• The 1991 Dutch Kenya Expedition

      Heip, C.H.R. (Delta Institute for Hydrobiological ResearchYerseke, The Netherlands, 1991)
      It is proposed to the Dutch Foundation for Marine Research SOZ to organize an expedition to the Kenyan coastal area in 1991. The exact timing of the expedition depends on the availability of the research vessel Tyro. Suitable periods would be December-March (May) and/or September-December. The aim of the expedition in general is to provide basic data on the structure and functioning of marine systems along the East-African coast, and, in particular, to evaluate the ecological effects of the rivers on these marine systems. As a result of human activities, the composition of the riverine water has strongly changed; it is expected that this will have profound effects on the coastal ecosystems. The continental shelf is limited and the ocean becomes very deep close to the Kenyan coast. There is no information on the deeper benthic ecosystems near the coast and also with respect to the pelagic domain only limited information is available: so far it appears that these areas combine a low productivity with a high diversity. In the North, the Somalistream causes strong upwelling during summer. The interactions between the off-shore and coastal areas and the impact of the monsoon on these interactions are unknown. The sedimentology of the East-African coastal zone is unknown as well. The coastal ecosystems in Kenya consist of: (1) coral reefs (fringing reefs) along the entire coastline, with extensive areas of seagrass beds on the more sheltered parts of the backreefs and in lagoonal areas; (2) mangroves on the shores of the brackish parts of rivers and creeks along the coast; also seagrass beds can be found here.
    • 5-Year Strategic Vision for Research in the Marine, Coastal and Inland Waters of Kenya 2000-2005.

      Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research InstituteMombasa, Kenya, 2000)
      The goal of the Marine and Coastal Waters Division Fisheries Research Programme is to assess the stocks of fish in our marine and coastal waters as well as understand their dynamics and the interactions with the environment and the humans. Marine Fisheries Programme will undertake key issue driven research projects focusing on (1) the assessment of Malindi-Ungwana Bay fishery (2), fisheries resource evaluation and management, (3) the assessment of the Shimoni Vanga fisheries, (4) the collection of fish landing statistics and (5) understanding the biology of key commercial and non-conventional fisheries. Aquaculture Research Programme in the Marine and Coastal Waters Division is one of the central research programmes in the Institute. The programme will undertake research focusing on (1) the introduction of tilapia, catfish and crab culture to coastal communities, (2) establishment ofpilot community based aquaculture, (3) development of seed and fry production capability, (4) aquaculture nutrition, (5) stock enhancement and biodiversity restoration, (6) genetic manipulation and selective breeding of fish and (7) fish disease management. Marine and Coastal Waters Research Division Environment and Ecology Research Programme focuses mainly on research that will facilitate sustainable use and protection of marine and coastal resources particularly fisheries, mangroves, coral reefs and seagrass beds. The need to protect critical habitats and maintain water quality is a priority if fisheries in coastal and marine waters are to be sustained on long-term basis. The Marine and Coastal Waters Research Division Natural Products Research Programme focuses on the extraction of products from aquatic plants and animals for use in various industries. The programme will focus on the (1) chitin and chitosan development, (2) screening of the selected fauna and flora for bioactive compounds, (3) development of duckweed for aquaculture and (4) quality assurance for fish and fish products. The Socio-Economics Research Programme has formulated a strategy that focuses on the (1) evaluation of the performance of the fisheries sector, (2) establishment ofthe relationship between marine and coastal resources and the rising human pressures and (3) coastal and marine natural resources valuation.
    • The African Science-base for Coastal Adaptation: a continental approach. A report to the African Union Commission (AUC) at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (7-18 December 2009).

      Abuodha, P. (Intergovernmental Oceanographic CommissionParis, France, 2009)
      A report to the African Union Commission (AUC) at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (7-18 December 2009). “In Gambia ... In 1998, the high water mark (HWM) was 50 m from the new Banjul-Serekunda Highway; in 2003 the HWM was only about 15 m from the highway” (Adaptation to Coastal Climate Change Project, ACCC, 2006a). Between Cape Point and the Banjul dockyard and the area between the Palm Grove Hotel and the Muslim cemetery erosion rates of between 15 and 20 m were recorded from 1964 to 1982...” In one brief paragraph we see the relentless attacks of rising sea levels and growing storm surges on one coastline, threatening four significant elements of society – transport, trade, tourism and tradition.
    • Analysis of macrophyte biomass productivity, utilization and its impact on various eco-types of Yala Swamp, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya.

      Thenya, Thuita (Center for Development Research, University of BonnBonn, Germany, 2006)
      The overall aim of this study was to assess the sustainability of the current utilization of the wetland resources and the impact of human activities on the Yala swamp ecosystem in West Kenya. The socio-economic results indicate that this swampland provides a wide range of support and products to the local communities. These include direct benefits like thatch material and fish and other benefits such as land for small-scale farming and grazing. Approximately 70% of the wetland products are used at the domestic level with the rest being used to generate modest incomes. Marketing of wetland products is ineffective, resulting in low profit margins, which again discourage sustainable wetland use. Nevertheless, farming is an important activity, which engages 90% of the holdings in the swampland and supplies about 70% of the domestic food requirements. Post-harvest growth of the macrophyte that are commonly used by the local communities was high in the first four weeks ranging from 5-300% of the initial biomass. This was followed by a lower growth rate in the next 10 weeks averaging 1-30% with the less disturbed eco-types achieving higher values (10-30%) than the highly disturbed eco-types (1- 15%). The growth rate after the 14th week was highly diminished in all species. During the dry season, fast growth was also restricted to the first 14 weeks, but with an overall reduction in average height gain, growth rate and biomass in all the ecotypes. This variability was attributed to seasonal ecological dynamics and not to the effect of repeated harvesting. The average biomass was about 1,050g dry wt m2, which is within the values for other tropical papyrus wetlands. The plant nutrient N:P ratio ranged from 6-3.5, which was above ecological limiting levels of phosphorus. These results indicate that the macrophyte can be sustainably harvested at intervals of 14 weeks if the natural ecological setup is maintained. Ecological conditions were more favourable for macrophyte growth during the wet season (as compared to the dry season) and in the less disturbed ecotypes (as compared to the highly disturbed ecotypes). Soil parameters were more influenced by eco-type than by season. In contrast, water chemistry was more influenced by the seasons. Both soil total N (0.25 -0.3%) and P (0.07- 0.06%) as well as water P (0.03 - 0.14 mg/l) and N (3.72- 2.01mg/l) were above ecological limiting levels. Land-cover analysis was done using Landsat satellite images taken in the dry season (February 5, 1973, MSS and February 2, 2001 ETM). The most prominent change was a more than three-fold increase in agricultural land from 1,564 ha in 1973 (7 % of the total wetland) to 5,939 ha in 2001 (28 % of the total wetland). However, this excluded temporary land use during other seasons. This conversion of natural vegetation was mainly located along the swamp edges, in particular on the northern and eastern side of the swamp. The satellite images also allowed identification of the siltation areas, which have increased along the Lake Victoria shoreline. The overall classification accuracy was high at 75% with Kappa statistics at 70%. The Normalized Different Vegetation Index recorded a high reduction of the positives values from +0.909 in 1973 to +0.405 in 2001, mainly due to a reduction in the vegetation cover of the swamp. This was attributed to anthropogenic activities, mainly farming. The main driving factors for land-use changes in the Yala swamp were identified as (i) household numbers, (ii) household and population densities, and (iii) wetland accessibility (combining swamp coverage and terrain suitability). These drivers act as proxy for a whole range of factors, in particular the demand for farming land and high dependence of the local community on the swamp resources for their livelihoods. The statistically computed land-use change using the conversion index (11,696 ha) show a high co-validation with the land-cover changes derived from the satellite images (11,735.44 ha). In conclusion, it can be expected that under the current utilization scenario, swamp conversion is expected to increase as a function of household densities. The big challenge is to balance between increasing swamp farming and sustainable ecosystem utilization, e.g., macrophyte-based water filtering, while maintaining the benefit flow to the local communities.
    • Anthropogenic and seasonal influence on the sediment-water fluxes for selected metals at Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

      Kamau, J.; Gachanja, A.; Ngila, C.; Kazungu, j; Zhai, M. (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research InstituteMombasa, Kenya, 2008)
      Lake Naivasha is a fresh water lake, situated in the Eastern Rift Valley of Kenya (00 45 S' and 360 20 E). The lake has no surface outlet and is perceived to be under anthropogenic stress. The lake being situated at the basin of the rift valley bares the burden of acting as a receptacle of waste from the town and the surrounding horticultural industry. To investigate the level of pollution due to bioavailable metals, benthic fluxes of selected metals were determined at sites near suspected pollution input sources. In situ benthic flux experiments were conducted at two sites, near the municipal outflow and at the papyrus field near the horticultural farms. Sediment samples from the exposed riparian land were collected during the dry season after the Lake had resided and selected metals fluxes determined in the laboratory under simulated conditions. Al in situ benthic flux at station SS (near the sewage input) was quite high it averaged 7 mmoles m2 h-I and was influenced significantly and positively by pH r=0.89. While Al in situ benthic flux at station SH (located in the papyrus field near horticultural farms) was I mmoles m-2 h-I. Copper Manganese and zinc in situ benthic fluxes were predominantly positive at station SS, however this was not the case at station SH (at papyrus field). The papyrus field at station SH plays an important role in the buffering of the lake in reference to the selected metals investigated, due to the precipitation of redox sensitive metals. Among the metals, analyzed manganese was mobilized the most during the rainy season, after the immediate flooding of the exposed riparian land.
    • Anthropogenically induced changes in groundwater outflow and quality, and the fuctioning of Zanzibar nearshore ecosystems Part I

      Mmochi, A.J.; Mtolera, M.S.P.; Shunula, J.P.; Ndaro, S.G.M.; Hemminga, Marten; Kazungu, Johnson; Jurgen, Tack; Mtolera, Matern; Ron, Johnstone; Domingos, Gove; et al. (Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Esturarine and Coastal EcologyYerseke, Netherlands, 1998)
      The objectives of this study were three fold named: (1) To study nutrient and pesticide quantities in sites receiving groundwater, (2) To find out the effect of groundwater on macrophyte growth performance, (3) To find out the effect of groundwater on both macrofauna and meiofauna.
    • Anthropogenically induced changes in groundwater outflow and quality, and the functioning of Eastern African nearshore ecosystems (GROFLO) - INCO-DC: International Cooperation with Developing Countries (1994-1998) Contract number: ERBIC18CT960065 - Final report.

      Hemminga, Marten; Kazungu, Johnson; Jurgen, Tack; Mtolera, Matern; Ron, Johnstone; Domingos, Gove; Jose, Paula (Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Esturarine and Coastal EcologyYerseke, Netherlands, 1998)
      The general conclusion of the GROFLO project is that the East African nearshore coastal ecosystem is affected by the amount of groundwater outflow and by its quality. The data collected showed a strong impact of groundwater outflow on a number of components of the back-reef lagoon ecosystem. Sites with high groundwater outflow displayed a lower seagrass species diversity than sites with low groundwater outflow. Seagrasses are “structuring species”, which means that they constitute an important component of the system. Changes in seagrass vegetation can affect the whole ecosystem. Results also indicate that anthropogenically induced elevated nutrient inputs caused enhanced phytoplankton cell abundance and reduced species diversity. Furthermore, certain groups or species in the lagoon ecosystem could be identified as indicators of groundwater outflow. The presence of mysids was indicative of groundwater discharge. And, a proliferation of green macroalgae was observed at the beach sites with groundwater influence. At present, information on the function of many of these species in the ecosystem of back-reef lagoons is absent, which impedes predictions of possible consequences of changes in groundwater outflow rates and groundwater quality. The socio-economic studies provided valuable baseline data on water usage patterns. Analysis of the water quality of the wells yielded results on levels of contamination with microoganisms, nutrients and pesticides that call for caution. The results will be conveyed to the local administrators. The groundwater model that was developed during the GROFLO project, proved to be an an indispensable tool for the field studies. The model is now available on CD-ROM, and can be obtained from VUB. It can be a valuable aid to coastal managers, e.g. for use in Environmental Impact Studies to predict effects of changes in groundwater use on the outflow rates into the coastal zone.
    • Antiprotozoal Activities of Lyngbya MajuscuIa, Abudefduf Sexfasciatus and Thallassodendron Ciliatum.

      Dzeha, T.M.; Halevy, S.M.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
      Methanol (MeOH) extracts of the pan-tropic marine Cyanophyte Lyngbya majuscula, Thallassodendron ciliatum (sea grass) and gill extracts of the Striptail damsel Abudefduf sexfasciatus were examined for in-vitro antiprotozoal activity against Ochromonas danica cultured in hemin enriched media at room temperature using a 50% serial dilution technique. Respiratory inhibition at the 660 nm wavelength was shown to be proportional to the concentration of the extracts with R2 values of 0.992, 0.996 and 0,542 for L. majuscula,Asexfasciatus and T. ciliatum respectively. T. ciliatum exhibited lower inhibition potential where as Asexfasciatus had the highest. Malnourished O. danica at the elevated dilutions of 75% were especially susceptible. In addition to the anticipated antibiosis, rhodamine toxicity and brine shrimp anemia bioassay suggest a role by haemolysin toxins of L. majuscula and A.sexfasciatus in the 24 hour respiratory inhibition process.
    • Aquaculture Development Potential in and around Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

      Mageria, Cyrus; Bosma, Roel; Roem, Arjen (Wageningen UniversityWageningen, Netherlands, 2006)
      Lake Naivasha in Kenya is shallow and its fishery landings are affected adversely by water level fluctuations and human activities around and in the Lake. The observed fluctuation in the Lake’s fish catches could be attributed to excess fishing pressure, to changing anthropogenic activities and to changes in water levels, due both to nature and human. The primary objective of the current study was to assess the possibilities and to appraise the capacities and outlook of the local community for aquaculture development. A review of existing literature and other relevant information was carried out to improve our insight in opportunities and constraints on the current situation in Lake Naivasha. This was supplemented with information collected during a six week fieldsurvey that ran from 1st may to 15th June 2006. The feasibility study was sponsored by Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF) and NUTRECO, while Wageningen (Aquaculture and Fisheries Group) University offered the technical support and supervision. The lake ecosystem faces an array of serious threats to its ecological stability and functioning. These threats revolve around unsustainable resource exploitation both within the lake and its catchments. These include pollution from agricultural activities, sewage waste, siltation, water level & abstraction, habitat degradation and illegal fishing. These threats have transformed the lake’s ecological processes causing far reaching socio-economic consequences, affecting biodiversity, water quality and lake’s fishery. The sustainable restoration of Lake Naivasha’s natural potential requires a participatory management plan together with law enforcement. While the yields from capture fishing are declining, the consumption and demand for fish within Naivasha basin and the surrounding areas is increasing. The opportunity, therefore, exists for Lake Naivasha and its catchments area to develop aquaculture to supply the ever increasing demand for fish. Lake Naivasha’s surroundings and catchments areas are scattered with small communal water bodies and multifunctional private ponds. Aquaculture development in the region is constrained by lack of aquaculture tradition, of practical experience and training, of finances & credit for starting-up aquaculture and by limited or no access to water and suitable land. A SWOT analysis demonstrates that Lake Naivasha region present some strengths and opportunities for aquaculture development and its’ promotion could improve the fishery status of the lake and provide means of livelihood. To achieve this positive contribution of aquaculture, two main actions reducing weaknesses have to be undertaken: (1) provision of the seed of the desired species at the appropriate time, and (2) access to credit facilities and information. The two opportunities to establish a small hatchery for the provision of fingerlings are either to rehabilitate the KWSTI-annex or to identify a suitable partner within the lake vicinity and construct one. The rehabilitation of the non-functional KWSTI-annex demands very high investments. We advise to identify a private partner ready to invest land, time and money. NUTRECO Holding NV could assist in the identification of complementary funding in a bilateral public private partnership. Staff can be trained at low cost in Uganda. The hatchery should have an extension assignment. The Kenyan government could support the initiative, also by investing in extension and training for aquaculture.
    • An Assessment of Perceived Socioeconomic Impacts of Climate Change on the Community of Faza Island, Lamu East District, Kenya.

      Waiyaki, E.; Owiti, H.; Angwenyi, R.; Muriuki, T. (OSSREAAddis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2012)
      A study of the Social and Economic impacts of Climate Change on the residents of the Kenyan Indian Ocean island of Faza (also known as Rasini), was conducted between October and November 2010. This was a descriptive study intended to determine how the climate change phenomenon had affected the residents of Faza, in terms of their subsistence, their living conditions and their commercial welfare. Data was collected primarily using Questionnaires which were administered to heads of 61 households (where household heads were unavailable an adult member of the household was interviewed). Key Informant interviews and a Focus Group discussion (involving local Fishermen) were the other data collection instruments used. Climate Change has had a significant effect on the lives of Faza residents, with water scarcity being possibly the most formidable burden that the villagers in Faza must contend with each and every day. From the findings of this study it was apparent that the locals did not have much knowledge of the concept of Climate Change. They had, however, observed an altering of the island’s climatic conditions over the last decade. Frequent episodes of drought were a commonly mentioned outcome of this change in climate in the preceding ten years. Faza’s residents have no piped water on the island. They rely solely on rainwater for their consumption needs. All over the island rainwater is collected and drained into “Djabias” (concrete water storage containers built either above or below ground and widely used in Faza). This water is then sold commercially to residents. Increased temperatures have been experienced by villagers over the past ten years, and weather-related disease and ailments – including Malaria, Diaorrhea and Typhoid have been on the increase. New health-related afflictions such as Diabetes, Stomach Ulcers, High Blood Pressure and Tooth ailments have emerged. Fishing is the economic lifeline for the village of Faza. Fishing income is responsible for most local expenditure on food, education, health, travel and any developmental activity taking place on the island. Fish production has been on a decline since the year 2000, and this has had village-wide repercussions. The failure of Fishermen to afford school fees for their children has resulted in a high drop-out rate from school. A result of this is the high number of school-age looking for or working in the local jetty and fish landing site. These idle youth have now begun indulging in the use of illegal narcotic substances that are nowadays easily obtained in the village. Expenditure on household goods is sometimes severely limited in many fishing households. With the erratic rainfall patterns experienced in Faza over the last decade, agricultural production has been greatly affected. Output of the main food and cash crops (viz. Maize, Sorghum, Cashew nuts, Mangoes, SimSim and Coconuts) has been low, and actually falling. Ironically though, in 2009 the village recorded an increase in its Maize harvest, following heavy rains. A significant form of adaptation to these climatic changes has been for some local fishermen opting to turn to agriculture as an alternative livelihood. High poverty levels amongst the village’s population have been a major obstacle to the adaptation efforts by the community. The sheer lack of resources at their disposal renders them incapable of effectively combating the ravages that Climate Change afflicts them with. The difficulty in obtaining water for drinking and cooking, declining fish catches and the resultant lower incomes for fishermen, increased health complications among residents and poor agricultural outputs all combine to aggravate the already dire social and economic circumstances of the Faza community.
    • Assessment of Socio-Economic Impacts of Prawn Trawling on the Artisanal Fisheries of Malindi and Ungwana Bay.

      Ochiewo, J. (Kenya Marine Fisheries and Research InstituteMombasa, Kenya, 2002)
      The study had the following objectives; (1)To assess user conflicts between prawn trawlers, artisanal fishers and other stakeholders (2) To assess the socio-cultural and economic characteristic of the local fishers. (3) To determine the resource use patterns in the Malindi and Ungwana bays (4) To undertake a cost-benefit analysis of prawn trawling.
    • Assessment of Some Key Success Indicators in Community Milkfish (Chanos chanos) Aquaculture in Mtwapa Creek and Gazi Bay Kenya.

      Mirera, D.O. (Western Indian Ocean Marine Science AssociationZanzibar, Tanzania, 2009)
      This report shows in detail results of research trials carried out in earthen ponds to assess the effect of stocking density and feed on milkfish growth rate in earthen ponds along the coast of Kenya. The research was formulated under three key specific objectives: 1. Determine the effect of stocking density on milkfish growth in earthen ponds without supplementary feeding. 2. Establish the optimal feeding level required for milkfish in earthen ponds for effective and economical milkfish growth in earthen ponds. 3. Assess the effect of milkfish production with respect to site.
    • Assessment of the Effects of Oil Spill on the Mangrove Forests of Port Reitz, Mombasa.

      Kairo, J.G.; Bosire, J.; Omar, M. (Kenya Marine Fisheries and Research InstituteMombasa, Kenya, 2005)
      Assessments of the effects of oil spill that occurred on April 7, 2005 in Mombasa indicate that mangrove ecosystem was damaged. The total area was approximately 234 ha, spreading for about 7.5km long. Mangroves forests at Ras Hodi and Mkupe jetty were heavily oiled, prop roots with up to 2 meters band of oil. Observed changes on the leaves of the affected trees were increased; defoliation, spots, perforations, yellowing, twisting and fading. These effects do not necessarily translate to automatic death of the trees. However, considering the morphological changes observed in the leaves, it is likely that a general reduction in leaf area, and hence loss of mangrove productivity, is expected. Port Reitz mangroves supply a variety of goods and services. Loss of mangroves through oil spill will have direct effect to the people, including; shortage of firewood and building poles, reduction in fisheries and increased coastal erosion. Based on the global estimates of Total Economic Values for mangroves as well as from studies in Indonesia, Thailand, Mexico, Malaysia; and the author's own experience, the TEV for Port Reitz mangroves is estimated as US$ 14,000ha/year. Assuming it will take at least 20 years for the affected area to fully recover, the cost of the damage, with a 50% discount rate, is calculated as US$8,650,000. Assessing the effects of oil on mangrove environment will require the development of creative methods of measuring impacts and accurate modelling of the physical and chemical events associated with the spill. This report includes a proposal for long term monitoring of the oil spill.
    • Assessment of the Prawn Fishery, Bycatch, Resource use Conflicts and Performance of the Turtle Excluder Device.

      Mwatha, G.K. (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research InstituteMombasa, Kenya, 2002)
      Major issues of concern on this fishery include open access to the resources and lack of information on exploitation especially the maximum sustainable level for the fishery. The limited monitoring undertaken is not adequate to assess the state of the resource and to determine the negative effects, which trawling may have had on the other resources and the environment. Communities living at the vicinity of the trawling grounds have over the years complained about the negative impacts of trawling on the resources and their livelihood. To address this concern, a stakeholders meeting was convened in November 2000 to seek for a lasting solution to the existing conflicts. The stakeholders consultative meeting identified several issues that needed urgent attention.
    • Awareness of Resource Degradation among Artisanal Fishers in Kilifi and Lamu.

      Tunje, J.G.; Hoorweg, Jan; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
      The study was carried out in Kilifi (including Malindi) and Lamu Districts of Kenya, focusing on the activities of artisanal fishermen. The fishing methods that the fishermen use and the extent they contribute to coral reef degradation were the major study objective. The fishing methods used, factors for their choice, and their perceived impact on coral reefs were investigated. Indigenous environmental conservation efforts, fishermen's alternative source of income, and attitudes towards environmental conservation were also examined. Fishermen mainly use the gear they have experience with and gear that brings them high catches. They did not consider the environmental impacts of the gear they used. The results also revealed that there were few signs of indigenous marine conservation in this part of the coast. Half of the fishermen interviewed observed certain cultural restrictions relating to personal safety at work, good hygiene and fish handling. The other half did not. Finally, local fishermen are willing to initiate and participate in programmes of marine environmental conservation aimed at the fishery resource as long as it enables them to improve their incomes.
    • A Baseline Socioeconomic Assessment of Fishing Communities along the North Coast of Kenya.

      Cinner, Joshua E.; McClanahan, T.R. (Wildlife Conservation Society’s Coral Reef Conservation ProjectMombasa, Kenya, 2006)
      The Wildlife Conservation Society’s (WCS) Coral Reef Conservation Project (CRCP) has been carrying out studies of the effects of human activities on reefs, as well as annual monitoring of coral reefs in Kenya for almost two decades. As part of this ongoing initiative, we conducted a socio-economic assessment within the North Coast of Kenya to identify key socio-economic factors affecting inshore coral reef fisheries. The study focused on nine communities: Bamburi, Kuruwitu/Shariana, Mayungu, Mijikenda, Shela, Takaungu, Vipingo, and Vuma/Kayanda. Socio-economic information was gathered using several techniques, including household surveys, resource user key informant interviews, community leader key informant interviews, and oral histories. Informants were asked about aspects of household economics, dependence and perceptions of marine resource use, management, and governance. Communities varied considerably in regards to their dependence on marine resources. Smaller communities such as Mayungu and Mijikenda had greater than 60 and 90 percent of households engaged in the fishery, respectively. However, the proportion of fishers was relatively small in the areas close to Mombasa (Bamburi and Utange). Households that fished generally ranked fishing as their most important occupation. We found extremely high fishing pressure per km2 of shallow water fishing grounds in Takaungu and Vipingo, primarily due to small fishing grounds. There is a clear need to develop regulations that will limit the effect of this intensive fishing effort at these sites. The mean size of fish landed was particularly low at Vipingo (<12cm) and Marina (13cm). There was an array of marine resource governance structures either instituted or in development at the study sites. The Bamburi beach and Marina sites bordered the Mombasa marine park and the Mayungu and Shela sites bordered the Malindi marine park. Fishers from Mijikenda also fished adjacent to the Malindi marine park. Vipingo and Kuruwitu had the highest level of appreciation of closed areas and are attempting to establish a community-based marine protected area. Despite legal prohibitions, a large proportion of fishers at both Marina and Mijikenda engaged in destructive fishing methods, particularly beach seining. There is poor understanding of the factors that influences fisheries and means to improve them and the marine environment. The Kenyan government is developing legislation to decentralize control of inshore marine resources to stakeholders at local landing sites, called Beach Management Units (BMUs). Under this legislation, each landing site will be responsible for developing locally appropriate by-laws to manage fisheries resources in a sustainable manner. With the currently low level of appreciation of human influences on the marine environment and the low number of employment options it will be difficult to improve management conditions and increase restrictions. We, therefore, suggest that it will be important to support this process and potentially use the BMUs as a forum to engage fishers and disseminate information on management and research findings. This will improve their understanding of the factors that influence the marine and fisheries environments and ability to make informed decisions.
    • The Benthic Community of the Malindi-Ungwana Bay.

      Fondo, E. (Kenya Marine Fisheries and Research InstituteMombasa, Kenya, 2002)
      The benthic food web is an important element in nutrient regeneration in the benthic system. It differs essentially from its pelagic counterpart since it represents the slower part of the nutrient cycle, due to longer transport paths. With its strong chemical and biological gradients, the benthic system has a vertical structure that enables its different layers to interact hence giving many types of microenvironments.
    • Biodiversity and the Kaya Forests.

      Luke, W.R.Q.; Githitho, A.N.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
      This paper contains a review of the work of the Coastal Forest Conservation Unit in protecting the traditional kayas with their large biodiversity. Ongoing botanical research as well as research of a wider nature is listed and activities such as afield herbarium and an indigenous plant nursery are briefly described. A list of selected references on coastal flora is attached.
    • Biological studies in Nyali and Diani lagoons - Microphytoplankton studies.

      Wawiye, P.O. (1998)
      The studies were aimed at determining how anthropogenically induced changes in the groundwater outflow and quality is affecting the structure and functioning of the phytoplankton community.
    • Birds of Mida Creek.

      Moragwa, G.; Fondo, E.; Okondo, J. (Kenya Wildlife Service and Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI)Kenya, 1996)
      Mida Creek, one of the most important sites for shorebirds in the Kenya coast, supports a high density of Palearctic migrant waders. Thus, their distribution and abundance has been studied so far between May and October, 1996. In addition, the interrelationship of the birds and macro- and meio-benthos is being studied. In this study we try to identify the macrobenthic and meiobenthic organisms that are available as food for the birds. The largest tidal flat in Mida Creek was selected for this study. It has not been possible to add more stations on other tidal flats (near Sudi and Kirepwe Islands) as intended due to the tight schedule.