Determination of catchability bony-fish and optimized exploitation in the Caspian Sea
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AbstractTo accomplish the stock assessment that pre-planned for bony-fish resources investigation started by considering two pivotal act. First gathering biometric data and second using catch statistics information for stock analyses. Implementing the research programmes five itinerant groups in Anzali, Keyashahr, Noshahar, Babolsar, Torkaman have been organized during fishing season. The biometric data were supplied in computer that distincted by each fish species and subdivided into age groups. In analyses the samples, Bertalanffy formula used for calculating average length and age, also for growth coefficient. Total mortality rate calculated by using Pauly formula, and the biomass status estimated through Cohort analysis. The catch by beach seiner cooperatives recorded 8630 metric tons, but estimation including. Poacher catch raised the harvest to 15.6 thousand tons. The total catch of Kutum reduced by 1400 tons compared with previous year, but the estimation revealed the biomass of Kutum 18.5 thousand tones, the stock stowed reduction in quantity relative to past years. Harvest exceeding the limit, fishing pressure. And employing higher fishing effort, combining releasing the Kutum seedling with shorter average length in recent years, leaded the shrinkage of biomass of Kutum resources. The Golden Grey mullet catch has been estimated 3437 metric tons, the figure showed 1500 tons increment, in comparison with previous year, nearly 24% of catch was shorter than Lm50% of this species. In Guilan province higher number of sub - size golden mullet captured, this development occured less in Mazandaran and Golestan province. Higher rate of exploitation, reduction of catch in recent years, dominating small size fish in catch composition indicated the population undergoing stress in ecosystem. Thin - lipped grey mullet only comprised 9.2% of the mullet catch - Length - structure of this fish species population formed mainly by young small size fish, the biomass of latter estimated 1100 metric tons. Catch further than maximum sustainable yield, by higher exploitation rate, and gradual diminishing of harvest, represented the resources of this fish species suffering both by high fishing pressure and un - sustainable effort, which ultimately declined the fishery of this fish species. Carp catch and its resources in Anzali region become very low, it is necessary to enhance the stock by Sea-ranching programmes. The carp resources in Gorgan region enjoy better status, but catch practices do not compatible with rule and regulation in Gorgan and Gomeyshan area. The standing stock of Gorgan carp estimated nearly 6000 tons. The information concerning carp resources indicate the stock experiencing pressure and likely the catch will diminish in future. The total catal catch of carp calculated 1900 tons. In recent years the Caspian roach resources are increasing but the bulk of harvest fished illegally and by gill - nets. The total catch of the roach during 1998-1999 estimated 1700 tons. Considering the semi - artificial propagation of roach in Golestan province, if has been concluded the multiplication of this fish species also should be planned by fisheries authorities for Anzali region. It is also advisable catching of this fish species to be regulated soon and selective catch are proposed. The catch of pike - perch during the year of 1997 - 98 jumped to 95 tons, but 90% of catch formed by young fish or sub – standard length size. Almost, all the increment of catch attributed to the releasing of millions of seedlings in the Sea which the plan has been implemented by Iranian Fisheries. Increasing the numbers of released seedlings, with higher average weight Identification of most suitable site for unloading the fries could ensure better survival rate and contribute the enhancement of resources and produce good catch for this desirable fish species. The total catch of Bream hit 18 tons, but most of the catch comprised by young fish with sub - standard size. The present formation of fisheries population of bream are the result of seedling releasing! In the Sea by Iranian Fisheries, since the catch of bream are negligible despite releasing programmes of seedling in a decade which 14million individuals until now, one could conclude the programmes do not contributed effectively to stock rehabilitation. The Caspian Barbus (Barbus brachycephalus) are at the threshold 01 vanishing, at present a few numbers are caught, therefore B.capito appeared in catch composition. The catch of latter species in recent two years are increasing. Total catch during the year of 1998 - 99 estimated 34.5 tons, biomass calculated 93 tons. Caspian vimba are small size fish which beach seiner (mesh size in bosom 30 millimeters) could not capture them ideally, bulk of the catch caught in illegal manner by gill nets. The total catch estimated 154 tons which the present fishing procedures surpassed total allowable catch (136 tons). In recent years the catch of this fish species are increasing. "Shemaya' similar in size with Vimba are caught less by beach seiner, illegal catch are considerable, the total catch in 1998 - 99 estimated 86 tons. The level of harvesting of this fish species are increasing in recent years and its population size become significant relative to last years. The main part of catch concerning Aspius fish species occured in Guilan coastal area, high fishing pressure reduced the population size, including low discharge of water in rivers during spawning period, impact negatively to reproduction. Catch statistic in 1989 showed 128 tons of this fish species are caught but in 1998 - 99 it has been reduced to 6.8 tons. It has been suggested artificial spawning could prevent its fate as endangering species. Caspian salmon catch estimated 78 tons during 1998 - 99, salmon population in Caspian Sea are supported by releasing reared smolts, which in recent years nearly 500 thousands fingerlings released in suitable rivers. After banning the gil nets application in Southern Caspian Sea, the catch of salmon in beach seining are increasing. It is necessary the released smolts in rivers being protected for its safe approach to Caspian Sea. The total catch of herring fish species in 1998 - 99 were nearly 700 tons. The bulk of the catch occur In Guilan fishing area, elimination of gill - nets usage in Southern Caspian Sea contributed the increment of herrings catch in beach seining. The herring resources in Caspian Sea reduced relative to past decades. The catch during 1913 – 1916 ranged between 130 - 160 thousand tons, in Caspian Sea.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : Nr87.953;