• El fondo marino

      Parker, G.; Paterlini, M.C.; Violante, R. (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del PlataInstituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del Plata, 1997)
      A synthesis is given of the present knowledge of the topographic and sediment characters of the sea floor of the Argentine Sea. After considering some general characters of passive continental margins the Argentine characteristics are described. Various 'physiographic provinces' are differentiated. The corresponding to the continental shelf is the most extensive on its several 'terraces' associated with Plio-Pleistocene sea level changes. Soft sediments are dominant,mainly being composed of sand with minor but varied quantities of shells and mud. Harder bottoms, composed of loose gravel and rocky outcrops are also present. The information presented here is not sufficient for evaluating the natural resources of the Argentine Sea or for solving sovereignty claims. It is evident that more complete studies must be done in order to get a full panorama of the physical characters of the Argentine continental shelf.
    • Geomorfología e hidrografía de los estuarios

      Piccolo, M.C.; Perillo, G.M. (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del PlataInstituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del Plata, 1997)
      Estuaries are coastal-water in which marine and freshwater environments interact. They respond to natural changes, but specially to anthropogenic factors. The definition, environmental factors and classification of estuaries are analyzed. A review is presented of the present status of knowledge on the geomorphology and hydrography of Argentine estuaries.
    • Utilización de datos satelitarios en investigaciones oceanográficas y pesqueras en el océano Atlántico sudoccidental.

      Podestá, G. (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del Plata, 1997)
      The use of satellite data in oceanographic and fishery studies in the SW Atlantic is reviewed. First, terms commonly used in the remote sensing literature are defined. The main satellite sensors used in oceanographic applications are described, and the principles of the remote estimation of two important variables, sea surface temperature(SST)and ocean color, are discussed. The use of remotely sensed data in oceanographic studies of the SW Atlantic is reviewed. Most studies are based on satellite SST fields and describe circulation in the open, particularly near the confluence of the Brazil and Malvinas currents. Due to the limited number of fishery studies based on satellite data in the SW Atlantic, examples from other parts of the world are reviewed. Future perspectives for satellite oceanography studies in the SW Atlantic are discussed.
    • Exploraciones oceanográficas y pesqueras en el Mar Argentino y la región adyacente del Atlántico Sudoccidental (años 1874-1993)

      Angelescu, V.A.; Sánchez, R.P. (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del PlataInstituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del Plata, 1997)
      A detailed analysis is presented of the main contributions both local and international to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences resulting from exploratory cruises carried out on the continental shelf off Argentina and the adjacent oceanic basin of SW Atlantic over the last 100 years. The end of the 19th century is chosen as starting point for this analysis as it marks the beginning of active marine research by Argentine scientists and an accumulation of information on Antarctic and Subantarctic marine organisms in foreign journals. Mention is also made to previous contributions derived from the classic expeditions and global circumnavigation voyages during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the aims of those were not always strictly oceanographic, they rendered however significant information to this field of knowledge. In the early years references arose mainly from the particular geographic situation of the Argentine shelf, a necessary passage in the navigation routes to the Pacific Ocean and later in the way to the Antarctica. Sources of information are divided into four categories: 1)foreign scientific projects in the area; 2)investigations by Argentine scientists and research vessels; 3)joint projects between Argentine and foreign institutions and 4)contributions from sources other than oceanographic cruises (commercial navigation, maritime weather reports, satellite images, etc.). The analysis includes an update and classified bibliographical list of the main contributions to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences derived from those sources, published either in international or local journals or appearing as technical and internal reports. The motivations, objectives and main achievements of foreign surveys and programmes inthe area and their impact on local scientific progress are discussed.The early sixties mark a turning point in the evolution of international research in the area. The creation of biological research institutions along the Argentine coast, and the support given to the formation of human resources set the basis for the development of bilateral programmes. Joint scientific efforts described in this analysis include the programmes carried out by the FRVs of Germany (Walther Herwig, Meteor), Japan (Kaiyo Maru, Orient Maru, Shinkai Maru), Poland (Professor Siedlecki), Russia (Evrika,Dimitry Stefanov)and the USA (Vema, Atlantis II), and also in the late decade by the FRVs of INIDEP (Argentina), with achievements which are landmark in the evolution of marine science in the considered area.
    • Características climáticas del océano Atlántico sudoccidental

      Hoffmann, J.; Núñez, M.; Piccolo, M.C. (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del Plata, 1997)
      The climate of the SW Atlantic Ocean is described for representative summer and winter months. The description is based on mean fields of surface and upperair metereological measurements. Maps and data have been obtained from national and international information centers. Other sources also were considered. The Malvinas Current is a year-round sink for the sensitive heatflux. The Malvinas and Brazil Currents and their zone of confluence are the most important oceanographic and climate features in the region of South Atlantic Ocean.
    • Masas de agua en la plataforma continental

      Guerrero, R.A.; Piola, A.R. (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del PlataInstituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del Plata, 1997)
      The current knowledge on the argentine continental shelf water masses is summarized in this paper. These water masses are characterized as a function of water types fed by the boundary currents and the modifications due to continental runoff, and water energy exchange with the atmosphere. Based on sea surface salinity distributions and the temperature-salinity characteristics, three masses are described: coastal waters, mid-shelf waters and slope waters. The main freshwater sources found along the coast are identified, as well as high salinity formation areas. The vertical stratification, mainly controlled by temperature, is analyzed along the annual cycle. The stratification cycle is mainly driven by the heat exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. Finally the oceanic fronts in the Argentine Sea are cited.
    • Corrientes en la plataforma continental

      Piola, A.R.; Rivas, A. (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del Plata, 1997)
      In this chapter the main features of the currents on the Argentine continental shelf are described. Due to the scarcity of direct current observations, adequate to resolve the mean flow, the circulation of the continental shelf is studied based on property distributions and models. These analyses indicate that the mean flowover the continental shelf varies between 1 and 2 Sverdrups (1Sverdrup = 1x106 m3 s-1)towards the NNE. A synthesis of results of studies of higher frequency motions is also presented. The most relevant results derived from long term direct current observations on the continental shelf near 43°S are discussed. The mean current velocities in the inner and mid-shelf regions vary between 0,05 and 0,10 m/s towards the NNE, in agreement with the direction inferred from property distributions and models.
    • Geomorfología y dinámica costera

      Codignotto, J. (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del PlataInstituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP): Mar del Plata, 1997)
      In Argentine coastal areas, geomorphological changes are directly related to relative continental uplifts and falls and to seaward and landward displacement of the coastline. Accretional and erosional phenomena are produced by displacement of the coastline in horizontal way. The resultant structures can be represented in two principal sectors. Backward motion or retrogradation of about 15 km were estimated for the Strait of Magellan, over an area of 500 km 2.Otherwise, large accretional phenomena were recognized in the north,with a 60 km seaward displacement, equivalent to 4,000 km2 in the last7.000 years. Variation in tidal regime and amplitude is reflected in the coincidence of the boundary between accretion and erosional sectors. Two principal nearshore currents were determined from geomorphological patterns. They occur southerly to 42°S. The nearshore current was northward in the northern sector, and southward in the southern one. Local nearshore circulation cells exist along the coast and sometimes they act against the general littoral drift.
    • Pulpos octopódidos (Cephalopoda, Octopodidae).

      Re, M.E. (1998)
      Four species of the family Octopodidae were reported to occur along the Argentine coast Octopus tehuelchus, Eledone massyae, Enteroctopus megalocyathus and Robsonella fontaniana. The first two are distributed from Brazil to south of Rawson and San Jorge Gulf, respectively, in warm-temperate waters. E.megalocyathus and R.fontaniana are of Subantarctic origin, the first ranging from San Matias Gulf to Magellan Strait, the Beagle Channel and Malvinas Islands; R.fontaniana is distributed from San Matias Gulf southwards, with records in North Patagonian and San Jorge Gulfs, Chile and Peru. A synopsis of information about taxonomical status, patterns of geographic distribution and biological aspects of these four coastal octopodids is given.
    • Calamares omastréfidos (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae).

      Brunetti, N.E.; Ivanovic, M.L.; Elena, B. (Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero, 1998)
      An update of the knowledge on the three most important ommastrephid species that inhabit the SW Atlantic: Illex argentinus, Martialia hyadesi and Ommastrephes bartramii, is presented. Up to the moment, only I.argentinus was intensively studied. Its distribution, population structure, reproduction, growth and paralarval development are analyzed, togheter with other aspects of its biology, such as feeding, predators and parasites. Also its utilization for human consmption is considered. Regarding M.hyadesi and O.bartrami, information on their distribution and biology is presented.
    • Estrategias reproductivas de moluscos bivalvos y equinoideos

      Calvo, J.; Morriconi, E.; Orler, P. (Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, 1998)
      The theoretical aspects of reproductive strategies and life histories are analyzed. The gonadal structures and the main features of gametogenesis of bivalves and echinoids are described. Research on the reproductive characteristics and gametogenic cycles of the bivalve molluscs in the Argentinian littoral and the echinoid Loxechinus albus is reviewed. Special references to Mytilus edulis, Aulacomya ater, Brachidontes purpuratus, Aequipecten tehuelchus, Zygochlamys patagonica, Ostrea puelchana, Clausinella gayi, Protothaca antiqua, Eurhomalea exalbida and Mesodesma mactroides are made. Analysis of reproductive cycles includes histological and ponderal descriptions of gonadal variations. The main trend found is the partial and multiple spawning episodes. Sexual variations in dioecious and hermaphroditic species are discussed.
    • Calamares loligínidos (Cephalopoda, Loliginidae).

      Pineda, S.E.; Brunetti, N.E.; Scarlato, N.A. (Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero, 1998)
      A bibliographical review of the taxonomy and biology of the two most important loliginid species, Loligo sanpaulensis and Loligo gahi, of the Argentine Sea is presented. The external morphology and the anatomy of the reproductor system for both sexes are described, as well as the larval period, nutrition, age and growth for both species. The geographical distribution and the relative abundance in relation to the size structure and maturity stage are analized. Abundance estimations of L.gahi, in the Southpatagonian shelf, were obtained from two research cruises data. Catch data for the two species is also presented.
    • Moluscos bivalvos y gasteropodos

      Lasta, M.L.; Ciocco, N.F.; Bremec, C.; Roux, A. (Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, 1998)
      The main life history characteristics, ecology and fishing interest of bivalve and gastropod species from the Argentine Sea are described. Exploited bivalve species are: mussel Mytilus edulis platensis, cholga Aulacomya ater, tehuelche scallop Aequipecten tehuelchus, Patagonian scallop Zygochlamys patagonica. Bivalve species irregularly exploited are: yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides, purple clam Amiantis purpurata, hard shell clam Ameghinomya antiqua and wedge shell Donax hanleyanus. It is also presented information on species of potential interest: clams Eurhomalea exhalbida and Pitar rostratus, half naked pen shell Atrina seminuda, 'geoduck' Panopea abbreviata, razor shells Solen tehuelchus, Ensis macha, Tagelus plebeius, and flat oyster Ostrea puelchana. Gastropods considered are: volutids Adelomelon (Pachycymbiola) brasiliana, Adelomelon (Pachycymbiola) ancilla, Adelomelon beckii, Zidona dufresnei and Odontocymbiola magellanica, small gastropods (families Nassariidae, Muricidae, Buccinidae and Olividae) and limpets and keyhole limpets (families Patellidae and Fissurellidae).
    • Cultivos de moluscos bivalvos

      Pascual, M.S.; Zampatti, E.A. (Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, 1998)
      Bivalve culture in Argentina is beginning to develop commercially. Research was carried out at the North Patagonian gulfs (San Matias, San Jose and Nuevo)and focused three native species: the tehuelche scallop Aequipecten tehuelchus, the puelche oyster Ostrea puelchana and the common mussel Mytilus edulis platensis. Results achieved on each of these three species were different. In the case of scallops, the development of commercial aquaculture did not seem promising for many years due to the fact that production was sustained by natural populations: the dredge fishery of the San Matias Gulf and the diving fishery of the San Jose Gulf. Preliminary culture experiments dealt with larval fixation on artificial collectors and growth to commercial size on suspended system. The current collapse of the fisheries of this species in Patagonia revitalized the aquaculture perspective, stimulating the innitiation of projects dealing with spat production in hatchery. Research carried out with the puelche oyster focused on seed supply by means of artificial collection and hatchery production, and growth to commercial size on suspended and off-bottom system. Fixation levels on collectors were insufficient while very successful results were obtained in hatchery suggesting that this is the suitable alternative as a basis to commercial culture. The puelche oyster, as other similar flat oyster species, reached commercial size -- on both growing systems -- in 28-31 months. The oyster industry began recently by the installation of the first enterprise in the San Matias Gulf. The mussel is the only species with which a pilot production scale has been performed. The economical analysis of the culture suggests that this activity is profitable if based on natural seed collection and growing on Spanish system. Culture cycle can be completed in a one-year period. Research efforts have began focusing on other bivalves species: the yellow clam Mesodema mactroides, the Japanese oyster Crassostrea virginica introduced in Argentina in 1981, and the southern mussel Mytilus chilensis. Future development of bivalve aquaculture in Argentina will be possible with a firm governmental aid consisting mainly in the elaboration of a legal regulatory frame, an effective promotion of the activity and the performance of the sanitary protocols required by the international markets.
    • Pesquerías de bivalvos: mejillón, vieiras (tehuelche y patagónica) y otras especies

      Ciocco, N.F.; Lasta, M.L.; Bremec, C. (Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, 1998)
      Fisheries of the mussel Mytilus edulis platensis, the tehuelche scallop Aequipecten tehuelchus and Patagonian scallop Zygochlamys patagonica are described. Information about catches of purple clam Amiantis purpurata in San Matias Gulf, mussel Aulacomya ater ater and hard shell clam Ameghinomya antiqua in San José Gulf is also presented. Regarding mytilus fishery, it is observed that the main catches were situated in Faro Querandí and Quequén beds (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina), where high densities occured in an area between 35 and 60 m depths. Those beds were exploited until the production was no more commercially interesting. The tehuelche scallop is a very well known resource from the Argentine Sea and its fisheries from San Matías and San José Gulfs was widely registered. However, both fisheries were ended due to low densities and declination of the stocks, during 1995 and 1996, respectively. Regarding the Patagonian scallop, during December 1994, the national government authorized the American F/V Erin Bruce to carry out a joint research program during a year. As a result of this experimental program, new and dense beds were found and regulation of extraction were established. In 1996, four fisheries vessels with equipment to process the mussels were authorized to fish. It was the beginning, of a new fishing in Argentina.
    • Pesquerías de pulpos

      Re, M.E. (Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, 1998)
      The species composition, population structure, seasonality in catches and fishing of octopuses along the Argentine coast are described from available statistical data and capture samplings. Three species of octopuses, Octopus tehuelchus, Eledone massyae and Enteroctopus megalocyathus are caught. An artisanal intertidal fishery of O.tehuelchus occurs mainly in summer, from November-December to March-April in the North Patagonian coast, especially in the San Matias Gulf, by hooks. E.massyae is caught by coastal trawlers all around the year but mainly in winter and spring in Mar del Plata and Necochea areas. E.megalocyathus is caught by hooks in the intertidal zone and by diving in the subtidal zone, from the North Patagonian gulfs (March to November)to the north coast of Santa Cruz Province (starting in June)and occasionally by coastal trawlers.
    • [OBRA COMPLETA] Avances en métodos y tecnología aplicados a la investigación pesquera. Seminario final del Proyecto INIDEP-JICA sobre evaluación y monitoreo de recursos pesqueros 1994-1999

      Japan International Cooperation Agency - JICA; Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero - INIDEP (INIDEP. Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo PesqueroMar del Plata (Argentina), 1999)
      The Seminar organized by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the National Institute for Fisheries Research and Development (INIDEP) of Argentina, was held at INIDEP, Mar del Plata from September 6-9, 1999. The publication comprises expanded abstracts of each presentation, in four Theme Sessions: Reproduction and Survival, Age and Growth, Stock Identifcation and Resource Management Techniques and Relation between Oceanographic and Fishing Conditions. Presentations focused mainly on the following marine resources: squids Illex argentinus and Loligo sanpaulensis; and fish species southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis, patagonian hoki Macruronus magellanicus, kingklip Genypterus blacodes, patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides, and anchovy Engraulis anchoita.
    • Calamares de importancia comercial en Argentina. Biología, distribución, pesquerías y muestreo biológico

      Brunetti, N.E.; Ivanovic, M.L.; Sakai, M. (1999)
      An overview of the available information on the commercially important squid species distributed in the Argentine Sea and adjacent zones is given. It includes the most representative characteristics to identify the species and general information on their biology, distribution and fisheries. A biological sampling designis presented, with particular emphasis on the identification of sexual maturity stages. The world market of the squid resources has considerably risen in the last decades and one of the most important fishery zones is placed in the Southwest Atlantic region (Area 41, FAO), where squid represent 25. of the total landings. Illex argentinus, sustains the second fishery in volume, with landings reaching 612.000 tonnes in 1999. Other species, such as Loligo sanpaulensis, Loligo gahi and Martialia hyadesi, are supporting small domestic fisheries. Also included is the current knowledge on Ommastrephes bartrami and Thysanoteuthis rhombus, cosmopolitan species that sustain important fisheries in other regions, and could be fishery exploitably alternatives here. A special case is that of Moroteuthis ingens, a worldwide particularly abundant species, but whose exploitation has been not developed yet. Finally, the giant squid (Architeuthis sp.)is included, as it started to appear frequently in this region during the last years and its knowledge is of high scientific value.
    • Clave de identificación de las rayas del litoral marítimo de Argentina y Uruguay (Chondrichthyes, Familia Rajidae).

      Cousseau, M.B.; Figueroa, D.E.; Diaz de Astarloa, J.M. (2000)
      The paper has two parts. The first part comprises and illustrated identification key of the 22 species of the Rajidae Family that authors recognize in the study area. The second part includes a design of the dorsal face, a brief description and a chart distribution given for each species. Given the fact that, with a few exceptions, all species are named skates ('rayas'), common names are suggested by the authors.
    • Estratificación y análisis de la eficacia y la eficiencia de la flota costera de pequeña escala perteneciente a la Sociedad de Patrones Pescadores del puerto de Mar del Plata.

      Errazti, E.; Hernandez, D.R.; Bertolotti, M.I.; Buono, J.J. (Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, 2001)
      This chapter includes an economic analysis of the small scale fleet of the Mar del Plata harbour, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The original study was carried out at the request of the Skippers Fisheries Society to find out the relative efficacy and efficiency of homogeneous groups of associated vessels. Based on the information available, to tune the observed data, assess the relative efficacy and estimate the relative economic efficiency of the fleet, an ad hoc model was designed. Length, gross registered tonnage, engine power and number of crew members were considered and analyzed as structural variables for 1995, 1996 and 1997. No changes in variables for the period were observed so, the efficacy and efficiency analysis was carried out for the year 1997. The small scale coastal fleet was classified in two strata. Stratum II was 119. more efficient than stratum I.