• The 1991 Dutch Kenya Expedition

      Heip, C.H.R. (Delta Institute for Hydrobiological ResearchYerseke, The Netherlands, 1991)
      It is proposed to the Dutch Foundation for Marine Research SOZ to organize an expedition to the Kenyan coastal area in 1991. The exact timing of the expedition depends on the availability of the research vessel Tyro. Suitable periods would be December-March (May) and/or September-December. The aim of the expedition in general is to provide basic data on the structure and functioning of marine systems along the East-African coast, and, in particular, to evaluate the ecological effects of the rivers on these marine systems. As a result of human activities, the composition of the riverine water has strongly changed; it is expected that this will have profound effects on the coastal ecosystems. The continental shelf is limited and the ocean becomes very deep close to the Kenyan coast. There is no information on the deeper benthic ecosystems near the coast and also with respect to the pelagic domain only limited information is available: so far it appears that these areas combine a low productivity with a high diversity. In the North, the Somalistream causes strong upwelling during summer. The interactions between the off-shore and coastal areas and the impact of the monsoon on these interactions are unknown. The sedimentology of the East-African coastal zone is unknown as well. The coastal ecosystems in Kenya consist of: (1) coral reefs (fringing reefs) along the entire coastline, with extensive areas of seagrass beds on the more sheltered parts of the backreefs and in lagoonal areas; (2) mangroves on the shores of the brackish parts of rivers and creeks along the coast; also seagrass beds can be found here.
    • 1994 international beach clean up exercise at the bar beach Lagos, Nigeria.

      Awosika, L.F.; Folorunsho, R.; Isebor, C.; Adegbie, A.T.; Dublin-Green, C.O. (1995)
      At the request of the United States of America Centre for Marine Conservation, the Nigeria Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research organised a beach clean up at the Bar Beach Lagos on September 24 1994. An International beach clean up is usually held on the last Saturday of every September during the COASTWEEK. On this day, volunteers all over the world participate in a beach clean up in an effort to collect data and information on the types and amounts of debri littering the world's beaches. Volunteers for the Bar Beach clean up of 1994 were drawn from all works of life and some Federal and States agencies. A total of 10,872 pieces of different kinds of debri weighing 531.1kg were collected during the clean up. Further analysis of the different debri showed that plastics constituted 37% of the debris collected on the Beach. Other items included paper, which amounted to 16%, metal 3%, foamed plastics, which amounted to 10%, rubber which, amounted to 7%, wooden pieces which amounted to 7%, broken glass which amounted to 7%, and cloth pieces which amounted to 3% of the total debris collected. In all, the data showed that the Bar Beach, which is the most popular tourist beach in Nigeria, is very dirty. The result of this exercise could be useful in the formulation of an effective beach and even coastal zone management policy.
    • The 1997-1998 Mass Bleaching Event Around the World

      Wilkinson, C.P. (1998)
      There has been significant bleaching of hard and soft corals in widely separate parts of the world from mid-1997 to the last months of 1998. Much of this bleaching coincided with a large El Nino event, immediately switching over to a strong La Nina. Some of the reports by experienced observers are of unprecedented bleaching in places as widespread as (from west to east) the Middle East, East Africa, the Indian Ocean, South, Southeast and East Asia, far West and far East Pacific, the Caribbean and Atlantic Ocean.
    • 5-Year Strategic Vision for Research in the Marine, Coastal and Inland Waters of Kenya 2000-2005.

      Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research InstituteMombasa, Kenya, 2000)
      The goal of the Marine and Coastal Waters Division Fisheries Research Programme is to assess the stocks of fish in our marine and coastal waters as well as understand their dynamics and the interactions with the environment and the humans. Marine Fisheries Programme will undertake key issue driven research projects focusing on (1) the assessment of Malindi-Ungwana Bay fishery (2), fisheries resource evaluation and management, (3) the assessment of the Shimoni Vanga fisheries, (4) the collection of fish landing statistics and (5) understanding the biology of key commercial and non-conventional fisheries. Aquaculture Research Programme in the Marine and Coastal Waters Division is one of the central research programmes in the Institute. The programme will undertake research focusing on (1) the introduction of tilapia, catfish and crab culture to coastal communities, (2) establishment ofpilot community based aquaculture, (3) development of seed and fry production capability, (4) aquaculture nutrition, (5) stock enhancement and biodiversity restoration, (6) genetic manipulation and selective breeding of fish and (7) fish disease management. Marine and Coastal Waters Research Division Environment and Ecology Research Programme focuses mainly on research that will facilitate sustainable use and protection of marine and coastal resources particularly fisheries, mangroves, coral reefs and seagrass beds. The need to protect critical habitats and maintain water quality is a priority if fisheries in coastal and marine waters are to be sustained on long-term basis. The Marine and Coastal Waters Research Division Natural Products Research Programme focuses on the extraction of products from aquatic plants and animals for use in various industries. The programme will focus on the (1) chitin and chitosan development, (2) screening of the selected fauna and flora for bioactive compounds, (3) development of duckweed for aquaculture and (4) quality assurance for fish and fish products. The Socio-Economics Research Programme has formulated a strategy that focuses on the (1) evaluation of the performance of the fisheries sector, (2) establishment ofthe relationship between marine and coastal resources and the rising human pressures and (3) coastal and marine natural resources valuation.
    • Abondance relative des stocks de poissons pélagiques dans les eaux tunisiennes: Croisière du Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, 19 - 31 mars 1981.

      Hattour, Abdallah; Turki, Brahim; Zammouri, Nedra (Institut National Scientifique et Technique d'Océanographie et de Pêche Salammbô (INSTOP)Tunis, Tunisie, 1982)
      Dans le cadre du projet "Evolution des ressources maritimes mondiales" le navire de recherche Dr. Fridtjof Nansen a effectué une prospection acoustique dans les eaux tunisiennes du 19 au 31 mars 1981. La croisière a été axée sur les études acoustiques, quelques traits de chalut expérimentaux ont été effectués. La distance totale par courue lors le la prospection a été de 2250 milles nautiques dont 1160 le jour. Les principales concentrations de poissons pélagiques enregistrées en se repérant aux intégrations supérieures à 30 m/m par 10 milles nautiques ont été rencontrées au niveau du plateau de la Galite, du Cap blanc, du Cap Farina, de Sidi Bousaïd, de Ras Fortas, de Ras El Ahmer, de Sousse et de Ras Kapudia, ainsi qu'au sud-est des îles Kerkennah et au nord-est de l’île Jerba. Les résultats sont relatifs à une seule campagne, la réalisation d’autres est indispensable pour des conclurions rigoureuses.
    • Abondance relative et estimation de la biomasse des petits pélagiques des eaux tunisiennes

      Ben Abdallah, L.; Hattour, A.; Guennegan, Y. (INSTM, 2004)
      Deux campagnes de prospection sur les petits pélagiques s'inscrivant dans le cadre du Programme National Mobilisateur (PNM), "Evaluation de ressources pélagiques et démersales des eaux tunisiennes" (1996-1999) ont été menée en étroite collaboration avec l’Institut Français de Recherche et d’Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER). Ces campagnes ont pour objectifs de préciser l'abondance relative des petits pélagiques et leur variabilité spatiaux-temporelles mais également de quantifier les potentiels exploitables des stocks des animaux aquatiques préalablement définis, et surtout de familiariser l’équipe des scientifiques tunisiens, aux méthodes numériques et informatiques utilisées en participant à la lecture des échogrammes et aux traitements des données des campagnes en mer en vue d'évaluer les stocks. Il est connu que les méthodes d'évaluation indirectes des stocks s'ajustent mal à des espèces telles que les petits pélagiques, raison pour laquelle on fait recours pour l'estimation de leur biomasse à la prospection acoustique en utilisant les techniques de l'écho-intégration. Les dites prospections ont révélé que pour toute la Tunisie et malgré les sources possibles d’erreur dans le calcul du potentiel exploitable et compte tenu du niveau d’exploitation qui tourne au mieux autour de 35.000 tonnes, nous pouvons affirmer la possibilité d’accroître les captures à un niveau raisonnable que nous le fixons empiriquement à 75% de la valeur calculée soit à un plafond de 60.000 tonnes. Mais il sera fortement recommandé plus de précision dans le calcul du taux minimum d’exploitation susceptible d’être supporté par le stock pélagique. Aussi un échantillonnage régulier des débarquements des professionnels dans les principaux ports permettrait l’estimation rigoureuse des différents paramètres dynamiques des principales espèces exploitées.
    • Abondonce relative et estimation de la biomasse des petits pelagiques des eaux tunisiennes

      Hattour, A.; Ben Abdallah, L.; Guennegan, Y. (INSTM, 2004)
      Within the frame of the National Program (PNM), 'Assessment of Marine Tunisian Resources' (1996-1999), two prospecting surveys on small pelagic fishes, have been led in narrow collaboration with French Institute IFREMER. Their objectives were to specify the relative fishes abundance, their spatial-temporal variability but also to quantify the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of this resource. A third important goal was to familiarize a Tunisian scientist team, with numerical methods and data processing used during the cruises (reading of echograms, treatments of data, etc.) in stocks assessment. It is known that the indirect stocks assessment methods of small pelagic species is not reliable, reason for which we opted to apply echo - integration techniques. Those campaigns revealed that for all the Tunisian waters, and despite of possible sources of errors in the estimation of the MSY and considering the level of exploitation that turns to best around 35.000 tons, we assume the possibility of increasing captures to a reasonable level. That level was fixed empirically to 75% of the calculated value, to 60.000 Tons. But it will be recommended more accuracy in the calculation of the minimum rate of exploitation to be supported by small pelagic stocks. A regular sampling of professional landings in the main harbours would permit the available estimation of the different dynamic parameters of the main exploited species.
    • Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

      Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, Sana (2016)
      One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected.
    • Absolute migration and the evolution of the Rodriguez Triple Junction since 75 Ma

      Masalu, D.C.P. (2002)
      The Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) is a junction connecting three mid-ocean ridges in the Indian Ocean: the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). The evolution of the RTJ has been studied extensively for the past 10 Ma and the triple junction is believed to be largely a ridge-ridge-ridge (RRR) triple junction. However, due to the scarcity of data its configuration prior to that period is poorly understood. The migration of the RTJ in the hotspot reference frame, for the past 75 million years has been mapped, by reconstructing its traces on the three plates (African, Antarctic and Indian) to their former positions. The results show that the RTJ has migrated northeasterly at velocities varying from 10cm/yr at 70 Ma to 2.6cm/yr at 43 Ma and thereafter 3.6–3.8cm/yr, in a fairly straight-line trajectory, suggesting a stable configuration of the RTJ since its formation. Because the RRR triple junction is the most stable configuration that is possible, it is suggested that the configuration of the RTJ has been largely RRR triple junction since its formation.
    • Abundance and Population Structure of the Blacklip Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera l. 1758 (Bivalvia: Pteriidae), in Coastal Kenya

      Kimani, E.N.; Mavuti, K.M. (Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA), 2002)
      Pearl oysters are an important marine resource within the Indo-Pacific oceans. They are widely cultured for the production of black pearls, their flesh is eaten, and their shell, known as mother-of-pearl (MOP) is used in the ornament and button industry. The blacklip pearl oyster, Pinctada argaritifera L., has been harvested from East Africa for MOP for decades. A survey within nearshore habitats in Kenya showed that Pinctada margaritifera is widely distributed in shallow lagoons, bays and channels. Other oyster species found during the survey were the wing oyster, Pteria penguin, occurring in deep channels in Shimoni and Mombasa, and Pt. chinensis, within lagoons and channels in Malindi, Mombasa and Shimoni. Pinctada margaritifera was most abundant in Gazi Bay within sheltered back reefs and lagoon, and on an intertidal reef flat and back reef in Shimoni. Mean abundance and sizes declined with depth. The abundance of Pi. margaritifera in Kenya was higher than reported in the Pacific Islands and similar to abundances reported in India. The overall mean (34 mm) and maximum (154 mm) sizes were lower than those reported in the Pacific Ocean, but similar to sizes in India and the Red Sea. The oysters matured before reaching 40 mm (dorsal-ventral length), principally as males. Male sex expression was dominant, and more so in samples from moorings and jetty fouling where density was exceptionally high. The high population densities, high temperature variation and high suspended matter of relatively poor quality in the nearshore shallow lagoon environment may explain the observed life history pattern observed in the oyster populations. This study is the first comprehensive report on pearl oyster populations in Kenya.
    • Abundance and Reproductive Biology of the Penaeid Prawns of Bagamoyo Coastal Waters, Tanzania

      Mgaya, Y.D.; Teikwa, E.D. (WIOMSA, 2003)
      The coastal waters of Bagamoyo in Tanzania constitute an important penaeid prawn trawling ground. Despite the high economic value attached to this resource, the biological information necessary for its sustainable exploitation is scanty and fragmented. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the species composition, population abundance and reproduction of the penaeid prawns in Bagamoyo coastal and nearshore waters. Samples were obtained monthly for a period of one year from inshore waters adjacent to the Ruvu Estuary while additional samples were bought at the beach from artisanal fishermen. In the laboratory, samples were identified to the species level. Four penaeid species, Fenneropenaeus indicus (formerly known as Penaeus indicus [Farfante and Kensley, 1997]), Penaeus monodon, P. japonicus, and Metapenaeus monoceros were found in the Ruvu Estuary and nearshore waters. Fenneropenaeus indicus was the most abundant, and more so during the rainy season than the dry season. The sex ratio in F. indicus was found to vary significantly from the theoretical 1:1 ratio while that of P. monodon did not vary significantly from 1:1. The average size at first maturity was different within sexes. For F. indicus males and females carapace length was 3.4 and 3.9 cm respectively. For P. monodon it was 3.58 and 4.3 cm for males and females respectively. Fecundity ranged from 40,000 to 222,000 eggs for F. indicus and 72,000 to 314,000 eggs for P. monodon. Fecundity increased with prawn size, suggesting that much of the available energy in larger prawns is devoted to egg production rather than growth.
    • The abundance, biomass and composition of pelagic ciliates in East African lakes of different salinity and trophy

      Yasindi, A. W.; Taylor, W. D. (2006)
      Planktonic ciliates were studied in 17 tropical East African lakes of different salinity and trophic status. Oligotrichs (e.g., Strombidium, Strobilidium and Halteria) and scuticociliates (e.g., Cyclidium, Pleuronema, Cristigera), dominated the ciliate communities. Conductivity and trophic status were the most important environmental variables influencing the distribution of ciliate species in East African lakes. Herbivorous oligotrichs were important in oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes, as they are in temperate and subtropical lakes, but their importance decreased with increasing chlorophyll a concentration and conductivity. On the other hand, the importance of scuticociliates (primarily bacterivores) increased with increasing chlorophyll a and conductivity. Mean ciliate abundance ranged from 2 to 1,220 ciliates.mL-1 while the biomass range was from 1.9 to 1, 900 ~kg C.L-1 respectively from oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes. Abundance and biomass had positive relationships with phytoplankton biomass. The ciliate abundance and biomass were higher than those reported in temperate (Quebec) and subtropical (Florida) lakes of similar trophic status. However, regression models predicting abundance and biomass of ciliates from chlorophyll suggest that temperate (Quebec), subtropical (Florida) and tropical (East Africa) lakes have similar ciliate abundance and biomass per unit chlorophyll except some saline tropical lakes which have very high abundance and biomass of ciliates relative to chlorophyll.
    • Accessing Funding for Conservation and Research Work in Kenya: presented at a workshop on 'Writing Funding Proposals and Communcating Results', National Museums of Kenya 10-12 May 2004.

      Ruhiu, J.M. (CDTF, Biodiversity Conservation Programme (BCP)Kenya, 2004)
      Developing countries have limited financial resources to support conservation and research and even where finances are incorporated in government budgets, these are inadequate. Kenya has a diverse assemblage of natural resources requiring huge financial resources. Although wildlife tourism generates up to US$ 27 million annually and a third of foreign exchange earnings, contributing up to 10% to formal employment and 5% to GDP, little of this fund is ploughed back either to support conservation or to benefit communities which support conservation. Most of the generated income is repatriated to developed nations and up to 55% of generated resources is believed to remain in developed nations where booking and marketing are carried out. Conservation has both public and private costs. Management costs are estimated at US$ 25 million and opportunity cost of conserving wildlife habitats in terms of alternative land uses forgone estimated at US$200 million per year. Wildlife related damage is estimated at 35-45 of total production in wildlife areas. As conservation sites do not generate enough financial returns to cover huge costs involved, there is a huge gap between the generated financial returns and conservation costs. The worst hit is the forest sector where it is estimated that Kshs. 100 is allocated towards conservation of one hectare of indigenous forests. In order to finance forest conservation, indigenous forest should be made financially self supporting where income generated from the forest should finance conservation directly. Recurrent cost to conservation is largely from the government while development support is mainly from donors. Based on the financial resources to wildlife and forest sectors, it is apparent that conservation is not self supporting as huge financial resources are required. Low financial allocation to conservation is attributed to; varied interests – corporate, government, individuals, foundations, trusts; weak policy for conservation fund raising; failure to match up allocation to conservation with other sectors and inability of conservation initiatives to sustain themselves. 2 Funding to conservation is from the central government through royalties & fees; multilateral and bilateral donors and private sector funding; Charities; Trusts and Foundations; United Nations Agencies; Multinationals, Trans-nationals and Corporate World; Private sector funding and endowments. Funding to conservation and research can be enhanced through; improving existing sources; developing new ones; encouraging conservation investment and soliciting private donations. Fundraising can be through; funs, walks and runs advertisements; social corporate responsibilities; exhibitions & trade fairs; donations and membership. Project sustainability is paramount if it will offer both conservation and community benefits. Initiatives of ensuring sustainability include; enterprise related activities; endowment fund, through collection of conservation fee; royalties; village conservation fund; institutionalization of user fees and moderate taxation for conservation support – policy shift; information and community sensitivity on conservation and capacity development as an element of ensuring conservation support and awareness.
    • Accords de pêche UE-Sénégal et commerce international Respect des réglementations internationales, gestion durable des ressources et sécurité alimentaire

      Dahou, K.; Dème, M. (Dakar : Enda Tiers Monde Centre de Recherches Océanographiques de Dakar-Thiaroye (CRODT), 2001)
    • Accumulation of trace metals in some benthic invertebrate and fish species revelant to their concentration in water and sediment of lake Qarun, Egypt.

      Fishar, M.R.A.; Ali, M.H.H. (National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 2005)
      Concentrations of major metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd) were determined in water, sediment, benthos and some common fish species from Lake Qarun. Water and sediment samples were collected from seven stations where, the benthos and fish species were collected from three sites representing east, middle and west of the lake. Distribution of studied metals showed that, east part generally had higher contamination than west one which may be attributed to the impact of pollution sources in this area which coming from El-Batts Drain and pumping station in the east part. Mollusca and Crustacea especially Barnacles have the highest concentrations of most heavy metals measured more than Polychaeta which make them suitable candidates to be used in biomonitoring surveys of Lake Qarun. The concentrations of heavy metals in fish samples indicate that Solea sp.and Mugil sp. seemed to be more contaminated than Tilapia sp. which attributed to their feeding behavior. Bioaccumulation factor values showed that the trend of accumulation of most metals was as follows: Mollusca > Crustacea > Annelida > Solea sp. > Mugil sp. > Tilapia sp.
    • Acoustic fish biomass assessment in a deep Tunisian reservoir: effects of season and diel rhythm on survey results.

      Djemali, Imed; Laouar, Houcine (2017)
      To determine the best acoustic sampling period for obtaining fish biomass estimates of a Mediterranean deep reservoir in Tunisia, we carried out day and night surveys in each of four seasons [spring (April), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)]. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120 kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Data collected in December were not usable because fish merged with methane gas bubbles. However, fish abundance varied across the other seasons with a peak in acoustic biomass observed during summer nighttime hours that was associated with high water temperatures. Across seasons, the fish occupied the entire water column, and fish schools were rarely observed. The preferential timeframe (i.e. maximum fish detectability and low gas flux) for acoustic sampling was nighttime hours in summer and daytime hours during spring and winter. Our findings highlight the importance of collecting data across seasons and photoperiods when determining an acoustic sampling strategy.
    • ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative Workshop

      ACP-EU, 1999
      A three day scientific conference on ‘Sustainable Use of Aquatic Biodiversity: Data, Tools and Cooperation’ was held from 3-5 September 1998 at the Instituto de Investição das Pescas e do Mar (IPIMAR) in Lisbon, Portugal, under the auspices of the ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative and the European Commission (DG VIII). The conference aimed at bringing together researchers, conservationists, fisheries managers, educators and decision makers, to gain a better and joint understanding of aquatic biodiversity issues and in particular to explore data gathering and sharing mechanisms and cooperative arrangements to address these issues. Over 100 participants from 28 countries contributed to the conference: mostly from Africa, the Caribbean, the Pacific and Europe....