Recent Submissions

  • The status of Kenya Fisheries: Towards sustainability exploitation of fisheries resources for food security and economic development.

    Kimani, E.; Okemwa, G.; Aura, C. (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI)Mombasa, Kenya, 2018)
    The information presented in this book is structured in a simple way that can be useful to fisheries students, scientists, managers, the fishing industry, fish traders, consumers and the general public. The book is structured into two technical chapters (1 and 2) that provide an overview of the current status of marine and freshwater fisheries respectively. An overview that provides the geographical and physical setting of the marine and freshwater bodies is provided at the beginning of each of the chapters. Chapter 3 examines the legal and policy frameworks that govern the fisheries sector and management developments that have taken place, particularly the implications of the new dispensation of the new Constitution in 2010. Chapter 4 concludes with a brief overview of the value of fisheries and the contribution of the sector to national economic development, National GDP, employment and food security.
  • Coastal Aquaculture Potential of East Africa

    Bwathondi, P.O.; Institute of Marine Sciences (1981)
    Studies on the aquaculture potential of East African coast has been given. Due to the large expanse of mangrove areas in the region, it has been suggested that the culture of penaeid prawns, particularly Penaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards), P. monodon (Fabricius), P.semisulcatus (De Haan) and Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) be attempted in the mangrove areas and creeks. Such rearing experiments should be run concurrently with experiments involving the breeding of the prawns in the laboratory. Experiments carried out on the rearing of mollusks show that the region does not support any appreciable growth of oysters, particularly the commercial species. The dominant genera in the region are Ostrea and Crassostrea. The former genus has a slow growth rate and little meat yield. Experiments are underway to determine the aquaculture potential of mussels. Fish culture, particularly the culture of rabbitfish Siganus spp. has a promising future in the region. Rearing experiments carried out at the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, have indicated that the fish can be cultured to maturity size of 23.4 cm total length within about 8-9 months. The growth rate of this fish has also been determined by the author. Other fish which have a promising aquaculture potential in the region are milkfish Chanos spp; and Epinephelus spp. The study of seaweeds of Tanzania has reached an advanced stage. Already researches are underway to open seaweed farms both in Zanzibar and Pemba Islands and along the coast of Tanzania Mainland. One of the most valuable seaweeds which has attracted great attention in the region is Eucheuma spp.
  • The Kenya Fisheries Sub-Sector: Nature of Legislation Practices, Administrative Weaknesses, Threats and the way Forward

    Masai, Wafula; Mbithi, Mary; Mwangi, John (African Centre for Economic GrowthNairobi, Kenya, 2005)
    The fish industry in Kenya is organized around community based fishermen, government support institutions, urban merchandising centres, small scale processing industries such as dying and frying and large-scale export oriented factories. However its prospects as a tool for economic growth is limited by factors such as lack of capital, low literacy levels, otter predation, and cultural-related constraints. Other economic activities such as agriculture, industry, and services are also beset with substantial obstacles emanating from legal impediments and poor administrative practices. The changing fisheries practices that have recently occurred in local fisheries have had socio-economic impacts, resulting to changes in different stakeholders characteristics in relation to changing fishing practices, with the increasing threat that the population in the fishing region has had deficiency and malnutrition despite large amounts of fish being produced due to the distribution activities and associated processing around the inland fisheries being destined primarily for the export markets and over-exploitation of fish stocks from the coral reefs around the marine fisheries. This paper looks at the current legislative practices and administrative weaknesses to assess the nature and genesis of the problems confronting the fisheries sub-sector in the whole of Kenya. The role of key stakeholders and policy making has been accorded special attention in this paper, to establish existing threats and weaknesses and ends with suggestions on the way forward for each category of threats and weaknesses.
  • Structural Development of a Replanted Mangrove Forest at Gazi Bay, Kenya

    Lang'at, J.K.S.; Kairo, J.G.; Karachi, M.; Muchiri, M.N.; Kamondo, B.; Ochieng, D.; Tuwei, P.; Wanjiku, J. (Kenya Forestry Research InstituteNairobi, Kenya, 2007)
    Forest structure and natural regeneration was investigated in a 12-year-old Rhizophora reforested stand at Gazi bay, Kenya. Within 10 * 10 m2 plots, tree height and stem diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees of DBH >2.5 cm were determined. Stand volume was estimated by allometeric equations derived from 50 harvested trees. The composition of juveniles was determined within 5 x 5 m2 inside the 10 x 10 m2 plots. The stand density in Rhizophora plantation was 5,132 stems ha-1, with a mean canopy height and stem diameter of 8.4 ± 1.1 m (range: 3.0 to 11.0 m) and 6.2 ±1.87 cm (range: 2.5 to 12.4 cm) respectively, The stand volume was 103.80 m3 ha-1; stem volume was 60.71 m3 ha-1, stilt roots and branches combined was 43.09 m3 ha-1• Five species with juveniles; Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguieria gymnorrhiza, Ceriops taga/, Sonneratia alba and Xylocarpus granatum, were encountered with density of 4886 juveniles ha-1; with clustered distribution pattern.
  • Allometric Models for Estimating Standing Volume of a Replanted Mangrove Plantation in Kenya

    Lang'at, J.K.S.; Bosire, J.O.; Karachi, M.; Kairo, J.G.; Muchiri, M.N.; Kamondo, B.; Ochieng, D.; Tuwei, P.; Wanjiku, J. (Kenya Forestry Research InstituteNairobi, Kenya, 2009-06)
    Allometric equations were developed and used to estimate standing volume of a l2-year old Rhizophora mucronata Lam. plantation at Gazi bay, Kenya. Twenty two plots, each measuring 10 x 10m2, were established in six belt transects laid perpendicular to the waterline. Fifty trees of diameters varying from 2.5 to 11.5 cm were selected within the plots and harvested. Merchantable volume of the harvested trees was calculated using the Smalian's formula while the nonmerchantable volume was derived from weight-volume conversation ratios. The total stand volume was estimated as 100.4 m3 ha-1 with an annual increment of 8.4 m3 ha-1yr-1 ; giving a biomass expansion factor (BEF) of 2.04 ± 0.74 t m-3. A local volume table based on stem diameter and height was constructed, which allows quick estimation of tree volume.
  • Structure of Mangroves at Mida Creek

    Wairungu, S.; Mumbu, D.; Kimani, G.; Welimo, M.; Muthini, J.; Ndungu, M.; Mukirae, P.; Muchiri, M.N.; Kamondo, B.; Ochieng, D.; et al. (Kenya Forestry Research InstituteNairobi, Kenya, 2009)
    Mida Creek has the highest concentration of mangroves in Malindi, with a total area of 1,600 ha. There are 6 mangrove concentration areas including those on Sudi and Kirepwe Islands, which are tourist destinations. The other areas of high concentration are Badari ya Shaka, Mkangagani, Majaoni-Maweni and Mida-Magangani- Dabaso. The continued use of mangroves resources for construction have resulted into depletion of the resource in most of the areas mentioned, which requires some human interventions in form of Resource assessment to establish the stocking rates and identification of areas that require restocking to improve the productivity. The stocking levels of trees, saplings and seedlings found in each mentioned area were determined. The stocking rates ranged from 688 stems ha-1 at Badari ya Shaka to 1043 stems ha-1 at Mida-Magangani-Dabaso. The regeneration status was 17 242 saplings ha-1 in the later and 26 880 in the former case. Ceriops tagal was found to be the heavily harvested species for construction poles and other uses followed by Rhizophora mucronata, Avicenia marina and Xylocarpus granatum respectively.
  • Mangrove Plantation Experiments for Controlling Coastal Erosion at Gazi Bay, Kenya

    Lang'at, J.K.S.; Tamooh, F.; Okello, J.; Kairo, J.G.; Muchiri, M.N.; Kamondo, B.; Ochieng, D.; Tuwei, P.; Wanjiku, J. (Kenya Forestry Research InstituteNairobi , Kenya, 2009)
    Horizontal distribution of mangrove species is a common phenomenon in mangrove ecosystems. In Kenya, where nine species of mangroves occur, the seaward zone is normally occupied by Sonneratia alba Sm. and occasionally by Rhizophora mucronata Lam. The present study was conducted in a low lying site previously dominated by S. alba. Our study aimed at testing the suitability of replanting Rhizophora propagules in low elevation site to control soil erosion and stabilize sediments. The experiment was established up in March 2005 with three treatments and a control group. Rhizophora propagules were planted directly into the sediment or inside bamboo encasements of various diameters. Field measurements included percentage mortality, shoot height increment (cm), diameter at second internode (mm), and leaf number. The results showed that the directly planted saplings had a significantly high percent survival (p = 0.01) as well as better growth performance (p<0.01) than the encased ones. However, the saplings did not differ significantly in both survival and growth performance between the bamboo treatments. The significance of these results in the management of eroding shorelines is discussed.
  • The Mangroves of Lamu: History, Socio-economic and Conservation Issues

    Idha, Mohammed (East Africa Wildlife Society, 1998)
    Lamu District has a mangrove cover of 33,500 hectares, or about 60% of Kenya's total. For many centuries mangroves have been an important trade item, and have helped build a prosperous coastal Swahili civilization. Various factors over the ages, culminating in a Government ban in 1982 on the export of mangrove poles, set in motion a gradual decline in status of these proud people. Today these coastal communities are among the poorest and most marginalised in the country. It is thus imperative to address the issue of their economic development using the resources available, one of which is the mangroves. Controversy surrounds the mangrove export ban. The National Museums of Kenya, in declaring Lamu Town and several other sites in the district National Monuments, encourages the exploitation and utilisation of traditional mangrove products such as building poles and lime in the preservation of historical buildings and monuments. Developmental organisations favour increased mangrove exploitation as a way of improving the local economy. These needs appear to conflict with those of some government departments, whose role is that of strict regulation and even total preservation of mangroves. Is the pole export ban justified? While no categorical answer can be given to this question until further definitive surveys are undertaken, this brief study gives indications that the present rate of mangrove cutting is actually well below the maximum sustainable level. The study also calls for the development of several other mangrove resources.
  • Advocacy on Mangroves Restoration: Tanzania Case Study

    Rweyemamu, Chrysostom (East Africa Wildlife Society, 1998)
    The mangrove forests' ecological importance is largely responsible for the existence of communities living around the forests. Mangroves are not only the habitat of the unique fauna and flora which make them important in the eyes of conservationists, but also serve as feeding grounds and nursery for marine fisheries; stabilize the coastline by preventing coast erosion; prevent siltation of the economically important coral reefs by trapping sediments; build land through accumulation of silt and the production of detritus; preserve the purity of the water by absorbing pollutants from coastal upland sources and serve as windbreakers for the agricultural hinterland.
  • Working with Communities to Conserve Mangrove Forest in Kenya: The SPEK Experience

    Gang, Patrick O. (East Africa Wildlife Society, 1998)
    This paper highlights the approaches used by the Society for Protection of Environment in Kenya, SPEK, to implement community based initiatives in promoting awareness on the interaction of the coastal people with their mangrove environment in Mombasa area and parts of south coast (Gazi and Msambweni). Traditionally, Mangroves provide essential goods and services such as firewood, building poles, medicine and a source of income and employment for local population. Ecologically mangroves are linked to sea grass beds and coral reefs by the animals that move between these habitats. Many fish and prawns species (commercial and non commercial) that are usually found offshore inhabit mangrove areas during part of their life cycle. The position of being in the transition zone between land and open sea allows them to regulate both domestic and industrial effluents that would otherwise destroy the marine habitats. Although mangroves are vital to the biological productivity of the coastal waters, a lot of pressure is currently being witnessed due to the high demand for their products and increase in value. For a long time, it has been taken that the local communities are solely responsible for the destruction of mangroves within their environments. The situation along the Kenya coast reveals that most destruction is done by businessmen who obtain annual licenses to cut mangroves for fuel wood and timber purposes. Efforts to replenish the mangroves cut through re-planting ore is still minimal. Most of the communities are not compensated for the mangrove resource obtained from their areas and non of the proceeds from the mangrove sales remain in the community. There is therefore a great need to involve major stakeholders in mangrove exploitation to guarantee future conservation. The management scheme i.e. licensing, used by the Forest Department needs to be re-examined with a view of making it more participatory where the people concerned-will play a major role. This calls for integrated management plans and the decentralization of decision making process. It is expected that by demonstrating a people centered management approach, there shall be an incentive created since the community's rights and respect shall be upheld. More community based conservation initiatives which will put more emphasis on local solutions to local problem are therefore mandatory in order to sustain the essential goods and services derived from the mangroves.
  • The Role of Non Government Organizations in Coastal Planning and Management

    Matindiı, Susan (East Africa Wildlife Society, 1998)
    Coastal and marine resources are used extensively by communities while in most cases their management is mandated to the government through various agencies dealing with fisheries forests and protected areas, among others. Non governmental organizations (NGOs), which here can be defined as non-profit organizations which are independent from government, also have their clear roles to play. This was recognized by participants at a recent workshop held at UNEP in Nairobi to look at NGO experiences in the assessment of community dependence and management of marine and coastal resources in the Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique and Somalia. Non government organizations can further be divided for our purposes here into CBOs: local grassroots organizations working within a particular community, national NGOs with national mandates in a country and international/regional NGOs: covering more than one country. Non government organizations have certain features which can make them good partners to government in planning and management of coastal resources. Some of them are, in the case of CBOs for instance, representatives of communities and are in constant touch with the needs and priorities of those communities. They also have a flexibility to operate at the grassroots level, and also have resources to carry out projects that have been identified by the communities. In addition they have local knowledge of natural resources and their (sustainable)-uses. Others of regional and international nature are able to bring experiences from other parts of the world and can also work better with transboundary issues. Below is an outline of some of the roles that NGOs are well placed to play especially in relation to the planning and management of coastal resources.
  • Mangroves and Ecosystem Management.

    Howard, G.W. (East Africa Wildlife Society, 1998)
    Mangroves can be classified as tropical forests, as intertidal forests or as coastal woodlands that include species that are dependent upon the particular systems of fresh and marine waters and tides that prevail on some parts of our coasts. The management of such forests or woodlands has been carried out in the past on the basis of forest reserves as the management units with rules and regulations coming from government forestry agencies. This contribution suggests that an ecosystem approach to the management of mangroves has definite benefits - both for the plants and animals within the ecosystem (the ”mangroves”) and for the people that use these resources in one way or another.
  • Conservation efforts of the East African Whale Shark Trust in Kenya.

    Bassen, V.; Irvine, T.R.; Keesing, J.K. (CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric ResearchAustralia, 2007)
    While it is known that the highly migratory nature of whale sharks results in the world’s largest fish being found in the waters of Kenya, minimal research has been conducted into their distribution and abundance along the Kenyan coast. The whale shark is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), however the species is not protected by law in Kenya and whale sharks fishing remains unchecked. The East African Whale Shark Trust (EAWST) was established in 2005; it is a non-profit organisation concerned with the conservation and research of the whale shark. This paper describes what is presently known about whale sharks in Kenya and the goals of the EAWST.
  • Mangroves and Ecosystem Management.

    Howard, G.W. (1998)
    Mangroves can be classified as tropical forests, as intertidal forests or as coastal woodlands that include species that are dependent upon the particular systems of fresh and marine waters and tides that prevail on some parts of our coasts. The management of such forests or woodlands has been carried out in the past on the basis of forest reserves as the management units with rules and regulations coming from government forestry agencies. This contribution suggests that an ecosystem approach to the management of mangroves has definite benefits - both for the plants and animals within the ecosystem (the ”mangroves”) and for the people that use these resources in one way or another.
  • Working with Communities to Conserve Mangrove Forest in Kenya: The SPEK Experience.

    Gang, P.O. (1998)
    This paper highlights the approaches used by the Society for Protection of Environment in Kenya, SPEK, to implement community based initiatives in promoting awareness on the interaction of the coastal people with their mangrove environment in Mombasa area and parts of south coast (Gazi and Msambweni). Traditionally, Mangroves provide essential goods and services such as firewood, building poles, medicine and a source of income and employment for local population. Ecologically mangroves are linked to sea grass beds and coral reefs by the animals that move between these habitats. Many fish and prawns species (commercial and non commercial) that are usually found offshore inhabit mangrove areas during part of their life cycle. The position of being in the transition zone between land and open sea allows them to regulate both domestic and industrial effluents that would otherwise destroy the marine habitats. Although mangroves are vital to the biological productivity of the coastal waters, a lot of pressure is currently being witnessed due to the high demand for their products and increase in value. For a long time, it has been taken that the local communities are solely responsible for the destruction of mangroves within their environments. The situation along the Kenya coast reveals that most destruction is done by businessmen who obtain annual licenses to cut mangroves for fuel wood and timber purposes. Efforts to replenish the mangroves cut through re-planting ore is still minimal. Most of the communities arc not compensated for the mangrove resource obtained from their areas and none of' the proceeds from the mangrove sales remain in the community. There is therefore a great need to involve major stakeholders in mangrove exploitation to guarantee future conservation. The management scheme i.e. licensing, used by the Forest Department needs to be re-examined with a view of making it more participatory where the people concerned-will play a major role. This calls for integrated management plans and the decentralisation of decision making process.
  • The Mangroves of Lamu: History, Socio-econornic and Conservation Issues.

    Idha, M. (1998)
    Lamu District has a mangrove cover of 33,500 hectares, or about 60% of Kenya's total. For many centuries mangroves have been an important trade item, and have helped build a prosperous coastal Swahili civilisation. Various factors over the ages, culminating in a Government ban in 1982 on the export of mangrove poles, set in motion a gradual decline in status of these proud people. Today these coastal communities are among the poorest and most marginalised in the country. It is thus imperative to address the issue of their economic development using the resources available, one of which is the mangroves. Controversy surrounds the mangrove export ban. The National Museums of Kenya, in declaring Lamu Town and several other sites in the district National Monuments, encourages the exploitation and utilisation of traditional mangrove products such as building poles and lime in the preservation of historical buildings and monuments. Developmental organisations favour increased mangrove exploitation as a way of improving the local economy. These needs appear to conflict with those of some government departments, whose role is that of strict regulation and even total preservation of mangroves. Is the pole export ban justified? While no categorical answer can be given to this question until further definitive surveys are undertaken, this brief study gives indications that the present rate of mangrove cutting is actually well below the maximum sustainable level. The study also calls for the development of several other mangrove resources.
  • Mangroves and Shrimp Aquaculture in Kenya

    Rasowo, J.; Ochieng, R.S. (1998)
    In Kenya there is great interest in the pond culture of shrimps which is seen as a means of meeting the challenges of food security, employment, and generation of foreign exchange especially for the coastal communities. This paper analyses the suitability of the Kenyan coastal mangrove belt and the potential for the development of industrial shrimp farming in this environment. It concludes that there are no ideal sites either in the South Coast or the North Coast. Clearing of the mangrove forests to create room for the construction of shrimp ponds would be futile as the ponds would eventually have to be abandoned because of the acid sulphate soils, the high cost of maintenance and the socio-economic impact on the local communities.
  • Aquatic Resource Management in the Western Indian Ocean African Region.

    Ruwa, R.K.; Annala, J.H. (International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM)Makati City, Philippines, 1997)
    In multidisciplinary studies of aquatic systems, water must be considered as a resource as well as one with biological and physical resources. Prominent for communities living around aquatic systems are their fisheries resources. These resources play an important role in providing them with employment; they also play an important part in their nutrition.
  • The Status of Coastal Integrated Coastal Area Management in Kenya.

    Kagwi, J.; Mwanguni, S.; Humphrey, S.; Francis, J. (Western Indian Ocean Marine Science AssociationZanzibar, Tanzania, 1997)
    Kenya's coastal zone has a very diverse physical, social and economic environment. A number of government bodies have management authority over resources and environment and several associations represent a wide range of interest groups operating in coastal areas. Kenya's coastal environment and its resources are increasingly under pressure from human settlements and related socio-economic activities. These activities range from tourism and trading to food production. Kenya has not developed a national integrated coastal zone management programme. The major issues and concerns in the management of coastal areas in Kenya include over-exploitation of resources, poor land use practices leading to erosion and sedimentation, pollution from land-based and maritime activities.
  • Present and Future Perspectives on Marine Affairs in Kenya.

    Makau, B.F.; Okidi, C.O.; Westley, S. (University of Nairobi, Institute for Development StudiesNairobi, Kenya, 1978)
    The Science and Technology Act (No,3 of 1977) was recently passed by Parliament, thereby establishing machinery in the form of the National Council for Science and Technology (NCST) to advise the Kenya government on a national science policy and coordinate related matters. One of the basic tasks which the NCST will carry out towards the goal of formulating a national science policy will be the identification and costing of projects. This will give the NSCT an insight into the state of any branch of science and technology in the country. In the case of marine sciences the NCST, operating on an ad hoc basis, appointed a Working Party of experts in November 1975 to examine the need for a Marine Resources Institute in Kenya. Involvement in this exercise has given the NCST a general view of the state of marine activities in the country. This short paper is not a presentation of the report of the Working Party, but it contains the highlights of what was found during the investigations.

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