Single cell protein Production from culture and marine fish wastes
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AbstractThe alarming rate of population growth has increased the demand for food production in third-world countries leading to a yawning gap in demand and supply. This has led to an increase in the number of hungry and chronically malnourished people. This situation has created a demand for the formulation of innovative and alternative proteinaceous food sources. Single cell protein production is a major step in this direction. SCP is the protein extracted from cultivated microbial biomass. Algae, fungi and bacteria are the chief sources of microbial protein that can be utilized as SCP. Produced proteins from these microbes have various nutrition values. SCP is the manufacture of cell mass using microorganisms by culturing on available agriculture, industrial wastes and fisheries by products. Fish wastes due to high protein are the most important substrates for SCP production. In this study, SCP production was done from Silver carp and tuna fish wastes (head, tail and vise versa) and cooked water of canned tuna factories. The used microbes were six genus and species of yeasts include Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cereviceae, Rhodotorula, Khyveromyces marxians, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Bacillus subtilis and B.licheniformis. The examination was done in bench scale and CSTR bioreactor (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor). The effects of various parameters such as pH, temperature, time, supplemented substrates, method of inoculation of microbes, rpm were evaluated. Changes of microbial growth and protein contents were tested by using Optical Density (OD) and Makrokjeldal methods respectively. In end of examination, produced protein were extracted and lyophilized. The results showed that protein percentage in bacterial protein was than yeast protein but wet percentage in bacterial protein was low. Production value produced from tuna fish wastes was higher than (30-45 g/l) to Silver carp wastes (25-29 g/l) and cooked water (10-15 g/l). By adding supplemented substrates, production value has been increased. Candida utilis, in comparison other yeasts, has high activation. B.licheniformis has also had more activation than Bacillus subtilis. The results of the effect some parameters on fermentation showed that yeasts and Bacillus in pH= 5.4 and 32oC and pH=6.9 and 35oC were better than growth pH=6 and 25oC and pH=6.5 and 30oC respectively. Time of fermentation in batch and bioreactor was 54 and 21 hours respectively. High rpm has been caused increasing of microbial growth in bioreactor. The conclusion showed that with optimizing of the growth condition such as some parameters (pH, temperature, substrates and so on) produced SCP with high efficiency. However, produced SCP should be exanimated with other specific tests such as amino acid and fatty acid profiles, minerals, nucleic acids and so on. After full examination, this SCP as probiotic could be used in fish and poultry feed.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : Nr87.34;