Study on abundance and diversity species of phytoplankton with emphasis on potential of algal bloom in the southern part of the Caspian Sea-Mazandaran Provience
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AbstractThis study was conducted to determine of phytoplankton abundance and diversity of water and their spatial and temporal fluctuations in the Mazandaran coastal of Caspian Sea in 6 months, at 4 transects (Tonekabon, Nowshahr, Babolsar, Amirabad) during different season of 2012-2013. 72 samples were collected at surface layer of water in 5, 15 and 30m depths. The sampls were analyzed based on the standard methods. 112 species contributed in phytoplankton community structure which where classified in 9 phyla namly: Bacillariophyta (42 species), Pyrrophyta (18 species), Cyanophyta (14 species), Chlorophyta (15 species), Euglenophyta (11 species), Cryptophyta (2 species), Chrysophyta (3 species), Haptophyta (1 species) and Xantophyta (1 species). Meanwhile small flagellate algae with Maximum Linear Dimension (MLD) <10 µ observed which they classified in small flagellates. Mean annual phytoplankton abundance with standard error obtained 164 ± 32 million Cells/m3. Seasonal study showed that phytoplankon abndance of summer was 1.5 folds of spring. The value in auttuman was same as spring, however it increased sharply in winter. The mean phytoplankton abundance of winter was 5 folds of the other seasons. Mean phytoplankton abundance of Tonkabon and Nowshahr (west transects) were 1.6 and 2 folds of Amirabad (east transect), respectively. Bacillariophyta with 89 percent of total abundance was the predominant phylum and Pyrrophyta was the second one. The third and fourth of dominant phyla were Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, respectively. Chrysophyta and small flagellates showed equal percentage of abundance (1.4 percent of total abundance). Monthly study showed that Chaetoceros throndsenii was the first dominant species in Ordibehesht, Tir and Shahrivar. However, the first dominant species in Aban, Day and Esfand were Thalassionema nitzschioides, Skeletonema costatum and Pseudonitzschia seratia respectively. Mean phytoplankton biomass calculated 156.5 ± 18.1 during the study period. The mean of biomass was higher in summer and winter than the two other seasons. Phytoplankton biomass was formed mainly by Bacillariophyta and Pyrrophyta in all seasons. The highest biomass were belonged to Cyclotella meneghiniana and Coscinodiscus jonesianus (Bacillariophyta) in spring and summer respectively.While in fall and winter Prorocentrum proximum was in the first place of dominat species. Small size and flagellates species of different phyla (Chrysophyta, Bacillariophyt...) had importance role for determination of ecological and water quality conditions during spring to autuman. The increasing of phytoplankton abundance within these times indicates to regeneration of nutrients or entrainment of nutrient-rich deep water. Dominant species were observed in single forms, small filament and loose colonies during spring to autuman. However, these form shifted to fair-long chains form in winter which it indicates to nutrient-rich water was brought to the surface by vertical mixing process. It seems that environmental stress and instability of ecosystem was benefit to Chaetoceros throndsenii and Pseudonitzschia seriata which are known as species with bloom potential. Ability of reproduction in sewage environment (Chaetoceros throndsenii) and toxin production (Pseudonitzschia seriata) are the ecological and physiological significant characters of the two species.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : Nr44763;