A Study on Environmental Pollutants (Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), Heavy metals, Hydrocarbons and Surfactants) in the southern part of Caspian Sea
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AbstractAt the present study, the environmental pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), heavy metals, hydrocarbons and surfactants were done during 22 months (Sept. 2009 through May 2011) located in southern part of Caspian Sea with longitude and latitude 48°-54° N and 36°-39° E, respectively. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal pollutants matters in water layers and bed sediments of eight transect (24 stations) and the results are as follow: The maximum seasonal percentage range of OCPs were detected in spring water samples from 10, 50, and 50m depths such as (DDD, δ-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde),(DDD) and (aldrin, β-endosulfan) compounds about 62.5, 75 and 100%, respectively. The maximum seasonal residues fluctuation of OCPs were determined in spring water samples from 10, 50, and 50m depths such as aldrin (Babolsar station), aldrin (Tonekabon station) and heptachlor epoxide (Astara station) compounds about 5.03, 3.08 and 31.43 µg/l, respectively. The maximum percentage range of OCPs were detected in sediments samples from 10, 50, and 50m depths such as aldrin and α-BHC (winter), α-BHC (summer and winter) and aldrin (summer) compounds about 100, 75 and 87.5%, respectively. The maximum residues fluctuation of OCPs were determined in sediments samples from 10, 50, and 50m depths such as α-BHC (summer in Nushahr station), α-BHC (summer in Sefidroud station) and α-BHC (winter in Tonekabon station) and compounds about 5.96, 3.77 and 3.07 µg/l, respectively. The fluctuation and distribution of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) concentration in different water layers samples were reduced from summer>spring> fall > winter, respectively. Also this trend occurred for bed sediments and reduced from winter > summer, respectively. The mean concentrations of TPHs in water samples of all seasons, regions, depths and transects were less than maximum permissible concentration (MPC). In this research, a comparison of TPHs with EPA standards shown that the desile range organic (DRO) was close to EPA standards such as TPHs and also 95 percent of water data were less than MPC. But gasoline range organic (GRO) concentrations in all stations were less than the amount of EPA standard. A comparison of TPHs concentration in sediments shown that the concentration of all stations were less than of national research council (NRC) range except west part. The maximum annual mean concentrations of Hg and Pb elements were detected in surface station (50m) at Nushahr and Amirabad transects. The most water data of Cd, Pb and Hg elements in comparison with critical concentrations with Europe, the USA and Japan standards were less than amounts of those standards. The distribution and abundance of Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni elements in water samples were detected 98, 96, 77 and 6%, respectively less than the ISQGs (Interim marine sediment quality guidelines) standards. In sediments samples, the mean and maximum concentration of Hg element detected in winter in comparison with ISQGs standards was more. But the concentrations of Cd and Pb in sediments samples of all stations were low and less than of ISQGs standards. The maximum concentration of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) from spring through winter in Anzali (spring), Tonekabon (summer), Anzali (fall) and Nushahr (winter) were 0.07, 0.45, 0.145 and 0.087 mg/l, respectively. The maximum concentrations of LSA were detected in spring and fall in west part and summer and winter in middle part. But the lower concentration was occurred in west of southern part of Caspian Sea. According to standards of surfactants and comparison with LAS concentration of this study were less than the critical points.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : Nr42012;