Recent Submissions

  • Mkuranga Governance Baseline

    Torell, Elin; Mmochi, Aviti (Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, 2006)
    Mkuranga district is one of the six districts that form the Pwani Region (Figure 1). It was established in 1995, when the eastern part and coastal area of the Kisarawe district was cut off to form the district of Mkuranga. It is a relatively small district, covering 2,432 square kilometers, which is about a quarter of the size of Bagamoyo and about the size of the Zanzibar Islands. The district has about 90 kilometers of coastline, extending from the Temeke to the Rufiji districts. Like much of coastal Tanzania, the district is endowed with coral reefs, mangrove forests, and coastal fisheries. Remote unpopulated islands host endangered species such as the red colobus monkey and attractive birds. In Mkuranga, there are seven coastal villages: Shungubweni, Mpafu, Kerekese, Kisiju Pwani, Mdimni, Magawa, and Kifumangao and several near-shore islands, hosting the Boza, Kuruti, Kwale, and Koma villages (Mkuranga District Council 2002). Most of these villages are remote and naccessible, despite the relative proximity to Dar es Salaam.
  • Menai Governance Baseline

    Torell, Elin; Mmochi, Aviti; Palmigiano, Karen (Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, 2006)
    Menai Bay Conservation Area (MBCA) is situated in the southwest of Unguja, the main island of the Zanzibar Archipelago, and covers an area of 467 km² including 6 islets, with a seaward boundary close to 61 km offshore. It is the largest marine conservation area in Zanzibar, managed locally by the community and government officials with technical assistance by the World Wild Fund (WWF). The area is extensively covered with coral reefs, sea grass beds, and mangrove forest. The average water depth is 10 meters at high tide. The area had remained relatively undisturbed until the mid-1990s, when uncontrolled fishing pressures combined with destructive fishing techniques became a serious environmental concern
  • Bagamoyo governance baseline

    Torell, Elin; Mmochi, Aviti; Spiering, Penny (Coastal Resources Centre - University of Rhode Island, 2006)
  • Coastal Impacts of Water Abstraction and Impoundment in Africa: the Case of Rufiji River

    Shaghude, Y.W. (2005-02-24)
    Construction of large dams with reservoir type storage impound water behind them for seasonal annual, and in some cases for multi-annual storage and regulation of a river. Similarly, tubewells abstract surface and ground water bodies from their natural flow. The impoundment of water by damming and its abstraction through tubewells are common practices in the world and even within the Africa region (WCD, 2000). Globally, the number of large dams has grown at a tremendous pace during the last 50 years (Fig. 1.1) The fast growth in dam construction is driven by an increasing demand of water from urban and rural communities for reliable freshwater supply, agricultural irrigation and hydro-electric power. As these practices become more widespread, they are leading to significant reductions in the fluxes of water and river-borne sediment that are discharged through catchment to coastal sea systems. These flux reductions are contributing to changes in the state of the coastal environment and these changes are in turn impacting coastal communities through issues including coastal erosion, estuarine salinisation and the depletion of nutrients in the coastal sea.
  • The Study of Sediment Characteristics and Nearshore Sediment Dynamicsin Coastal Tanzania

    Shaghude, Y.W. (2004)
    The nearshore morphological features, its sediment dynamics and characteristics of the Tanzania Mainland coastal stretch between the rivers Pangani and Wami were investigated. The study is a continuation of other similar studies (e.g Shaghude 2001) which provides a detail account on the nearshore sediment dynamics and its characteristics, in the Tanzania mainland coastal stretch between the rivers Ruvu and Wami, south of the present investigated area. The study is inline with the guidelines on the studies of shoreline changes in the Eastern African region, as well the study of the Eastern African database of coastal resources. The former has recommended detailed studies of shore morphological features, with updating of old information, while the later has recommended establishment and updating databases of coastal resources for the purpose of sustainable management of the existing resources. The investigated coastal stretch between the rivers Pangani and Wami broadly exhibit major north-south variation. The northern coastal stretch between river Pangani and Mkwaja is dominantly a patch reef coast, with or without cliff, with offshore fossil reefs and islands and sometimes with sand spit shores, with few rivers, high water depths, low quartz (20-50% by volume) and feldspar (10-15% by volume) content in the lithogenic dominated sand sediments and high wave activity. From shore to offshore the sediment changes from siliciclastic dominated facie to carbonate dominated facie. The southern coastal section between Mkwaja and Wami river is dominantly a low-lying sandy coast, with relatively large number of rivers, low depths, high quartz (60-75% by volume) and feldspar (20-25% by volume) content in the lithogenic dominated sand sediments and low wave activity. The carbonate facie is generally missing and the sediments are dominated by siliciclastic facie. Mineralogical analyses of the sediments show that most of the lithogenic components, particularly the quartz and feldspar are of angular to sub-angular shape, suggesting that the sediments are texturally immature. Occurrence of hornblende in the sediments is another evidence of immaturity of the sediments. The siliciclastic sediments are therefore inferred to have been transported for a short distance before deposition. Most of the quartz minerals are also highly fractured , occasionally showing undulatory extinction suggesting that most of the lithogenic sediments are derived from a highly metamorphosed rocks. Two of the rivers, namely, the Pangani and Wami which drain through the crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Mozambican belt located on the hinterland of the coastal plateau are therefore considered to be the major contributors of the siliciclastic sediments. All the remaining rivers in the investigated area drain through the coastal plateau or coastal plain, consisting of younger sedimentary formations. The problem of shoreline changes, particularly coastal erosion is very serious in the Pangani river mouth and the former island of Maziwi, reported to have recently disappeared. The estimated rate of erosion at the Pangani river mouth is about 7 to 20 metres per year and the observed erosion is attributed to the high wave activity which is exacerbated by anthropogenic activities related with the upstream damming, mainly, the Nyumba ya Mungu. The recent disappearance of the Maziwi island has been attributed to the clearance of vegitation on the island during the 1970’s which has been exacerbated by the wave erosion. Significant salinity intrusion has been observed in the Pangani estuary, and this again has been related with the increased water abstraction, mainly due to irrigation along the Pangani catchment.
  • Towards Integrated Management and Sustainable Development of Zanzibar's Coast.

    Institute of Marine Science (2002)
    The purpose of this document is to begin a dialogue in Zanzibar about how government, in partnership with local communities and the private sector, can carry out integrated planning and management for coastal resources and regions. It is meant to serve two purposes: To provide a starting point f or addressing the urgent coastal issues facing the Chwaka Bay-Paje Area. It is hoped that the strategy outlined in this document developed through an open, participatory process will provide a basis for avoiding and resolving problems at the site. To enrich and inform the discussion on ho w to address increasingly urgent coastal management problems nation wide. It is hoped that the Chwaka Bay-Paje Area can serve as a model for other areas and help us move forward on a national approach to coastal management. This document has been developed by an Interagency Planning Team led by the Department of Environment and consisting of individuals from the Tanzanian Subcommissions of Fisheries and Forestry, Commission of Lands and the Environment, and Institute of Marine Sciences. The planning team began work in September, 1994 and has been engaged in reviewing information and holding consultation with village residents, hoteliers, and local and national agencies to clearly identify pertinent issues, reach consensus on management objectives, and begin to develop strategies to address the issues.