Hydrology and hydrobiological study of the Iranian waters in the Oman Sea
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AbstractIn this survey, hydrology and hydrobiologycal studies in the northern part of the Oman Sea and Strait of Hormuz within the Iranian waters were conducted during 2007 and 2009.The project was implemented using Ferdous research vessel.The sampling area included the whole stretch of the Iranian waters along the northern part of the Oman Sea from the northeast of the Iranian marine border of 30 miles Bay of Chabahar to the mouth of the Hormuz Strait in Hormuzgan province. Along this stretch 10 equally distributed transects at a distance of 30 miles away from each other were designated, 4 main sampling stations at a distance of 10 miles from one another were fixed at each transect. Sampling was conducted twice a year (spring and autumn 2007 and 2009). According to achieved results; we can point out to the following outlines below: permanent thermocline exists annually in this body of water; where only the point of start, and the fracture width of thermocline layer; alter with alteration of seasons. Horizontal and vertical distribution of electrical conductivities, obey exactly from thermal degree structure.Level of salinity increase from east to west, but it decrease; from surface to deeper layers. In deeper regions, especially in the midway east of the Oman Sea; the level of salinity in the deeper waters from 150-300m, there is a considerable increase observed in salinity, due to very high salinity waters of The Persian Gulf; that are entering the Sea of Oman, via the Striate of Hormouz from the bottom; where they are having their effect following the whole length of the Sea of Oman; through their path. The level of water density from offshore to onshore, and from surface to deeper levels increase in such a way that. The level of Chlorophyll-a in surface waters, in the northeastern midway; is higher than the northwestern midway of the Sea of Oman, and it decreases from inshore to offshore waters, but its vertical distribution; has caused somehow in a way, that the highest distribution and concentration of chlorophyll-a; to be formed in deeper layers, between about 10-40m depths. Then by the increase in water depth, its concentration decreases drastically; reaching zero in magnitude. Concentration of dissolved oxygen is higher in spring in comparison to that of autumn, and the highest level is achieved in water layers located at 10-40m depth (where the level of chlorophyll-a is higher). In addition to which, that its vertical structure; shows the existence of a permanent oxycline layer at this region, in a way that; by seasonal alterations (similar to that of thermocline layer), only the point of start and that of the thickness of oxycline layer changes.pH level decreased from water surface, and its vertical alteration trend; obeyed to that of the same for temperature and chlorophyll-a vertical structure, especially for dissolved oxygen parameter, where the maximum decrease was recorded coinciding with formation of oxycline layer.Nutrient levels increased; at surface water layers from offshore to inshore, and from west to east, for the same body of water. In addition to that, concentration of nutrients in autumn (after monsoon); were more than that of, spring season (before monsoon), where; concentration of their vertical structure increase from water surface toward deeper sections. In this survey six phylum of phytoplankton including in Bacillariophyta (88) Pyrophyta (111), Cyanophyta (6), Chropmophyta (2), Euglenaphyta and silicoflagellate (1) were identified. A result showed that density decreased in most transects from inshore toward sea and maximum density was in photic layer (0-25m). Phytoplankton densities (without Cochlodinium density) in post-monsoon were recorded higher than pre-monsoon, furthermore phytoplankton density in 2009 was more than 2007(6073±1038) Species richness was indexed in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon 2007 (0.337-0.519), (0.296-0.396) respectively and to (0.967-1.525), (1.407-1.531) for 2009. Zooplankton population in this study is characterized by eight phyla, eight classes, 15 orders, 35 families and 78 genus. In 2007, the pre-monsoon percentage of groups were frequently as following: Copepoda with stages of Nauplius and Copepeditide were 78%, Ciliphora 8%, Sarcomastigophora 4% and Hemichordata 6%. In post-monsoon order of frequency Copepoda 80%, Ciliophora 6%, Coelenterata 5%. Copepoda was the most abundant group of zooplankton.In 2009, The pre-monsoon Copepoda (82%), Cilillophora(9%), Sacromastigophora(4%) and Hemichordata (2%) in post-monsoon Copepoda(70%), Ciliophora (20%),Sarcomastigophora(4%) and Hemichordat (2%) dominante group were respectively. The static result showed significance betweendifferent transects and layers.We were recorded 31 ichthyoplankton families with different density and distribution during 2 years. Among benthic invertebrate polychaete with average 800 ind-2 and then amphipods and gastropods were the most abundance.Yearly density of macrobenthos showed polychaete with the average of 500 ind.-2 in 2007 and 1000 ind.-2 in 2009 was the most abundance . Macrobenthos density in postmonsoon was more than premonsoon.p<0.05. An increasing and decreasing in density and biodiversity was obtain from coast to depth respectively p<0.05.There was no significant different between macrobenthos density from Hormoz strait to Golf of Guiter.p>0.05.There was a negative regression between macrobentos density and depth(p<0.05) and positive rsgresion between macrobenthos and oxygen concentration and temperature.(p<0.05).There was also a significant relationship between macrobenthos ,coppepda and polychaete density with organic carbon.p<0.05.Bimass changed from strait to Golf and coast to depth increasingly.p<0.05. The results of the measurement of heavy metals in water and Sea bed showed that the Concentration of heavy metals in surface layers in waters of the northern half of Oman Sea and Strait of Hormuz in spring (pre-monsoon) is more than autumn (after monsoon), and Degree of pollution in these areas are low compared to the global scale, Also, The results of the degree of contamination of sediments across the northern half of Oman Sea and comparison Global indicators of environmental quality assessment, it was found that the degree of contamination in the area in spring and autumn are low pollution. Comparison of the TPAH concentration of in Iranian waters of the Gulf of Oman, with other parts of the world indicate that degree of pollution of the waters in the spring 86 in the other seasons too low to medium level is low; but the degree of contamination in sediments, both in spring and in the autumn is much less; It means that the current risk on behalf of these contaminants, does not threaten the fish and benthos. The results of the risk assessment (THQ) of heavy metals in consumer, for yields Sangsar fish and fish Gish showed that the risk for both all the heavy metals, significantly lower than the one(1<) and This means that urban communities in the province does not present any danger of feeling threatened.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : Nr44829;