The study of genetical differentiation of bisexual and parthenogenetic strains of Artemia urmiana by RAPD s method
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AbstractThe brine shrimp Artemia consists of a number of bisexual species and a large number of parthenogenetic forms, which collectively, inhabiting a wide range of hypersaline habitats. This research was carried out in order to study the genetic differentiation of Artemia urmiana and two parthenogenetic populations originated from surrounding lagoons of the Lake Urmia (Fesendoz, Saray village) and also to find the phylogenetic relationships of some Iranian Artemia (Qom, Arak, Golestan, and Shiraz) with a comparison to some foreign Artemia species (A. sinica, A. franciscana, A. parthenogenetica (Russia and Turkmenistan) using a molecular technique (PCRRAPD`s). Of a total number of 56 random primers (10 bp) survey, 29 and 26 oligonucleotides showed polymorphic patterns with highly reproducible bands in Artemia urmiana groups and Iranian Artemia groups.The highest percentage of polymorphic loci were in Artemia urmiana (P= 78.89 %) and in comparison with the other parthenogenetic forms, in parthenogenetic Artemia from Saray village (P= 59.8 %). The highest values of Shannon index were estimated in Artemia urmiana (I= 0.41), and in comparison with other parthenogenetic forms, in parthenogenetic Artemia from Saray village (I= 0.3). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most variation were within populations (A. urmiana with parthenogenetic forms, FST= 0.35) and among populations (Iranian Artemia with foreign species, FST= 0.76). Genetic pattern was not in accordance to geographical distribution, which indicated the wide range of Artemia samples at different regions in Iran. UPGMA showed two distinct clusters in group I including A. urmiana with two parthenogenetic forms and four clusters in group II including Iranian Artemia with some foreign species. It is understood that two parthenogenetic populations (Fesendoz and Saray village) had close genetic relationship together with high value of heterozygosity in parthenogenetic Artemia from Saray village. Iranian Artemia (Qom, Arak, and Golestan) indicated close genetic relationships with A. parthenogenetica (Russia and Turkmenistan) with low values of heterozygosity. A sister group was generated including Shiraz and USA Artemia samples which attests a possible contamination of local water with A. franciscana. FST value revealed high genetic structuring at all studied groups. Besides, it is suggested that gene flow was not strong enough to prevent substantial genetic differentiation. Result could lead to a management programmes to use suitable Artemia strains with high genetic diversity, for culturing and establishment of gene bank of Artemia stocks in Lake Urmia.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : Nr86.928;