in composite tanks were conducted to determine growth, survival rate, predation behavior and prey selection. The results showed that adults of H. curtus and H. cyanocinctus did not capture any prey such as anchovy, eel and shrimp in a period of 30 days of acclimation culture. The body weight of two these species reduced gradually from 783.3 ± 76.4 g and 360.0 ± 60.0 g to 660.0 ± 135.2 g and 315.0 ± 77.8 g, respectively. Survival rate was 100% in H. curtus and 80% in H. cyanocinctus. Meanwhile, the results of acclimation culture of sea snake juvenile revealed that frozen anchovy was preferred prey in both of two species. The body weight of H. curtus increased from 49.8 ± 0.5 g to 70.0 ± 8.2 g and that of H. cyanocinctus was 44.3 ± 3.1 g to 47.1 ± 5.2 g. The prey capture rate of H. curtus and H. cyanocinctus was 100% and 60%, respectively. Survival rate of the juvenile of two species was 100% after 30 days of acclimation culture. In 60 days of trial culture, similar results as acclimation culture were observed in adults of two sea snake species, they still did not capture any prey and the body weight reduced gradually. The result of 60-day culture of sea snake juvenile showed that the prey capture rate was 100% in both of two species. The body weight of H. curtus and H. cyanocinctus increased from 70.0 ± 8.2 g and 57.5 ± 5.8 g to 78.3 ± 15.3 g and 65.0 ± 14.1, respectively. SGR of H. curtus was 0.16 ± 0.32 %/day and that of H. cyanocinctus was 0.52 ± 0.36%/day. The survival rate of H. curtus and H. cyanocinctus was 60% and 40% in period of 60 day trial.
Morphology, abundance and the invasiveness of coral-killing sponge Chalinula nematifera (Porifera: Demosponigiae) from Con Dao National Park, VietnamThis is the first study on morphology, abundance and invasion of coral-killing sponge Chalinula nematifera (De Laubenfels, 1954) from offshore waters in Con Dao islands, Vietnam. The results of the study show that the morphology is similar to that in the Western Pacific, but differs in skeletal structure compared to the description in the Eastern Pacific. The density of C. nematifera (average ± standard deviation) is 2.02 ± 5.03 colonies per 100 m2 (present at 12/15 survey stations) with the number of colonization belonging to diameter group 5–20 cm. They invade 30 species belonging to 23 genera of Scleractinia corals (44.7% on foliose/laminar and encrusting coral, 23.86% on massive coral and 21.97% on branching coral). The ability to invade corals of C. nematifera does not limit the host. So, this is considered a potential hazard to the East Vietnam Sea coral reefs in the future.
Some species of macro-gastropods in the coastal zone of Khanh Hoa provinceFrom November 2013 to March 2014, 104 species were collected, belonging to 27 families, 58 genera of Gastropoda in coastal area of Khanh Hoa province. Some families have a large number of species such as Conidae - 15 species; Strombidae - 15 species; Cypraeidae - 10 species; Terebridae - 7 species and Muricidae - 6 species. Many species of economic value are used for food and fine arts. 11 species are listed in Vietnam Red Data Book. Besides, images and information of samples (collecting date, place of sample collection,...) are presented.
Species composition and distribution of seaweeds in Phu Yen provinceResults of four field surveys, conducted from June 2017 to June 2018 found that in the Phu Yen coastal water, a total of 103 seaweed species have been recorded, increasing the total number of seaweed species in Phu Yen province to 133 species, with 81 newly recorded species for Phu Yen geographic area. Among 103 seaweed species, 4 species belong to Cyanobacteria, 38 species belong to Rhdophytes, 24 species belong to Phaeophytes, and 37 species belong to Chlorophytes. The number of species at surveyed sites V1 to V9 varies from 3 species/site (V3) to 83 species/site (V7) and on average 27 species/site. Sørensen’s similarity coefficient varies from 0.05 (between V3 and V7) to 0.86 (V3 and V4) and on average 0.25. 74/103 species were collected in the littoral zone, 67 species in sublittoral zone and most of them are distributed at 0-4 m water depth of subtidal zone. The marine algal flora is represented by mixing of subtropical and tropical characteristics as Cheney index was 3.