• Aid to Fisheries at Lake Turkana - Evaluations and Recommendations: Report by an Advisory Group Appointed by NORAD September 1980.

      Jorgensen, Knut; Raa, Jan; Saetersdal, Gunnar; Williams, Johan; Broch-Due, Vigdis; Storas, Frode; NORAD (NORADNairobi, Kenya, 1980)
      In 1967 Kenya made a request for Norwegian assistance to develop the fisheries of Lake Turkana. A project was formulated and agreed and its first phase started in 1970. Norway provided financial and technical assistance to this project. During the first years personnel from the Norwegian Voluntary Service worked as advicers in boat-building and in the management of the Turkana Fishermen's Cooperative Society (TFCS). A fishing master conducted trial fishing. The project was equipped with a number of fishing boaus, one 36 ft. research vessel, fishing gear, tools for boat bUilding and some vehicles for the staff and the Society. The Society was also provided with some financial support. During these years the main efforts were directed towards building up the Turkana Fisheries Cooperative Society. In 1977 its monopoly over the fish sale from the fishermen and the further wholesale of processed fish was reinforced by the Kenya government. Rules and regulations for the fishing in the lake were also established in order to protect the fish resources against over­ fishing. In 1974 a Norwegian consultant recommended the establishment of a fish pro­ cessing plant at Lake Turkana. In 1975 the Government of Kenya submitted a request to Norway for assistance in building such a plant. In 1976 and 1977 NORAD carried out feasibility studies of a fish processing plant including evaluations of marketing conditions for the economics of frozen fish produc­ tion. The building of a plant with freezing facilities was recommended mainly on the basis that such an expansion would be economically beneficial to the TFCS. An agreement between Kenya and Norway concerning the building of a plant was signed in 1978. The project was to include a processing unit, storage facilities for frozen fish, refrigeration machinery, icemaking machinery, generators and other facilities. From 1977 NORAD provided a manager for the TFCS, from 1978 a fish-processing expert and from 1980 also a refrigeration machinery expert and a marketing expert. The building of the new factory started in May 1979 and will be completed during the first quarter of 1981.
    • Annual report of the East African Fisheries Research Organization, 1952.

      East African Fisheries Research Organization (East African Fisheries Research Organization (EAFRO)Jinja, Uganda, 1952)
      The scientific activity of the former East African Fisheries Research Organization is briefly reviewed. The research refers to the Lake Victoria region.
    • Aquaculture in Kenya; Status, Challenges and Opportunities.

      Mbugua, H.M. (Directorate of Aquaculture DevelopmentKenya, 2008)
      Aquaculture entails growing (farming) of fish and other aquatic organisms in control environment. The farmed fish or organisms are deemed to be of commercial value. Aquaculture is the only viable alternative source of fish especially at this time when the natural stocks of fish are declining. Kenya has great potentials for aquaculture growth because it is endowed with climatic diversity, natural features and other resources that favour the culture of a wide variety of aquaculture species. However, though not yet quantified, only a small portion of these resources are utilized. Aquaculture in Kenya can be categorized into three broad divisions. These are; (1) Warm fresh water aquaculture dominated by the production of various species of tilapia and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) mainly under semi intensive systems using earthen ponds. (2) Cold fresh water aquaculture involving the production of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) under intensive systems using raceways and tanks. (3) Marine water aquaculture (mariculture which is underdeveloped. The Tilapine species constitute about 90% of aquaculture production in Kenya. Polyculture of the Tilapines with the African catfish is under mixed sex culture systems. The production of the Tilapines and the African catfish is characterized by low pond productivity mainly due to poor seeds and employment of low pond management practices. The result has been stagnation of National aquaculture production over the past decades. Because of the poor perception of aquaculture as an economic activity, it has been difficult to promote its commercialization, as most potential investors are not convinced that aquaculture can be a profitable enterprise.
    • Artisanal fishing on the Kenya coast: what are the impacts?

      Samoilys, Melita; Osuka, Kennedy; Waweru, George; Obura, David (2011)
      Kenya's population has more than doubled in 30 years: from 16 million in the late 1970s it is set to reach 55 million by 2050. Finite fish populations cannot sustain this demographic pressure. In this context we looked at the effects of artisanal fishing gears used by local fishermen in Kenya to evaluate their impacts on coastal fishes and review management practices. There are 12 different gears used by artisanal fishermen, five of which are widespread and commonly used. We collated data from 20 published studies and our own to examine long term trends and ecological impacts of the five commonly used gears. CPUE has dropped dramatically since the 1980s from 28 kg fish /fisher/day to 3 kg/fisher/day. However, from the mid 1990s to 2006 CPUE has remained relatively stable and consistently so across the different gears, an indication of sustainable levels of fishing. Catch rates differed consistently by gear with spear gun catch rates always the highest and beach seines catch rates the lowest. These gears are both illegal. The differences are useful in enforcing or revising regulations. For example beach seine crews could be advised to use basket traps or handlines if they want more income. Young men tend to reject the traditional basket trap, but its catch rates were consistently higher than gillnets. An average juvenile retention rate of 50.1 % was reported across all gears with the highest recorded by the illegal beach seine (68%) and the lowest by spearguns (38%). We found few reasons to support the illegal status of spearguns: the lowest juvenile retention rates, no by-catch and one of the most affordable gears. Although CPUE has remained steady since 1999, diversity in catch composition has declined. We discuss the implications of these fishing effects on the future of Kenya's coastal fish populations.
    • Assessing the Impact of Increasing Settlement of Various Communities on Social Amenities along Lake Victoria (Kenya).

      Omwega, Reuben (Lake Victoria Fisheries OrganizationJinja, Uganda, 2005)
      This paper tends to show the changes in settlements of various communities scattered along the lake. It took into consideration all social amenities in the beaches and their associated problems.
    • Assessment and monitoring of wetlands for conservation and development in dry lands: a case study of Kajiado District, Kenya.

      Gichuki, N.N.; Oyieke, H.A.; Ndiritu, G.G. (Department of Environment and HeritageDarwin, Australia, 2001)
      African wetlands constitute an important natural resource base and are actively utilised by rural communities for socio-economic activities. However, vital information on their functions, values, uses and threats is lacking in many parts of the continent. This makes it difficult to plan for wetland conservation and to integrate conservation and development goals at a local level. This paper presents the results of a two-year study of wetlands in Kajiado district (36°30’E, 2°10’S), a semi-arid area in southern Kenya. The physical inventory of wetlands was carried out using topographic maps (scale 1:50 000) and aerial photographs of the district together with field surveys undertaken during the period March 1996–April 1998. Biological inventory was carried out by sampling higher plants and animals on each major wetland. Data on wetland values, uses, threats and conservation initiatives was gathered through direct and indirect methods. 80% of Kajiado district (21 105 km2) is semi-arid. Wetlands cover about 2% of the total area, most of them occurring in the high water potential areas of Ngong Hills, Mau-Nguruman escarpments and Mt. Kilimanjaro. Fifteen wetlands ranging in size from 10 to 15 000 ha were found and comprised lakes, rivers, swamps, marshes, floodplains, natural springs, man-made dams, ponds and pans. Water quality and quantity varied considerably between wetlands and between seasons. Species diversity was relatively low in marshes and swamps but even lower in saline lakes and seasonal rivers. Permanent fresh water wetlands provided water for domestic and livestock consumption and for irrigation. Subsistence fisheries and livestock grazing took place in some permanent freshwater wetlands. Aquaculture for fish production and control of water-based disease vectors was a rapidly growing community activity. The primary threats to wetlands were due to pollution, siltation and colonisation by exotic species. The results of this study indicate that wetlands play a vital role in conserving biological diversity, supporting human life and economic activities in the dry lands of Africa.
    • An assessment of seagrass survival and functioning in response to manipulations in sediment redox at Nyali Lagoon, Kenya

      Gwada, P. (2004-02)
      Thalassodendron ciliatum was studied during two monsoon cycles of the year 2001/2002 to determine the interactive effects of experimentally elevated redox potentials on in situ plant structure and shoot-root (S/R) biomass allocation patterns. Thalassodendron plants from shallow back-reef tidal pools were substrate manipulated under ambient field conditions for 90 days on each monsoon cycle. Plant sampling was done from quadrats impacted with organic substrates at three different concentrations (proxies to induce differential redox potentials). Our data show clear differences (at ANOVA, p < 0.05) in Eh and plant traits from 2 treatment effects and from monsoon seasonality effects. Thalassodendron had relatively higher canopy cover, shoot density, shoot blade density, and absolute shoot and root biomass at control sites than at two substrate-impacted sites. Between the monsoons, the same plant traits were higher during the North-East Monsoons (NEM) than they were during the South- East Monsoons (SEM). Thalassodendron beds experienced negative carbon balances within 3 weeks of impaction and were dead by 2 months, which coincided with periods when daytime redox potential values consistently lower than –70mV. S/R ratios were relatively higher at high substrate impacted sites and during the South-East Monsoons (SEM), both conditions also coinciding with higher reducing conditions. Final S/R ratios were 0.32 and 0.34 during NEM and SEM periods respectively at control sites, and 0.33, 0.42, and 0.55, and 0.34, 0.38 and 0.60 at zero, mid and high substrate impacted sited during NEM and SEM depth respectively. About 60% and 95% of root biomass were distributed in the top 10-cm and top 20-cm of soil respectively. Our findings support our hypothesis that reduced redox concentrations would increase plant stress and, consequently, decrease investments in growth capacity.
    • Assessment of water quality and quantity of Lake Nakuru, Kenya.

      Raini, Jackson (FlamingoNetNakuru, Kenya, 2006)
      Owing to its strongly sodic nature, Lake Nakuru has limited uses for man. Its waters render it unsuitable for irrigation, contact sport, fishing or domestic consumption. Yet it is a highly valued national park and a major generator of revenue for the local and national economy. The monitoring programme is aimed to provide concrete evidence of the nature and scale of detrimental change arising from anthropogenic activity and also serve to guide, direct and evaluate the success of conservation measures undertaken in the catchment. Parameters monitored in situ are; dissolved oxygen (DO mg/l and DO % saturation), electrical conductivity (Ec), salinity, pH, water temperature, oxidation-reduction potential. Total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, and nitrogen were analyzed in the lab. The water balance model was developed through analysis of lake conditions - water level, salinity, as well as climate and surface inflows, calibration, validation, test simulations. The data generated so far has demonstrated the high degree of natural variation that can occur in the lake under different environmental conditions. Marked changes in water levels occur in the lake due to high levels of evaporative loss. This results in dramatic changes in salinity and hence in the conductivity of its waters. Algal blooms occur frequently causing extraordinary elevations in day time dissolved oxygen levels. Following algal crashes and decomposition, dissolved oxygen levels plummet to create anoxic conditions over extensive areas in the lake. The only water quality parameter, which remains remarkably constant in the lake, is pH. This is due to the high buffering capacity of the lake. By understanding the natural variability that occurs, we are better positioned to recognize and evaluate impacts on the lake caused by human activity in its catchment. The monitoring has also enabled us to establish the conditions, which are optimal for maintaining high levels of primary productivity, and conversely it has helped define conditions that suppress normal primary productivity and favour the proliferation of undesirable algal species. It has further enabled the us to consider the direction of water environmental management of the Lake Nakuru catchment in the future by analyzing water pollution loads and water discharges reaching the lake. The water quality and quantity trends are discussed.
    • Assessment on the Status of the prawn farm at Kwetu Training Centre.

      Mwangi, S.; Wakwabi, E.; Mitto, C.; Muthama, C.; Emuria, J.; Mathendu, P. (Kenya Marine Fisheries and Research InstituteMombasa, Kenya, 2001)
      The aim of the survey was to measure the physical and chemical parameters of the water and sediments in this pond and to advise Kwetu centre on the status and future treatment of the pond.
    • An avifauna survey of Mandera and Daua River, North Eastern Kenya.

      Muithui, L.; Mwangi, G. (National Museum of Kenya, Zoology Department, Ornit hology Section [for African Bird Club]Nairobi, Kenya, 2008)
      The survey of the birds of Mandera and Daua River valley was carried out in August 2008. The area comprises of three major habitats types: semi arid bush land, scrubby grassland and riparian woodland along the Daua River. During the survey we used a combination of two different methods –Timed Species Counts, Point Counts. A total of 74 birds species from 41 families were recorded during the survey. This total included one Palaearctic Migrant, one Afro-tropical migrant, 6 species whose resident populations also include some migratory birds, three species listed as rare in the region by the Ornithological Sub-committee of the East African Natural History Society and three new species for the area. Two species characteristic of the Jubba and Shabeele Valleys Endemic Bird Area were recorded. The presence of this two species is especially important because it is one of the criteria used to identify the international recognized Important Bird Areas. The African White-winged Dove Streptopelia d. perspicillata was the most common species recorded along the portion of the riparian woodland along the Daua River surveyed, while the Green-backed Heron Butorides striatus.
    • Avifaunal survey of Lake Kenyatta ecosystem, Kenya - Final Project Report.

      Ogoma, Maurice (Fisheries Department, Ministry of Fisheries DevelopmentNairobi ,Kenya, 2000)
      This report gives the results of an avifaunal survey that was executed by engaging local people, Fisheries department and the local Beach Management Unit (BMU) members who have an interest in resource conservation.
    • A Baseline Report for the Kenyan Small and Medium Marine Pelagic Fishery.

      Maina, George Waweru (Ministry of Fisheries Development, South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP) and EAF - Nansen ProjectMombasa, Kenya, 2012)
      This study focused on collating fisheries information small and medium pelagic fisheries of the Kenya’s coast through literature review and analysing available fisheries catch data, mainly from Ministry of fisheries development. Information on mesh sizes for gillnets was collected by visiting or interviewing fisheries officers at key fish landing sites that target small and medium pelagic fisheries. Development of this report was guided by specific objectives (ToRs) listed on Appendix 7. Based on the national data gap-analyses report on pelagic fishes of the 9 countries of the WIO was used to guide the categorisation of different pelagic fisheries groups.
    • Baseline Report Yala and Nzoia River Basins - Western Kenya Integrated Ecosystem Management Project: Findings from the Baseline Surveys.

      Boye, Anja; Verchot, Louis; Zomer, Robert (International Centre for Research in AgroforestryNairobi, Kenya, 2008)
      The first aim of the WKIEMP baseline reports are to synthesize a quantitative description of the baseline project situation along the ecological and socioeconomic dimensions that are relevant for project implementation. In this context, flexible strategies for selecting priority intervention areas and households at the landscape/population scale are proposed. The second aim is to lay a foundation for change detection that considers spatial variability explicitly.
    • Biodiversity and Sustainable Management of a Tropical Wetland Lake Ecosystem: a case study of Lake Kanyaboli, Kenya

      Abila, R. (2005)
      Lake Kanyaboli and the surrounding Yala Swamp wetland have been recognized as an important biodiversity hotspot. Recent population, genetic and phylogenetic studies confirm the evolutionary importance of Lake Kanyaboli in preserving the cichlid fish fauna of Lake Victoria. The adjoining Yala Swamp harbours the endangered swamp antelope Sitatunga (Tragecephalus spekii) and several papyrus endemic birds. The lake and adjoining swamp play a critical role in the livelihood of the local communities who heavily depend on the wetland resources. Current ongoing large scale land use and changes within the swamp threaten the ecological integrity and functioning of this highly dynamic wetland ecosystem. It is therefore imperative that proper management and conservation measures are put in place to protect Lake Kanyaboli and the associated Yala Swamp. This paper presents a review of the biodiversity of Lake Kanyaboli and the associated wetland and the threats this ecosystem has to face. Polycultural finger-ponds aquaculture (see Figure 3), tourism and papyrus based industries as well as an all-stakeholders-driven management plan are suggested as a step towards achieving sustainable management, utilization and conservation of the Lake Kanyaboli ecosystem.
    • Biological Control of Water Hyacinth: a Case Study of Lake Victoria Kenya.

      Mwende, K.; Njoka, S. (KARIKisumu, Kenya, 2006)
      The invasion of Lake Victoria by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in the early 1990s posed a serious challenge. Due to lack of natural enemies to check the plant’s growth and the high pollution levels in the Lake, the plant quickly spread to attain a peak infestation of 17,200 ha on the Kenyan side by 1998. Several management options were considered for the control of the weed including physical, biological, mechanical and chemical. Biological control was the preferred method whereas physical control was recommended on a limited scale to clear the weed in critical water intake points and fish landing sites. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) implemented a biological control programme for water hyacinth that included importation, mass rearing and releases of exotic biological control agents. Thirteen thousand eight hundred adult Neochetina weevils were imported from Australia, Uganda and South Africa for mass rearing. Over 4.2 million weevils were released over the period of the project. There was a large reduction, in water hyacinth population to 3,134 ha in December 1999 and 532 ha in February 2000, 24 months after the release of the Neochetina weevils. Satellite images taken in December 2003 show that the water hyacinth abundance in the lake was 384 ha, while visual sampling in December 2005 estimated its abundance at 462 ha. This translates to a reduction of over 95% of the peak infestation. A total of 18 community based weevil rearing units have so far been set up in schools and beaches neighbouring water hyacinth hot spot areas. Currently the weevil production from these units is over 500,000 adult weevils and immature stages per annum.
    • The Biology of Trout in Kenya Colony.

      Van Someren, Vernon D. (River Research CentreKenya, 1950)
      Apart from Copley's papers (1940 a, b, 1947, 1950), there have been no scientific observations made on trout biology in East Africa, though van Someren has also published a few preliminary observations (1946). Trout were first introduced into Kenya Colony in 1905, and there are now many miles of trout water available in the Colony; the history of their introduction has been described by Copley (1938, 1940 a and b). Management of these trout waters has been largely empirical and remarkably successful, though the need has now been recognised to support such management policies by biological data. Because such data are largely lacking, the work at the Research Centre, which has gradually increased in scope as facilities became available, has been directed mainly towards the collection and assessment of facts on the natural history of our exotic trout in all aspects. Two and a half year's work has seen the amassing of a very large quantity of such factual data, and the results are presented herewith. The reader will find this first account of trout biology purely descriptive and analytical; very few experimental results are described, and there are only occasional references to aspects and policies of fishery management. Proposals for the later can only be based on the scientific data now being made available, and will follow naturally as results become known and confirmed by experimental procedure. Thus in time will the rivers yield the fullest of which they are capable.
    • A brief report on a survey of the fish and fisheries of the Tana river, with special reference to the probable effects of the proposed barrages.

      Mann, M.J. (East African Freshwater Fisheries Research OrganizationJinja, Uganda, 1969)
      The construction of several barrages, in order to develop the hydroelectric and irrigation potential of the Tana river, has been proposed and the probable effects of these developments upon the fish and fisheries of the area has been investigated. Briefly in the highest reaches the sport fishery will be unaffected, in the, middle reaches the sparse subsistence fisheries will be only slightly inconvenienced but in the terminal reaches of the river the subsistence and commercial fishing enterprises are expected to be seriously reduced by the progressive re-regulation of river-flow. However each new dam will support a new and productive reservoir fishery and with proper development the annual yield of fish from the Tana basin is expected to increase considerably.
    • Challenges and opportunities for farm forestry in Kipkaren River Catchment, Kenya.

      Imo, M.; Matano, A.; Ogweno, D.; Orinda, B. (Lake Victoria Environmental Management ProjectDar es Salem, Tanzania, 2005)
      Although LVEMP has been supporting farm forestry in the Lake Victoria basin since 1999 through seedling production and training of farmers on tree planting and management, there is lack of baseline information on ecological and socio-economics of these activities. A survey was therefore conducted in Kipkaren catchment area in Nandi District to determine the sustainability of private nurseries, adoption of agro-forestry practices by local farmers, and the survival and early growth of planted trees. All private tree nurseries were sampled, while multiple stage sampling was used to select 60 farmers for oral interview using semi-structured questionnaires and for tree growth assessment. The study showed that the cost of seedling production in private tree nurseries was only Kshs. 2/= compared to Kshs. 6/= in centrally managed tree nurseries. Home gardens, multipurpose tree gardens, cash and food intercrops, and trees in cropland and pasturelands were the major farm forestry practices in the catchment. Eucalyptus saligna, Cupressus lusitanica and Grevillea robusta were the most preferred tree species, and were managed mainly for timber, construction poles, fencing posts and wood fuel. Land preparation using the shamba system and weeding resulted in significantly higher survival and growth performance in both species.
    • Characteristics of the Lake Victoria Fishery Based on Frame Surveys 2000 and 2002: with Recommendations for Development and Management of the Fishery. A Status Report on Frame Surveys..

      Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (Lake Victoria Fisheries OrganizationJinja, Uganda, 2004)
      Lake Victoria is one of the major economic assets and a symbol of unity among the Partner States of the East African Community (EAC). The Partner States have declared the lake basin and its basin an Economic Zone to be developed jointly by the Partner States. Fisheries are one of the major resources being developed and managed jointly. Frame surveys were carried out on Lake Victoria in 2000 and 2002 to determine certain characteristics of the fishery to guide development and management of the fishery. The surveys show that: The number of fish landing sites was higher compared to fisheries staff with each fisheries officer expected to man three landing sites. There were inadequate facilities at the fish landings. The number of fishers on the lake increased from 129,305 to 175,890, fishing crafts from 42,483 to 52,479, and gillnets from 655,053 to 984,084 between the years 2000 to 2002. This is an indication of increases in fishing effort. The fishermen needed to go further ashore using outboard engine to fish suggesting depletion of fish stocks in near-shore areas. The Partner states have made deliberate efforts to improve facilities at fish landings to meet fish quality requirements and curb illegal fishing gears as manifested in the reduction in the number of beach seines and illegal sizes of gillnets in some of the Partner States. There were, however still a large number of illegal gill nets of mesh sizes ranging from 2.5 inches to 4.5 inches, and illegal beach seines on the lake by the year 2002. It was, therefore recommended that: The ratio of staff to landing site be matched to improve development and management efforts; Fish handling facilities and access to fish landings should be improved; The implication of the increases in fishing effort on the fish stocks should be assessed and appropriate measures taken; and, Specific efforts should be made to remove illegal sizes of gill nets and beach seines from the lake.
    • Commercial Tilapia Production Recommendations and Enterprise Budgets for East Africa in the Absence of Formulated Feeds.

      Veverica, K.; Omolo, B.O. (Lake Victoria Fisheries OrganizationJinja, Uganda, 2005)
      A series of experiments and trials was conducted at Sagana Fish Farm (elevation 1230 meters) which is located in Central Province Kenya but is very similar in climate to the Lake Basin area. Various combinations of chemical fertiliser and bran were evaluated in terms of resulting water quality, fish growth and pond carrying capacity, and cost of inputs to produce one kg of fish. Enterprise budgets were made based on prices of inputs in Central province. The objective of the research was to develop a system that can achieve standing crops of at least 5 tons ha of market size fish for a feed/fertiliser cost of less than KSh 25 per kg of live fish produced. In a tilapia/clarias polyculture, standing crops of 2.5 to 3 tons per hectare can be obtained with chemical fertilizers alone. A combination of bran and chemical fertiliser can result in fish production of 5 to 7 tons per hectare in about 6 or 7 months. The bran exerts a mitigating effect on some of the water quality problems resulting from the use of chemical fertilisers. A sample enterprise budget is presented in which feeds and fertilisers account for 33% of variable costs, labour (field workers plus security) accounts for 33%, fingerlings account for 21% and interest 14%. In this budget, feeds and fertilisers cost less than KSh18 per kg of fish produced. However, break-even price is KSh 67 per kg when pond amortisation and cost of capital is considered. Producers who are in the Lake Victoria areas would have a difficult time turning a profit unless they find a niche market that capitalises on the freshness and food safety of the fish. If the farm size (area under water) is increased to 5 hectares, break-even cost of fish production will drop to about KSh 56 per kg. Producers with larger farms would be able to lower their prices and possibly turn a profit even near the lakes. They could supply an export market if the exchange rates were favourable. As a few fish farmers begin to make some money through the semi-intensive management scheme presented here, more intensive strategies may become feasible. However, it is clear that farmers who start small without borrowing money have an advantage because even subsidised interest rates are high.