• Accumulation of trace metals in some benthic invertebrate and fish species revelant to their concentration in water and sediment of lake Qarun, Egypt.

      Fishar, M.R.A.; Ali, M.H.H. (National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      Concentrations of major metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd) were determined in water, sediment, benthos and some common fish species from Lake Qarun. Water and sediment samples were collected from seven stations where, the benthos and fish species were collected from three sites representing east, middle and west of the lake. Distribution of studied metals showed that, east part generally had higher contamination than west one which may be attributed to the impact of pollution sources in this area which coming from El-Batts Drain and pumping station in the east part. Mollusca and Crustacea especially Barnacles have the highest concentrations of most heavy metals measured more than Polychaeta which make them suitable candidates to be used in biomonitoring surveys of Lake Qarun. The concentrations of heavy metals in fish samples indicate that Solea sp.and Mugil sp. seemed to be more contaminated than Tilapia sp. which attributed to their feeding behavior. Bioaccumulation factor values showed that the trend of accumulation of most metals was as follows: Mollusca > Crustacea > Annelida > Solea sp. > Mugil sp. > Tilapia sp.
    • Some factors affecting the primary production of phytoplankton in Lake Burullus

      Radwan, A.M. (Alexandria: National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      This study which was carried out at the different stations and sectors of Lake Burullus during the period from January till December 2000 showed that the identified species of phytoplankton community in Lake Burullus during the period of study included the classes of Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Dinophyceae. The total number of species recorded during this period was 65 species. The standing crop and primary production of phytoplankton showed pronounced variations at different stations and months correlated with physicochemical conditions of water especially phosphate , nitrate and silicate contents. Stations 6,10 and 15 were the most productive in the eastern sector ,the middle sector, and the western sector respectively. The productivity was lower at stations nearby the drains mouth. Positive correlation was observed between the transparency and the net production. Levels of temperature and dissolved oxygen are among the factors affecting the productivity. In general, the dominance of Bacillariophyceae in the lake plays an important role in productivity, where it represented more than 65 % to the total count of phytoplankton during the period of study. The results obtained indicated that, Lake Burullus harboured lower phytoplankton standing crop and primary production as compared with that previously recorded .
    • A new innovated and cheep model in building artificial reefs.

      Mahmoud, M.A.; Ammar, M.S.A. (Alexandria : National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      A novel and cheep approach for building artificial reefs was designed in such a way that sediments in an area of high sedimentation rate will be utilized in building the artificial substrate with no further sediment accumulation afterwards. The model consists of several steel cylinders which are soldered together in such a way to form a reef flat, a gentle slope and a steep slope, with two layers of narrow opening meshes (a lower plastic and an upper metallic one). Within a short periode (3 months), a substrate layer of a total of ~ 1 cm was formed between the two meshes, this layer increased to ~2 cm after 9 months. Transplants of the three species Stylophora pistillata, Echinopora gemmacea and Montipora spongiosa grow better when the attaching surface is oriented with a narrower angle than 90o with the vertical axis, while Acropora granulosa grows better on the reef flat and steep slope (narrower angle than that of the gentle slope).
    • Assessment of some heavy metals, major cations and organic matter in the recent sediments of Bardawil Lagoon, Egypt

      Abdo, M.H. (Alexandria: National Institute of Oceanographic and Fisheries, 2005)
      The aim of the present study is to gather detailed information on the distribution and concentration levels of some heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb & Cd), major cations (Ca,Mg, Na & K), in addition to organic matter in the Bardawil lagoon sediments during four successive seasons during (2001-2002). The different metals concentrations could be arranged in descending order as follows: - Ca> Na> Fe> Mg> K> Mn> Cu> Zn> Pb> Cd.
    • Recovery probabilities of coral reef communities after Acanthaster planci infestation: a case study at Shabror umm gam'ar, Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt.

      Ammar, M.S.A. (Alexandria : National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      Recovery patterns of coral reef benthic communities were estimated by linear extrapolation after Acanthaster planci outbreak of 1998 at Shabror Umm Gam'ar, Hurghada of the Egyptian Red Sea. The significance of using linear extrapolation was tested in a range of ten sites by comparison with the actual average yearly recovery rates. A total of 15 permanent transects, each is 10m long, were monitored at 10m and 12m depths in both Shabror Umm Gam’ar and the ten selected sites. The recovery rate estimated by linear extrapolation did not significantly differ from the recovery rate of stony corals in the ten selected sites. Moreover, an error of +7.69% to +17.5% increase in the extrapolated recovery rate exists and should be considered while handling the extrapolated recovery patterns of coral reef benthic communities. Stony corals were characterized by having an extrapolated slow recovery time of 64.9 years in spite of the fast recovery rate (0.67 % over/year) and this is virtually due to the large cover required for restoration as a result of the large devastation by Acanthaster planci. In contrast, soft corals were characterized by having both fast recovery time (RT) and recovery rate (RR) as they are not preferred preys by the COTs. The correlation coefficient is negative between recovery time (RT) and recovery rate (RR), strong between RT and cover required for complete recovery CR, and weak between CR and RR. Diversity had an estimated fast recovery time (RT) of 4.3 years indicating that, the space cleared by Acanthaster planci improves the diversity faster than improving the percent cover.
    • Some biochemical aspects of reproduction in female trachinotus ovatus (carangidae)

      Kaldus, S.K.; El-Serafy, S.S.; Assem, S.S.; El-Garabawy, M.M.; El-Absawy, M. El-G. (2005)
      General pattern of gonadal development in female Trachinotus ovatus was divided into six maturity stages, which are; immature, maturing, nearly ripe, ripe, spawning and spent stages. The maximum value of gonadosomatic index (GSI) was attained in June and July. Total protein content in ovaries varied according to different maturity stages recording maximum value at immature ovaries and minimum at spawning and spent ovaries. The values of GSI in ovaries were inversely correlated to their total protein content at different maturity stages. Seven amino acids (proline, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine and histidine) were found to increase significantly in ripe ovary, followed by a significant decrease in both spawning and completely spent ovaries. While, arginine and threonine reached their maximum concentration in the spawning period. On the other hand, serine amino acid reached their minimum value in the ripe ovary. Total lipid contents of ovaries reached their minimal values at immature stage, while the maximum recorded value was at the nearly ripe gonad. The ovarian total lipid contents approximately followed the same manner of the GSI according to the different maturity stages except in spawning period. Many differences were detected in fatty acid concentrations in female Trachinotus ovatus ovaries in relation to different maturity stages. Eicosapentaenoic acid content varied according to the stage of sexual maturity. While, the maximum recorded value of arachidonic acid was at the ripe stage. Palmitic acid and oleic acid had the highest concentrations among fatty acids, while those with low concentrations were pentadecanoic acid and gadoleic acid.
    • Active biological materials inhibiting tumor initiation extracted from marine algae

      Mostafa, M.H.; Ibrahim, A.M.M.; El-Masry, M.H.; El-Naggar, M.A. (Alexandria : National Institute of Oceanographic and Fisheries, 2005)
      Ethanol extraction of seventeen algal species from 35 different samples collected from the coastal area of Abou-Qir, Egypt, South East of the Mediterranean Sea Coast, was conducted. The aim was to obtain natural products from the algal extracts which have significant biologically active algal compounds. The collected algae showed a wide variation in their occurrence during the period of collection. Thirty five extracts representing different seasonal growths of 17 marine algal species were tested for antitumorigenic activity. Tests performed were the toxicity bioassay using Brine shrimp Artemia salina and the anti-tumor bioassay against Agrobacterium tumefaciens on potato discs. Codium tomentosum (winter); Jaina rubens (summer) and Padina pavonia (winter) displayed relatively high activity
    • Heat and salt storages in the offshore water of the Red Sea

      Kamel, M.S.; Eid, F.M. (2005)
      The seasonal changes of heat and salt storages in the offshore water of the Red Sea were studied using a historical data collected from different cruises during the period from 1924 to 1998. The heat storage within water column of different depths exhibits a seasonal variability. The heat storage is low during winter and high during summer. Also, the heat storage increases from north to south. The maximum values of heat storage are found in the southern central part of the Red Sea. It reached about 29.9x109 J/m2 within the water column of 300m depth. The seasonal change of heat storage from the annual mean is negative during winter and spring, while it is positive during summer and autumn. It has higher values during winter and summer, while its value decreased during spring and autumn. The salt storage within the water column decreases from north to south. The maximum values are observed at extremely northern Red Sea, while the minimum ones are found at extremely southern Red Sea, near Bab-El-Mandab Strait. The maximum value of salt storage within the water column of 300m depth reaches about 12.59 ton/m2 during summer. The salt storage differs slightly from one season to another. The maximum values of salt storage are observed during summer in the northern regions of the Red Sea, while they are found in the southern regions during winter. The seasonal changes of salt storage from the annual mean vary between -110 kg/m2 and 100 kg/m2.
    • Physico-chemical characteristics of abu za'baal ponds, Egypt

      Mohamed, H. A. (Alexandria: National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      The present study deals with the physical and chemical characteristics of the water of Abu Za'baal Ponds. Determination of physical parameters (air and water temperatures, transparency, electrical conductivity, salinity, total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids) and chemical parameters (pH, DO, BOD, COD, HCO3 -, CO3 --, Cl- , SO4 --,Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NO2-, NO3-, NH3, PO4--, TP and SiO2-) were carried out to identify the nature and quality of the water of Abu Za'baal Ponds. The present results reveal that the values of most physical and chemical parameters were higher than those of freshwater, lower than those of saline water and in the same range of the brackishwater. Thus, the water of Abu Za'baal Ponds can be classified as brackishwater.
    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic plasticiser materials in the sea water of alexandria coastal area

      Emara, H.I.; El-Deeb, M.K.Z. (Alexandria: National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the real contaminants of petroleum, were detected in the surface seawater of Alexandria coastal area in winter and spring seasons of 1995. Their order of predominance, particularly for the individual components were principally due to the processes of input, transport and fluxes. Variation of PAHs was not following seasonal changes but it was slightly affected by partial dissolution of the lowerboiling aromatic hydrocarbons. The most abundant component of aromatic hydrocarbons was pyrene (PAH),112ngI-1 followed by naphthalene(56ngI-1) and its alkylated derivatives (dicyclic), then phenanthrene(14ngI-1) and its methylated derivatives (tricyclic). The potential fish carcinogenic PAH, dibenz [a & c] anthracene was found in extremely trace levels. Most aromatic hydrocarbons present in seawater were arised from combustion of various petroleum and non-petroleum products, while few aromatics were found as a result of petroleum pollution. PAHs were also detected in rain water(25ngI-1). Plasticiser mate rials (phthalates) were determined everywhere at considerable levels in the coastal area of Alexandria; which is the first district in Egypt for producing and recycling polyethylene, plastics and nylons.
    • Distribution and relationships of heavy metals in the giant clam (Tridacna maxima) and associated sediments from different sites in the Egyptian Red Sea Coast

      Madkour, H.A. (Alexandria: National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      The giant clam (Tridacna maxima) and sediments have been collected from clean and contaminated coastal sites of the Egyptian Red Sea. Selected samples of the giant clam shells and the associated surface sediments were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cd. Significant spatial differences in metal concentrations in Tridacna maxima and sediments were identified. Copper and lead are greatly enriched in the giant clam shells, which is related to their physiological function. Cd content is higher in Tridacna maxima than in sediments, because of the easy substitution between Cd and Ca. The levels of most metals in the giant clam shells and sediments were higher in the anthropogenic sites than in the uncontaminated sites. Generally, metal variations reflect natural conditions and human activity. Moreover, there are no clear relationships between concentrations of heavy metals in the giant clam shells and those in sediments.
    • Microbioal assessment of el-max farm

      Elsersy, N.A.; Abo-Ella, G.M.; El-Shenawy, M.; Abdel-Mawla, E. (Alexandria: National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      El-Max fish farm is one of the most important natural fish farm in Alexandria which is suffering from die-off of large amounts of fish. Facing this problem we must deal with the estimation of the quality of the farm raring unit environment (ponds). Analysis of samples using the Bray - Curtis similarity coefficient test yielded that, the input and El-Khandac were similar at (97%), while the eight ponds were classified at different level of similarity as follows: pond1 (B1) and pond7 (B7) were similar at (86%), B2 and B3 were similar at (90%), B14, B10 and B9 were similar at (93%), where as B11 is singly separated at (83%). Moreover, results indicate that distribution of the different bacterial groups was affected with one or more chemical parameters such as ammonia, nitrates, phosphates and alkalinity. Since the similarity between ponds was high, we can consider them all as a unique environment from the physicochemical and microbiological point of view.
    • Distribution of chlorinated pesticides in surface water and fish of El Temsah and Bitter Lakes, Suez Canal.

      Said, T.O.; Hamed, M.A. (Alexandria: NIOF, 2005)
      The potential effect of chlorinated pesticides pollutants carried by El Temsah and Bitter Lakes of the Suez Canal was investigated during four seasons of 2003. The results indicate the presence of total DDTs, total cyclodienes and total Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) in surface water with ranges; 2.76-13.88 ng/l, 3.99-16.39 ng/l, and 0.39-1.25 ng/l, respectively. Total DDTs concentrations were ranged from 161-3100 ng/g (wet weight) with an average of 1087 ng/g (wet weight), while total HCHs concentrations were ranged from 30-1145 ng/g (wet weight) with an average of 316 ng/g (wet weight) recorded in three fish species; Lutjanus sp., R. haffara and S. rivulatus of the investigated area. Concentrations of chlorinated pesticides recorded in both of water and fish samples of the investigated area can be ranked in the order; total cyclodienes > total DDTs > total HCHs. Land based activities result from agricultural and municipal wastes are the main source of pollution by chlorinated pesticides in the area.
    • Short term variations of zoo plankton community in the West Naubaria Canal, Alexandria, Egypt

      Abdel-Aziz, N.E. (Alexandria : National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      The variations of zooplankton structure and abundance were studied at short time intervals in the northern part of the West Naubaria Canal, near the sea side, based on weekly sampling from May 2002 to May 2003 .The community represented high species richness (120 species), and relatively low population density ( annual average 31340 organisms/m.3). Freshwater forms were the major representatives (68 species) of the community, including the sea side station. However, several marine species were reported inside the canal at a long distance from the sea. The community structure showed wide weekly variations (4-29 species), while between stations the differences were small. Relative to salinity in the canal, diversity index sustained the highest value (annual average 1.8) at the sea side station (St. 1) with surface salinity 11.1 PSU compared to the values reported at the other stations (annual averages 1.5-1.7) with average salinity was 8.7, 7.6 and 6 PSU at stations 2, 3 & 4 respectively. The diversity index experienced also clear temporal variations at all stations, parallel to those of standing crop and number of species. The zooplankton abundance showed wide changes on both scales of time and space, with an annual average of 34.4, 17.1, 33.2 and 40.6 x 103 organisms /m3at station 1-1V respectively, and weekly values varying from a minimum of 150 organisms /m3 to a maximum of 797.7 x 103 organisms /m3. Despite of salinity differences, copepods, mainly their nauplii larvae were the absolute predominant component at all stations representing a very stable fraction of zooplankton forming 66.1%-77.9%, while different patterns of co-dominance were observed at different stations relative to salinity variations.
    • Major controls of some metals distribution in sediments off the Nile Delta, Egypt.

      Rifaat, A.E. (Alexandria: National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      The sediment samples that are collected during R/V CHAIN 1975 cruise to the southeastern Mediterranean have been used to determine the major controls of metals’distribution. The sediment samples were analysed mineralogically, chemically and texturally. The parameters measured included carbonate minerals, total carbonate, organic carbon, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium, lead, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sand, silt and clay. The statistical analysis of data showed that four major factors control the distribution of metals in sediments of the Nile cone; These are: Factor 1 terrigenous mud-calcareous sand; Factor 2 Aragonite mud-terrigenous sand; Factor 3 Algal sand; and Factor 4 Aragonite. The percentages of terrigenous sand, mud and calcareous components of the Nile cone sediments greatly affect the elements spatial distribution. In addition to that, minor controls such as precipitation and coprecipitation may affect the elemental distribution. The distributions of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium, lead, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium are associated mainly with the terrigenous mud fraction of the sediment whereas, calcium and strontium are mainly related to calcareous sands. Iron, copper, cobalt, lead and vanadium are partially related to montmorillonite. Lead is associated with acid feldspars and chromium is mainly controlled by terrigenous sand. The distribution of calcium and strontium is controlled by the coarsecalcareous fraction of sediments. Magnesium and manganese are associate with algal sand. The aragonite and calcite minerals are forming the majority of carbonate mud, which controls partially the distribution of calcium, strontium, lead and copper.
    • Some comparative histological studies on alimentary tract of Tilapia Fish (Tilapia spilurus) and Sea Bream (Mylio cuvieri)

      Abdulhadi, H.A. (Alexandria : NIOF, 2005)
      The present work was carried out on ten mature Tilapia (Tilapia spilurus) and ten mature Bream fish (Mylio cuvieri) and the specimens were processed for histological studies. The oesophagus of Bream fish is characterized by the presence of numerous mucous cells which react positively to P.A.S. and alcian blue. While oesophagus of Tilapia is completely filled with mucous cells that react positively to P.A.S. only. The stomach of Bream consists of one part while that of Tilapia consists of two parts (cardiac and pyloric). The mucosa of stomach of both types of fish reacted positively to P.A.S. the pyloric caeci of Bream fish showed numerous mucous cells that react positively to Alsain blue. The small intestine of bream has thicker tunica muscularis than that of same layer in small intestine of Tilapia.
    • Effect of ecological and biological factors on the uptake and concentration of trace elements by aquatic organisms at Edku lake

      Abbas, M.M.; Shakweer, L. (2005)
      The effect of temperature, pH and trace elements concentration in the ambient water on the uptake and accumulation of Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb in various organs of fish and parts of aquatic plants of Edku Lake were studied. It was found that higher water temperature and lower pH during summer increased the rates of trace metals uptake by the most common fish species Oreochromis niloticus. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Ni in the various organs of fish were affected by the concentrations of these elements in the water. Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb attained higher concentrations in the roots of Eichormia crassipes if compared with their concentrations in the other parts of this aquatic plant. Sex of fish can be considered as an important factor affecting the accumulation of trace elements in different organs of fish. The accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Ni in the flesh, liver, gonads and bones of fish were negatively correlated with length of the fish.
    • Pre-concentration and separation of Fe (III), Co (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) by solid-phase extraction using silica modified with N-propylsalicylaldimine

      Hamed, M.A. (2005)
      N- propylsalicylaldimine based on porous silica, as ion exchanger, was used for the separation and preconcentration of Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ from surface water samples collected from eleven locations at Nile river, Mediterranean and Red seas as well as tap water of Mansoura city. The effects of pH value, time of stirring, concentration of eluting acids and some common ionic species on the separation and preconcentration of the investigated metal ions in synthetic aqueous solutions were studied. The results indicate that the optimum conditions for separation are pH = 9.0-9.5 and time of stirring = 30 min. HCl is better eluent for the investigated metal ions than HNO3 except for Fe3+. Citrate and EDTA gave severe interference on the recovery of the metal ions therefore the water samples were previously oxidized to digest organic matter prior to the application process.
    • Immunosuppressive effects of metrifonate on oreochromis niloticus

      Soliman, M.K.; Mohamed, S.G.; El-Gohary, M.S.; Khalil, R.H.; El-Banna, S. (Alexandria: National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      The effect of metrifonate on the immunity of the exposed fish are evaluated through the determination of the antibody titer and mortality rate during the challenge trial. In the chronic toxic exposure to metrifonate by dose 0.17mg/liter for 8 weeks, the more clear signs were darkness of fish color with hemorrhagic patches & loosing of scale at end of the trial the color return to normal. Determination of some blood parameters revealed significant decrease of white blood cell count, as there were lymphopenia and nueutrophilia during the chronic exposure to metrifonate. Phagocytic assay revealed a significant decrease in both phagocytic activity (PA) and phagocytic index(PI).Hypoproteinami hypoglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia were observed. The challenge trial indicted that, the metrifonate decrease the immunity of exposed fish.. The using of biogen“R” as a growth promoter in fish diet minimized the toxicity of metrifonate.
    • Geochemical and sedimentology of core sediments and the influence of human activities: Qusier, Safaga and Hurghada Harbors, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

      Mohamed, A.W. (2005)
      The grain size distribution and arameters, major and trace elements, carbonate, total phosphorus, organic carbon and total organic matter has been assessed for core sediments collected in the intertidal area of Qusier, Safaga and Hurghada harbors in July 2002. Mud is the dominant fraction in almost all samples of Qusier core and some samples of Safaga and Hurghada cores. The reason for the high mud content of all Qusier core samples and some samples of Safaga and Hurghada cores is due to the terrigenous flux of wadies, phosphate deposits, landfill and dredging in these areas. Metals concentrations in the core sediments vary between sites within a wide range for Cu, Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cd. Concentration of metals in the sediments at the top of cores is the highest. The highest concentration of P, V in Quseir, Pb, Zn in Safaga, Cd, Co,Ni in Hurghada may be attributed to anthropogenic inputs from the urrounding areas and harbors. Contamination with fine-grained terrigenous material and organic matter are recorded in Quseir and Safaga core samples. The increase in observed contaminants in these areas is probably due to phosphate deposits, sewage sludge discharge to the sea and lead in gasoline of motor boats. Concentrations of trace metals and physical properties measured in core samples will help in identifying anthropogenic impacts and better assessment the needs for remedial measures by detecting any changes, from the existing level expected with future operation activities.