• Geology of the Mombasa-Kwale Area Degree Sheet 69 with A Chapter on hte Alkaline Igneous Complex at Jombo.

      Caswell, P.V.; Baker, B.H. (Government Printing OfficeNairobi, Kenya, 1953)
      This report describes an area of some 1,750 square miles lying in the extreme south-eastern corner of Kenya; the area is bounded by latitude 4' S, longitude 39' E, the Kenya-Tanganyika border, and the Indian Ocean. The rocks exposed consist of sediments ranging in age from Permo-Carboniferous to recent and which represent continental, lacustrine and marine conditions of deposition. Igneous and pyroclastic rocks are confined to Jombo Hill, and alkaline intrusion, and associated satellite vent agglomerates and dykes. An account is given of the various rocks, their genesis and their structures, and an attempt is made to correlate them with other areas. The economic prospects of the area are assessed and the possibility of the presence of coal-bearing strata is discussed.
    • A preliminary survey of the hydrography of the British East African coastal waters.

      Newell, B.S. (Her Majesty's Stationery OfficeLondon, UK, 1957)
      This report is an attempt to collate all available data both from previous sources and from this preliminary survey, in order to present as complete as possible a description of the East African coastal waters. It is clear from the results so far obtained that only prolonged and continuous investigation will suffice to delineate the hydrography of these waters, and such an investigation forms part of the programme of this organization.
    • Hydrography of the British East African Coastal waters, Part II.

      Newell, B.S. (Her Majesty's Stationery OfficeLondon, UK, 1959)
      The purpose of this second survey was twofold. Firstly, to confirm and amplify the deductions drawn from the previous survey, and secondly to obtain an estimate of the fertility of these waters. To this end, measurements were made of temperature, salinity, oxygen content, pH, total phosphate and inorganic phosphate throughout the water column from surface to about 500 metres. In October, 1956, an estimation of albuminoid nitrogen was also effected.
    • East African Marine Fisheries Research Organization Annual Report, 1962

      East African Marine Fisheries Research Organization (1962)
      Annual Report of the East African Marine Fisheries Research Organization, 1962 contains the following topics (1) Staff; (2) Meetings, Conferences and Courses; (3) Buildings and Installations; (4) The Vessels Operated by the Organization; (5) RV. Manihine, RL. Chermin; (6) Rockefeller Foundation Grant; (7) Visitors and Other Events; (8)International Indian Ocean Expedition; (9) The Scientific Work of the Organization; (a) Pelagic Fish - Deep Longline Operations, Surface Shoaling Pelagic Fish, Sardine Investigations; (b) Demersal Fish - The Fisheries of the North Kenya Coast; (c) Inshore and Estuarine Fisheries - Prawns (Penaeidae), Lobsters (Palinuridae), Crustacean Taxonomy and Biology; (13) Fish Stomach Contents; (d) Plankton Investigations; (e) Hydrological Investigations, Publications, Appendix I and Appendix II.
    • Two New River Fishes from eastern Kenya.

      Whitehead, P.J.P. (1963)
      Two new African freshwater fishes are described (Engraulicypris fluviatilis: Athi riser; Physailia somalensis tanensis: Tana river) with comparative notes on related forms.
    • Report to the Government of Kenya on a Survey of Longline Fishing Resources in East African Waters. Based on the work of Robert R. Bell, FAO/TA Marine Fishery Biologist, and Takenao Ochi, FAO/TA Master Fisherman.

      Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsRome, Italy, 1966)
      The Government of Kenya wanted to learn: (a) Could a Kenya Government fishing corporation profitably participate in this fishery. (b) Were there additional longline opportunities in the coastal waters of Kenya. Before any measures were taken which would launch Kenya into a new industry with its sudden need for port facilities, vessels and fishermen, the Government required a resource study which would provide a basis for decision. At the request of Kenya, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations provided a program of inquiry into the longline fishing prospects of the western Indian Ocean. Mr. Takenao Ochi, Master Fisherman, arrived in Kenya, November 1964, to begin a training program in longline methods. In January 1965, Mr. Robert R. Bell joined Mr. Ochi and undertook the task of evaluating fisheries resources vulnerable to longline technique. This report describes these resources near the Kenya coast and in the western Indian Ocean.
    • Report to the Government of Kenya on investigations into pelagic, demersal and crustacean resources off the coast of Kenya. Based on the work of A.M. Barker, Marine Fishery Biologist

      Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsRome, Italy, 1969)
      An FAO Marine Fishery Biologist served with the Kenya Fisheries Department in Mombasa, from 1967 to March 1969. Abundance of tuna, marlin, and related species available to pelagic longlining in coastal and offshore waters of Kenya was investigated 1966-68. Marlin and sailfish were more abundant in coastal waters during the north-east monsoon (December-March) and tuna virtually absent. Tuna appeared during the south-east monsoon (April-November), but were not plentiful at any time in coastal waters. They were found in greater number 50-100 miles offshore and marlin and sailfish less so. Offshore waters had less seasonal variation than inshore waters. A tagging programme was started to investigate movements and growth rates of tuna and billfish. Yellowfin tuna, striped marlin, and sailfish were tagged during 1968. Distribution and abundance of demersal fish and. Prawns in coastal waters were determined by bottom trawling. Large edible fish were very scarce in the trawl catches. Prawns were only abundant during the rainy season (May-June) and were fished in commercial amounts at three locations. Bottom long1ine catches along the coast were poor to fair except on the North Kenya Banks where results were excellent. Five species of spiny lobsters were found in the catch. Species composition of 1anding was ascertained and sex ratio and size at maturity of the dominant species obtained. Oyster culture studies were attempted but efforts to collect oyster spat on various media were unsuccessful.
    • A Study of the Supply Function for Fish in the Kenya Waters of Lake Victoria and on the Kenya Coast.

      Oduor-Otieno, M.L.; Karisa, R.S.; Odhiambo, J.O.O.; Ryan, T.C.I. (University of Nairobi, Institute for Development StudiesNairobi, Kenya, 1978)
      This paper is based mostly on research carried out along various major beaches on the Kenya Waters of Lake Victoria, i.e. Dunga, Nyamware, Kusa, Kaloka, Asembo Bay, Lwanda, Kendu Bay, Wichlum, and Homa Bay. We wish to mention that in a preliminary research earlier on, the Kenya Coastline was also covered between Lamu and Vanga. In this preliminary research, no questionnaires were distributed. Later questionnaires were administered on the southern coast, a partial analysis of their results is included in this paper. It is worth noting, however, that many of the general features of fishing along Lake Victoria are very similar to those observed at the Coast, hence unless differentiated herein it should be understood that the two areas are being treated similarly.
    • Kenya's Marine Fisheries: an Outline of Policy and Activities.

      Okidi, C.O. (University of Nairobi, Institute of Development StudiesNairobi, Kenya, 1979)
      The general area of management of marine resources is one that has gained worldwide prominence since the beginning of the negotiations on the new Law of the Sea at the United Nations in 19 68. The paper takes the premise that part of the reason for that concern has been to find a framework for general conservation and rational use of marine resources as natural resources. However, the central reason is that individual states want what they consider an access to equitable share of the resources for use by their nationals. Kenyan delegates have been particularly active at the international negotiations. This paper takes the fisheries sector alone, and examines the range of activities in which Kenya nationals and companies are involved. A primary focus is on the amount of fishing done; where, along the coast, the fishing activities are done; and the contribution of that sector to employment especially to the coastal population. The role of relevant government departments in promoting the activities is appraised and the degree of intrusion of foreign long-distance fleets in Kenyan waters is examined.
    • Report on Oceanographic Cruise of ORV Sagar Kanya - First Scientific Cruise and Oceanographic Survey off Kenya Coast, (12th July to 2nd September, 1983).

      National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (National Institute of OceanographyGoa, India, 1983)
      The first scientific cruise of ORV Sagar Kanya was carried out during July-September 1983 for studying monsoon energetics, water mass structure and environmental conditions in the north-western Indian Ocean. It was an inter-agency and. multidisciplinary cruise with emphasis on physical oceanography and meteorology. Altogether 33 scientists from 8 Indian organisations/agencies (viz., NIO, IMD, BARC, NPOL, CESS, Indian Navy, CMFRI, University of Cochin) and 2 scientists of the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Mombasa participated in the cruise. The participants included meteorologists, physical oceanographers, chemical oceanographers, biological oceanographers, marine geologists and geophysicists and electronics/computer technicians. During this cruise, side-scan and magnetic surveys were carried out in the sea off Cochin for a short period at the request of Indian Navy, the ship called at Mombasa (Kenya) on a good will visit and an oceanographic survey in the sea off Kenya Coast was conducted as an Indo-Kenya Joint Study progranme. The present report deals mainly with the work done during the cruise in the north-western Indian Ocean and in the sea off the Kenya Coast. Details on the side-scan and magnetic surveys carried out off Cochin are not included in this report.
    • A Study of the Nile Perch, an Introduced Predator, in the Kavirondo Gulf Lake Victoria: The Report of the Oxford University Nile Perch Project 1983

      The Gecaga Institute; Kenya National Museums; Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (Oxford UniversityOxford, UK, 1983)
      This project is an investigation of the changes that the Nile Perch (Lates niloticus (L.), Pisces: Centropomidae), an introduced predator, has wrought in the ecology of the Kavirondo Gulf, Lake Victoria, East Africa. It involved a review of the past ecological investigations carried out on Lake Victoria, by the East African Freshwater Fisheries Research Organisation since 1949 (Reported in Ann Rep E Afr Freshw Fish Res Org 1949-1974), and, more recently by the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute.
    • Catch Composition in Catch Assessment Survey Kenya, January '84-February '85.

      Thairo, L.N. (Kenya, 1984)
      Data on catches by species, collected by the Catch Assessment Survey during the period January '84 February '85, are processed on a Apple III personal computer with the software package Visicalc. Table 1 shows the final results: the percentages of 38 species categories in the catch (weight) of cast net, gill net, beach seine, handline, other gear types and lobster fishing.
    • Decline of the Mallndi-Watamu Reef Complex: Quantitative and qualitative survey of the coral growth.

      Blom, Jos; van der Hagen, Harrie; van Hove, Eus; van Katwijk, Marieke; van Loon, Rene; Meier, Rik (Catholic University, Laboratory of Aquatic EcologyToernooiveld, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1985)
      The coral reef off the Kenya coast has declined strongly over the past two decades. Aim of this report is to quantify and qualify coral death, and to assess the contribution of certain factors of disturbance to the decline of these reefs. To attain these objectives, the Watamu Reef Expedition (WRE) developed a special method, that has been called a 'combined linetransect' method. The development and testing of this technique is described in detail In this report. Application of this method in the first place resulted in a comprehensive description of the reef, which allows an assessment of its present condition. Because of its broad approach, this method not only gave extensive information on qualitative and quantitative aspects of coral growth, but also on the condition and size of individual coral colonies. In all, more than 10,000 colonies were analysed. From the composition, cover, condition and colony size, one may assess the degree of reef degeneration, and establish correlations between these four parameters and factors of disturbance affecting the corals. The results obtained via the combined line-transect method are further discussed in this report. From these discussions it is apparent that the destructive effects of tourism are quite limited, and only felt very locally, and that the primary cause of coral death may be attributed to the sedimentation of silt, originating from the Sabaki river.
    • Evaluation Report on the Lake Turkana Fisheries Development Project: A Component Project of The Kenya/Norway Development Cooperation Programme. Evaluation Report 5.85..

      Watson, C.E.P.; M.got Adholla, S.; Revold, J.; Kihiu, J.K.; Due, V.B.; Gikonyo, P.; Bjordal, E.; Qkubu, J. (The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Development CooperationOslo, Norway, 1985)
      Efforts by the Kenya Fisheries Dept. to develop the Lake Turkana fishery started in 1961, in support of famine relief and rehabilitation measures then in progress. NORAD's assistance to Kenya's fisheries commenced in 1967 and specific aid to Lake Turkana and to the fishermen's co-operative society (TFCS) started in 1971. Since then NORAD has provided some 23 million NOK, of which about 12 million NOK was spent on establishing the buildings and plant for TFCS at Kalokol. Despite this level of assistance, development has not been as rapid or as sustainable as hoped. Initially most of the assistance was channelled through the Fisheries Dept, but for the past 10 years it went more directly to TFCS in consultation with the Ministry of Cop-operative Development (MOCD), with the Fisheries Dept. role being relegated very much into the background. The principal objectives of the project have been to improve living conditions amongst the poorer and most disadvantaged sections of the Turkana people of both sexes, through joint efforts in the development of the fisheries and to ensure that utilisation of the Lake's resources were kept in balance with its sustainable potential. As one result of the assistance rendered, TFCS has grown to a membership of around 5000, only about 300 of whom are women, but the society is still far from being a viable and self-sufficient enterprise. Members have little or no opportunity to participate in decision making, and there has been a great deal of adverse external interference in TFCS affairs to the detriment of member's interests. It also appears that the number of fishermen is about as many as the Lake's resources can safely support, especially at its present low level, and in all of these circumstances some redefinition of the project's objectives seems necessary for the future.
    • Report on geophysical studies relating to the coastal aquifer of the Mombasa district, Kenya.

      Carruthers, R.M. (British Geological SurveyKeyworth, UK, 1985)
      Airborne electromagnetic coverage of the Coastal Plain within 110 km of Mombasa provides information on conductivity variations to depths of 50-100 m. Conductivity levels are generally high due to saline water occuring at shallow depth within the fossil reef by the coast, and to the presence of Jurassic shales which outcrop to the west. Zones of higher resistivity are found over the sandy facies of the Plio-Pleistocene reef complex and one of these coincides with the site of the Tiwi aquifer. However, resistivity sounding data indicate that the reduced INPUT amplitudes relate to their intermediate position between formations of high conductivity and not directly to the aquifer: the back-reef deposits comprise a mixture of sands and clays underlain at least in part by (?)Tertiary clays which have resistivities in the range 20-50 ohm.m. The results of geophysical surveys by Austromineral to the south of Mombasa have been reinterpreted to show the ambiguity inherent to the data: their resistivity sections give more detail at depth than is justified by the quality of the data. Resistivity results provide an indication of the major lithological variations but quite different conditions can give identical resistivities and it is not possible to identify positively the freshwater producing zones. Seismic refraction methods also failed to resolve the back-reef sequence. A combination of induced polarization and resistivity methods might provide more information on clay content and water salinity but this approach has not been tested here. Additional resistivity results in the less-developed region north of Mombasa supported the view that aquifer conditions deteriorate towards Malindi. Conductivity values are generally higher in response to saline water at shallow depth within less premeable, finer-grained sediments. Resistivity values of 30-40 ohm.m obtained over Baraumu deposits near Malindi were similar to those given by the claystone south of Mombasa and by the material causing the INPUT low near Msambweni. Similar values could be obtained from a water-saturated sand/clay sequence but it seems likely that Tertiary deposits have been detected below the reef complex in much of the region. Further geophysical investigations are not recommended at this stage for siting boreholes although reference should be made to the INPUT maps: borehole logging data would be useful for correlation with surface results and for defining the aquifer in more detail. Additional work should be considered if drilling results prove unsatisfactory due to salinity problems or to the occurrence of lateral variations in lithology.
    • A Survey of Fishes of the Tana River at Kora and a Checklist of Fishes of the Tana River.

      Campbell, K.; Coe, C.; Saunders, M.; Coe, M.; Collins, N.M. (Royal Geographical SocietyLondon, UK, 1985)
      The Tana River drains the southern and eastern slopes of Mount Kenya and the eastern slopes of the Aberdares, and is the largest river in Kenya. It passes through most of Kenya's agro-climatic zones (Sombroek et al, 1980) from zone 1-9 (humid and cold) on Mount Kenya and the Aberdares, to VII-1 (very arid and very hot) over much of the lower Tana. The river has received little ecological attention especially in the Kora region and consequently knowledge of the fish fauna is poor. This scarcity of information is largely due to the lack of economic incentives for development and the inaccessibility of much of this region where road communications are difficult and at times impossible. The upper reaches of the Tana, above about 1500m, were examined by van Someren (1952) and notes on the fishes in the middle reaches have been made by copley (1958), Whitehead (1959) made a collection of fishes on the lower Tana River below Garissa. Following this, a single collection has been made, by the Fisheries Department, Kenya, (Oduol, 1976) from six localities on the lower Tana River below Kora.
    • Trial Fishery in Lake Turkana Kenya, Western Shores September 1986 - March 1987. Data Files.

      Kolding, J. (Institute of Marine ResearchBergen, Norway, 1987)
      Trial Fishery in Lake Turkana Kenya Western Shores September 1986-March 1987 Data Files with following general headings: Annex 1. Catch compositions, total and by mesh size and stations. Total catch per unit effort by mesh sizes. Catch per unit effort by stations by week in different meshsizes. Longline fishery, length weigth frequencies by species. Annex 2. Gear selectivity by species. Annex 3. Sex composition and maturity index by species. Annex 4. List of recordings by date and week. List of corrections and alterations of recorded datas.
    • A Survey of the Coral Reef Fish Communities on the Kenyan Coast.

      Samoilys, M. (World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF International)Mombasa, Kenya, 1988)
      Underwater censuses were used to measure species richness, abundance, and biomass of coral reef fish at nineteen reef slope study sites on the Kenyan coast, in 1987/1988. The survey was designed to examine the structure of the coral reef fish communities in relation to protection, fishing, sediment run-off from rivers, sea urchins, and collecting for the aquarium trade. A further twelve reefs were studied, but no censuses were carried out due to poor visibility or a lack of coral substrate. While species richness was highest in Marine National Parks where no fishing or collecting is allowed, the same was not true for fish abundance, or for biomass of commercially important fish. Some of the highest densities and weights of fish were recorded from the Marine National Reserves where traditional fishing methods are allowed. Standing stocks (biomass) of commercially important fish were negatively correlated with fishing intensity, and localized overfishing was evident near centres of high human populations. On the sparsely populated northern coastline, non-coralline reefs support exceptionally high standing stocks, due to minimal fishing pressure, and possibly a greater input of nutrients. Areas with higher fishing intensities had smaller standing stocks but not comparably smaller abundances. This suggests that more intense fishing is reducing average fish size. In genera] the results indicate that overfishing is not a major problem on Kenya's reef slopes. Two factors, siltation from rivers and dynamite "fishing" have a major impact on the fish communities. Reefs badly damaged from dynamiting in the Shimoni area, including Mako Kokwe in the Kisite Marine National Park, have negligible amounts of living hard coral and are characterised by a low species richness of fish, and exceptionally low densities of fish. For example the biomass of commercially important fish at Mwamba Midjira, which has been severely damaged by dynamiting, was only one tenth of the biomass recorded at Kisite, a neighbouring reef where no dynamiting occurs. Malindi Marine National Park has been subjected to a heavy influx of sediment from the Sabaki river since the early seventies. Coral die-off was evident, and densities and biomass of fish were of a similar magnitude to dynamited reefs, despite the prohibition of all fishing and collecting for the last 20 years. Similarly, coral die-off and sedimentation was apparent at survey sites close to the Tana river mouth, where fish censuses were not possible due to high silt content in the water. No correlation between sea urchin densities and predatory fish (15 species) densities was detected, suggesting that high fishing pressure is not responsible for high densities of sea urchins. High densities of sea urchins were observed on damaged (e.g. from dynamiting) reefs; possibly urchin survival is enhanced in the absence of corals. The total abundance of fish collected for the aquarium trade (48 species) did not differ significantly between a protected site and a site where collecting occurs, suggesting that collecting aquaria fish is not depleting stocks. However, several collectors use methods that are destructive to the reef substrate. In summary, it is clear that the effects of sediment offload from rivers and the use of dynamite far outweigh the effects of protective management and fishing on Kenya's coral reef fish communities. In the face of these impacts, marine park status is no guarantee that a high abundance and biomass of reef fish will be maintained, as exemplified by Malindi and Mako Kokwe Marine National Park sites. Standing stock estimates of commercially important reef fish are high in several reef areas where fishing pressure is low, except where sedimentation and dynamiting occurs. These two major problems have long been recognised (IUCN/UNEP 1985), but no policies have arrested their destructive effects. For the future of Kenya's coral reef fish, conservation action must address these issues.
    • A Study of the Autoanalyser II System and Regeneration and Assimilation of Nitrogen Compounds in Marine and Freshwater Environments Using the N-15 Isotope Technique.

      Kazungu, J.M. (University of BrusselsBrussels, Belgium, 1988)
      This report is divided into two parts. The first part deals with nutrients (nitrate/nitrite, ammonia, phosphates and silicate) determinations using the Autoanalyser II system while the second part deals with the use of Nitrogen-15 isotope in studying ammonia diffusion and nitrogen assimilation and regeneration occurring in marine and freshwater environments. Since analysis of the different nutrient elements involves only the changing of the manifold part of the autoanalyser, only the manifold descriptions are presented in this report.
    • Lake Turkana limnologlcal study 1985-1988.

      Kallqvist, T.; Lien, L.; Liti, D. (Norwegian Institute for Water Research & Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research InstituteOslo, Norway, 1988)
      The lake level was declining during the study and reached the lowest level ever recorded in 1988. The salt content was increasing and conductivity reached ca.380 mS/m in 1988. Annual temperature variations were small but sufficient to create thermal stratification in March-May. Low deep water oxygen concentration was observed during stratification, especially in 1988. The development of phytoplankton was limited by the availability of nitrate and light. Light limitation was caused by turbid water and vertical mixing. The gross phytoplankton primary production was 2.4-8.2 g O<sub>2</sub>/m<sup>2</sup>/day and the estimated total annual production ca. 2<sub>2</sub>kg O<sub>2</sub>/m<sup>2</sup>. The total zooplankton production was estimated to approx. 32-80g dry weight/m<sup>2</sup>. Based on these production estimates, the sustainable yield of traditionally exploited fish from the open lake was estimated to roughly 15000-30000 tons/year.