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Assessment of effective coral rehabilitated in Marine Protected Areas of South VietnamMore than 20,300 fragment corals belonging to 24 species, eight genera and six families were rehabilitated in marine protected areas of south Vietnam. Mean survival rates of coral fragments ranged from 60–97.7%, the average growth rate of the branched corals was 4.8 mm/month meanwhile the foliose coral was 1.9 mm/month. The survival and growth rate of corals are different among areas because each coral species has different biological characteristics, structure colonies and due to differences in natural conditions each area. The results showed that the growth rate of corals will return to normal after 4 months rehabilitation. The factors affected the effective coral rehabilitation including: Coral reef predators, spatial competition among species, environmental conditions change due to human’s activities; and other factors such as hydrodynamic regimes, cutting fragment corals cause its injury damage. The rehabilitation and protection activities of coral reefs in marine protected areas should be continued and expanded, contributing to the protection of biodivesity, marine resource and sustainable coral reefs ecosystem development.
Bleaching of coral in Nha Trang, Ninh Thuan, Con Dao and Phu Quoc islands in June–July 2019The studies on coral bleaching were conducted at 21 sites of 4 reef areas in Southern Vietnam, using point transect technique in June–July 2019. Cover of hard corals in the selected sites was quite high with the average values of 65.6 ± 18% % in Con Dao islands, 58.7 ± 26.2% in Ninh Thuan coastal waters, 55.9 ± 17.8% in Phu Quoc island but lower in Nha Trang bay (22.8 ± 15.9%). Soft corals were not abundant with the highest cover in Nha Trang bay (4.73 ± 5.5%) and the lowest in Ninh Thuan (0.16 ± 0.3%). Hard corals were most impacted in Nha Trang bay with 39.5 ± 8.1% bleached, followed by Ninh Thuan reefs (32.9 ± 13.3%), Con Dao Islands (25.0 ± 11.1%) and least affected in Phu Quoc island (7.3 ± 9.05%). For soft corals, ratios of bleached corals were 79.4%, 65.8% and 23.8% in Con Dao islands, Nha Trang bay and Ninh Thuan reefs respectively. No bleached soft coral was recorded in Phu Quoc. At the genus level, Acropora corals were severely affected in Nha Trang bay, Ninh Thuan reefs and Phu Quoc island but not impacted in Con Dao islands. The Porites, Montipora, Millepora genera were quite vulnerable in all sites but no bleaching was observed for Galaxea and Diploastrea genera.
Relación entre las variables ambientales y el crecimiento de Pteria colymbus (Mollusca Bivalvia: Pteriidae), en tres profundidades de cultivoSe estudió la influencia de las variables ambientales asociadas con tres profundidades de agua (2, 6 y 10 m) en el crecimiento de la concha, la masa seca de los tejidos blandos (MSTB) y la supervivencia de la ostra alada del Caribe Pteria colymbus (Roding, 1798). La clorofila a (Chl-a), el oxígeno disuelto, la materia orgánica particulada (POM) y la temperatura se estudiaron a cada profundidad. Las ostras se colocaron en 135 cestas de plástico con cinco individuos en cada cesta. Se eligieron tres cestas en cada profundidad a intervalos mensuales para las mediciones de parámetros biométricos, bioincrustaciones y supervivencia. Al final del estudio, la masa seca de los individuos cultivados a 10 m fue significativamente menor (prueba no paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis KW, P < 0,05), mientras que los valores más altos de MSTB correspondientes a las ostras cultivadas a 2 m de profundidad. El análisis del componente principal mostró una relación inversa (temperatura) y directa (Chl-a y POM) con la varianza observada en el MSTB. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados obtenidos en los rendimientos (crecimiento/supervivencia) de P. colymbus, recomendamos llevar a cabo su cultivo a profundidades de agua entre 2 y 6 m.
Levels of heavy metals in seawater, sediment and in the tissue of Crassostrea belcheri in the Western estuary of Ganh Rai bayRecent studies have shown that the seawater, sediment and commercial bivalve molluscs in the studied area have been contaminated by some heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr. Highly toxic heavy metals like As, Cd, Pb, Hg have tended to accumulate in the tissue of clams. This paper presents the levels of some heavy metals in the seawater, sediment and soft part of oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) samples collected from the western estuaries of Ganh Rai bay in 2015 and 2017. The results also showed that Ha Thanh and Rach Lo sites recorded the highest contents of most studied metals in oyster samples. Levels of metals in oyster were in the order of Zn > Cu > As > Pb > Cr > Cd > Hg and the contents of metals in oyster did not reflect a correlation with those in surrounding environment. Concerning food safety criteria, Pb, Cd and Hg contents were lower than acceptable limit given by the compilation of FAO (1983), whereas As, Cu and Zn contents exceeded the legal limit, especially Zn contents. Cu and Cr contents in sediment samples of Nga Bay and Dong Hoa estuaries were between LEL-SEL values (≥ LEL and < SEL), which may cause biological impacts at moderate level.
Zooplankton community in Thi Nai lagoon in the period of 2001-2020This paper presents the results of the surveys on zooplankton in Thi Nai lagoon from 2001 to 2020. There were 179 species found in the lagoon, among which Copepod was the dominant group with 97 species (50.78% of total species), followed by Cladocera with 20 species (10.36%), Hydrozoa with 18 species (9.33%), Tunicata with 11 species (5.7%) and Siphonophora with 10 species (5.18%). Based on Bray-Curtis similarity analysis of zooplankton community and the station position, the sampling stations in the lagoon were grouped into three areas: The upper lagoon (UP), the middle (MI), and the mouth of the lagoon (MO). Among the surveyed years, there was a slight variation in the species number, while the density decreased by time and was especially low in 2020. Zooplankton density was much lower in the rainy season compared to that in the dry season, while the species number was less varied. Analysis of the differences between the areas in the lagoon demonstrated a clear distribution pattern of zooplankton with a decreasing density and an increasing number of species from upper lagoon to the mouth of the lagoon. Zooplankton diversity was less affected by time and only the Pielou index in the MI area between 2004 and 2009 was significantly different. Analysis of the various indices between seasons showed that the MO area was less volatile than the two other regions. The multi-dimensional scaling analysis demonstrated that zooplankton community was less variable by regions (50% similarity) compared to by the years (only 30% of similarity), except in 2009 and 2020 when differences among the areas were significant. Seasonal community change between the dry and rainy seasons was 30%.