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AbstractSubphylum of crustacean are one of the most diverse groups of animals, which shrimps and crayfishes have the highest value among the aquatics, and ranked in top ten of group. 18 species of shrimp inhabit in Persian gulf and Oman sea, but only Penaeus semisulcatus and P.mergueinsis have commercial fishing and world marketing. P.indicus shows only aquaculture usage in Iran. By the last decade fishing data, the average caught of shrimp is about 7000 tons annually, which regarding to restricted stocks, the main goal of planning are supporting of stocks and habitats of shrimp in Persian Gulf, and emphasizes on fisheries management to develop sustainable production. Control the number of boats, standardization of fishing gears, protection of habitats and spawning grounds, monitoring of fishing season are priorities of planning. Development of fishing management may decrease more pressure on resources, and prepares conditions for protection of stocks and sustainable production. By this way reconstructing of management structure, and changing view from short term benefits to long term, accompanying to change the policy of open accessory to catch quota system, reconstruction and strengthen of research to conduct applied projects are another main goals of planning. Concerning of sustainable fisheries instead of seasonal and temporary employment, beside considering of world experienced principles and indices such as responsible fisheries manuals, protection of nursery grounds and sensitive habitats by recognition of life cycle, biological characters and periodical monitoring of resources are another main effective goals for sustainable fisheries an harvesting of shrimp stocks. Shrimp aquaculture relies on endemic species of P.indicus and exotic species of Litopenaeus vannamei. Around 180000 hectares of 1800km of southern coastal area, and some parts of 900km northern coast of Caspian sea recognized suitable for development of shrimp culture. 12000 ha of south coast and 400 ha of north coast (Golestan province) has been constructed for shrimp development. Worldwide economic problems, high inflation rate, high banking rate, incidence of disease and so on affected the industry of shrimp farming, and caused of upmost production of less than 10000 tones within last decade. Reconstruction of production organization, selection of high growth rate species, solving the liquidity of farmers, strengthen of research structure are the main works for development of industry and increasing of production. Large areas of unfertile lands, suitable climate, young work foce, relative low cost energy are available for shrimp aquaculture development in the country. Improvement of structural organization and potential of management in various parts of governmental and non- governmental of sections are effective goals for better exploitation of existing potential. Non- governmental organizations must take more practical responsibility, and play main role as the leadership and management of production. Crayfish group, Astacus leptodactylus which inhabit in Anzali lagoon and Aras Dam reservoir, shows commercial importance and export marketing. At present, this species harvested in Aras reservoir, and annual export is about 250 tones. Study of water bodies for stocking of crayfish, organizing of producers, achievement to economical aquaculture in controlled condition are the main parts of development planning for crayfish. Improvement of fishing management of studied resources, recognition of suitable water bodies for stocking of crayfish, and development of applied research activities for aquaculture and economical production of crayfish, are primary requirement for increasing the production of this valuable species. At present this species harvested for export, therefore extending processing trials and export market may cause value added products. Organizing the producers and establishment of effective organizations are necessary for improvement the fishing technology, place and time of harvesting and prohibit fishing of small size crayfish.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : Nr44286;