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Phospholipids profile of the edible clams flesh during different frying processesThe effects of frying treatment using diverse gastronomic oils (corn oil, extra virgin olive oil and margarine oil) on the composition of the phospholipids (PLs), nutritional and chemical quality indices were evaluated on the most commercial clams (Venerupis decussata) in Tunisia. The frying treatment resulted in significant changes on saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids in almost fried tissues and fried oils (p<0.05). In all cases, frying method caused important enhancement of the main phospholipids compounds as evidence by the increasement of C16:0, C18:0, C16:1, C18:1, n-6PUFA, arachidonic (ARA) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acids, while reductions of n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic (DHA) and ecosapentaenoic (EPA) acids were observed mostly in the fried tissues with margarine followed by corn oil. Our results revealed depletions of the nutritional quality indices (n-3/n-6 PUFA, EPA+DHA and DHA/C16:0) in all fried clams (p<0.01). Besides, the chemical quality indices were assessed through thiobarbituric acid (TBAR), peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acids (FFA), resulting in a significant elevation of these indices in all fried clams. Taken all the data together, frying tests with margarine oil induced a significant enhancement of phospholipids composition. However, frying with olive oil seems to be safer for the nutrition and health of humans.
Examination of the nutritional value of four bivalves species from Bizerte lagoonBivalves are known as a healthy nutrition choice due to the highest amounts of nutrients comprising fatty acids mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The study is conducted to provide information about the nutritional qualities of four bivalves species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Cerastoderma edulis, Venus verrucosa and Lithophaga lithophaga) of great commercial value collected from Bizerte lagoon during spring season. The edibility percent, condition index, protein, lipid, moisture, glycogen, fatty acids and nutritional values indices have been also determined. According to our results, high edibility percent and condition index were observed in all investigated bivalves. The results showed that all bivalves could be considered dietary food due to their important contents of proteins, lipid, essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and nutritional quality. The significant contents of the biochemical and fatty acid compositions observed in the present study make L. lithophaga and M. galloprovincialis more appropriate for consumers’ health. This work will be useful for consumers and an impressive marketing tool for shellfishing farmers.
The physiological state of the Fucus vesiculosus L. of the Barents Sea in a prolonged air conditionThe increase in anthropogenic pressure on ecosystems necessitated the implementation of measures aimed at purifying the environment and restoring disturbed biocoenoses. To remediate the marine environment from heavy metals, radionuclides, oil products, it has been proposed to use plantations-biofilters, the biological components of which are seaweeds. Fucoids, in particular Fucus vesiculosus, have been identified as the most suitable objects as they have a high sorption activity to heavy metals, radionuclides, are able to include petroleum hydrocarbons in own metabolism. By the standard methods of plant physiological research (determination of photosynthetic activity, content of photosynthetic pigments, relative water content) the ability of F. vesiculosus to withstand prolonged exposure to air has been determined. In the experiment, the algae were placed on the netting, twisted into a roll wrapped with a tarp (to prevent drying plants) and set in different experimental conditions (in constant (8 ?C) and variable (7–19 ?C) temperatures). Algae retained the photosynthetic capacity for 30 days, but after 20 days there was a decrease in this process compared to control. After the experiment, algae recovered the level of photosynthetic capacity for one day. The total content of chlorophylls and the ratio of Chl A / Chl C during the experiment did not change, which also indicates the sustainability of the photosynthetic apparatus of F. vesiculosus. It has been shown that F. vesiculosus is able to maintain physiological activity within 30 days if it is under conditions that ensure moisture retention in the thalli is not less than 55 %. This ability expands the potential of using F. vesiculosus as an object of sanitary aquaculture: it is possible to pre-build modules of plantation-biofilter and their long transportation.
History and status of sturgeon stock (Acipenseridae) in the Caspian poolAnalysis of materials from long-term studies characterizing the current state of sturgeon stocks in the Volga-Caspian fisheries basin, and the dynamics of commercial catches of beluga, sturgeon and stellate sturgeon in the XX – XXI centuries indicates that the Northern Caspian occupies the leading value in catch volumes, where more than 70 % of sturgeon fish are annually harvested. In the first half of the twentieth century sturgeon stocks were determined by the scale of natural reproduction in rivers and fishing volumes; in the second half, natural and anthropogenic factors began to intensively influence the formation of sturgeon stocks. The development of hydraulic construction on rivers, an increase in the withdrawal of freshwater runoff, a decrease in sea level to –29.0 mBS, pollution by industrial and agricultural runoff have necessitated the development of a set of measures for the reproduction, conservation and rational use of the Caspian’s aquatic biological resources. As a result of the studies, the response of the sturgeons to the changed conditions of reproduction has been determined in order to restore and increase their commercial stocks; high ecological adaptability of sturgeons to various living conditions within their range, their exceptional plasticity and pronounced intraspecific differentiation have been established. These indicators point to the possibility of creating conditions that meet the requirements for water quality for the life of sturgeons during migration and reproduction. In the course of the analysis of the obtained data, the influence of regulation of the Volga River flow on the efficiency of natural reproduction of sturgeons has been evaluated; the role of industrial sturgeon breeding in sturgeon stock formation has been shown; the abundance of juveniles in the North Caspian and adult individuals on feeding pastures of the sea has been estimated; trends in the number of sturgeon producers migrating in the Volga to spawning sites have been identified; the prospects for the restoration and rational use of sturgeons in the Volga-Caspian basin have been determined.
Some information on biology of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Barents Sea coastal region (East Murman)Three-spined stickleback is one of the widespread fish species of East Murman. It is found in 13 catchment areas of the Barents Sea coast in the eastern part of the Murmansk region, including major rivers, shallow river basins and inter-basin spaces. Stickleback is found in such lakes as Enozero, Pervoe Titovskoe, Opasovskoe, Dolgoe, etc, and in the rivers Yokanga, Varzina, Kharlovka, Voronia, Teriberka, etc. There is no detailed biological description of stickleback in this area, and the information available only mentions its presence in water bodies and occurrence in the stomachs of predators. The present paper provides data on three-spined stickleback caught in the coastal region of the Barents Sea at a depth of 120–123 m. The marine form of stickleback spends entire life cycle in the sea. In the Barents Sea, stickleback has a pelagic way of life, going quite far from the shore. According to the published data, its habitat depth in the Barents Sea is 50–450 m, with an average of 270 m, where temperature varies from 0 to 4 °C, with salinity 33–35 ‰. It has been found out that stickleback is represented by two morphotypes – trachurus with a keel (98 %) and semiarmatus (2 %) with a keel. The study has revealed different number of lateral plates and the nature of their distribution on the body of stickleback. In the study area, individuals of different size groups could be found. On average their body length ranges from 51 to 60 mm with a maximum length of 81 mm; the weight changes from 0.79 to 1.39 g. The authors have observed positive allometry of the dependence of mass on body length. Proportion of empty stomachs is almost 100 % with the fat content 1–2 points. The gonads of males and females caught in August 2015 were in after spawning condition. Females comprise the majority of the population (65 %). Infestation of stickleback with helminths is insignificant. Larvae of Anisakis simplex nematode have been observed most frequently during the examination of internal organs and body cavity.