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AquaDocs is the joint open access repository of the UNESCO/IOC InternationaI Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) and the International Marine and Aquatic Sciences Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC) with support from the FAO Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts. It is a thematic repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments and includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects. [see About]
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Water lettuce and water spinach as potential feed ingredients for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticusNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an omnivore and is considered as one of the important aquaculture commodities. Different plant-based ingredients like corn, “ipil-ipil” leaves and even micro and macroalgae were already tested to reduce the cost on the use of animalbased protein source. This preliminary study therefore, is an attempt to assess the potential of water lettuce and water spinach as feed ingredients through average body weight (ABW), specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of juvenile O. niloticus. Three treatments [water lettuce (WL), water spinach (WS), water lettuce and water spinach (WL+WS)] were prepared in the form of three different diets [Diet 1 (1:1 water lettuce: fish meal), Diet 2 (1:1 water spinach: fish meal) and Diet 3 (1:0.5:0.5) (fish meal: water lettuce: water spinach)] each replicated thrice and fed to tilapia for 60 days. Tilapia growth showed no significant differences in all diets. The diet with water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) significantly improved the SGR. Based on the result, the I. aquatica could be included both in a simple or complex diet together with water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes). It took 30 days for O. niloticus to adjust to the introduced diets as reflected to their survival rate but the FCR was higher when fed with the test diets compared to the recorded commercially-fed tilapia. Overall, I. aquatica has an excellent performance for O. niloticus culture.
Note on the availability of Philippine Forest Turtle Siebenrockiella leytensis in online reptile marketsThe Philippine Forest Turtle Siebenrockiella leytensis is a critically endangered species endemic to the Palawan group of islands, where it is better known under the English name of Palawan Forest Turtle. No permits have been issued by the Philippine authorities to collect and/or trade in native live wild-caught reptiles since 2001, yet, the trade of captive-bred individuals is allowed. Regardless, evidence of this species breeding in captivity is very scarce and limited to two documented events. Although strictly protected, illegal trade seems to continue with sightings of this species in China, USA, and Europe. Here we report the results of a six-month survey in nine countries/regions carried out to estimate the availability of this species in the online pet trade. We monitored over 60 social media platforms (e.g. Facebook groups, MeWe) and reptile classified websites in Europe, United States of America, Malaysia, Japan, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong SAR and the Philippines between 1 February 2019 and 31 July 2019. Only one advertisement offering two Philippine Forest Turtles was observed during the study period. On 30 June 2019, two adult Philippine Forest Turtles were offered for sale in a Japanese pet store. In addition, an advertisement was found outside the study period in Hong Kong, suggesting that there is still international demand for this critically endangered species.
First record of Thalassina kelanang (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidae) from the PhilippinesThe first record of mud lobster Thalassina kelanang (Moh and Chong, 2009) from the Philippines was documented in the mangrove forest of Suyac Island, Sagay City, Province of Negros Occidental. The male specimen with a total length of 16.5 cm and 4.5 cm carapace width was found surfacing the mangrove substrate in January 2019. Further survey yielded two more specimens. The specimens had an obtuse rostrum, and a deep median sulcus, which extends posteriorly, nearly the same length but behind the adrostral carinae. The slenderly elongate petasma bears conspicuous spines in the proximal lateral margin. The mounds of T. kelanang with heights ranging from 5 to 15 cm were smaller compared to those of Thalassina anomala. This is the fourth Thalassina species reported from the Philippines.
Antimicrobial property of the epidermal mucus of Tilapia Oreochromis spp.This study was conducted to determine and compare the antimicrobial property of the epidermal mucus of Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from two environmental conditions, the fish tank and fishpond. The antimicrobial property was determined using Filter Paper Disc Diffusion Method with Amoxicillin and Nystatin as the positive controls and distilled water as the negative control. Results showed significant differences in the effects of the treatments when tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (p<0.05). The Duncan’s Multiple Range Test further proved that the mucus of Tilapia from fishpond was significantly higher in terms of antibacterial property compared to mucus of Tilapia from fish tank. On the other hand, both of the epidermal mucus of Tilapia from fishpond and fish tank did not show any inhibitory effect against P. aeruginosa and A. niger. The epidermal mucus of Tilapia showed bacteriostatic, fungistatic and bactericidal effects against test microorganisms. Based on the results, the mucus of Oreochromis spp. from fishpond and fish tank are potential sources of antimicrobial compounds.
High density of Tridacna crocea in Rita Island, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, PhilippinesIn spite of being a protected species in the Philippines, the Tridacna crocea or crocus clam, the smallest among eight known giant clam species in the country, is getting rare in most reef areas of Palawan. However, a high density of this species has recently been noted in Rita Island, Ulugan Bay. A total of 44 photos with known dimensions having a total area of 13.26 m2 suitable habitats with clams were analyzed for size structure and density of T. crocea. In total, 215 T. crocea were noted with 84.91 (±25.6) mm average shell length (±sd). The average density (±sd) was 16.22 (±15.75) individual (ind)∙m-2 but the clams had occurred up to 17 individuals in 0.28 m2 or 59.91 ind∙m-2. This high density of T. crocea could be due to suitable environment and the absence of exploitation within the vicinity of the island resort. The importance of other resorts in biodiversity conservation may be investigated.