Using Biotechnology and Chemical Approach Extraction of Chitin and Conversion to Chitosan from the Cyst Shells of Artemia urmiana
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AbstractChitin and chitosan are 2 very important products of biopolymer that enjoy high consumption in industry, but their production sources are very limited. In this study, Artemia urmiana cyst shells were obtained from previously collected and stored ones in Iranian Artemia Research Center. 20 kg of Artemia urmiana cyst shells were sampled, cleaned, separated, dried and transferred to Iranian Artemia Research Center Laboratory to extract their Chitin and chitosan. Their chitin and chitosan initially were extracted using optimized common chemical methods. Their properties were compared to 2 other types of Chitin and chitosan obtained from crab and shrimp manufactured by Vietnam and China, respectively. To determine their quality, elemental analysis device , infrared spectrophotometry, x –ray radiography , determination of viscosity , molecular weight, crystallinity percent , color, de stylization measure , empirical and molecular formulas were made . The results showed that the percentage of chitin obtained from Artemia cyst Shells in Chemical method was 28 ± 3 % by weight and efficiency into chitosan (grade steel relief) in this method was 50 ± 5 %. To optimize the extraction procedure and the removal of proteins of chitin by biological practices that were done by sodium hydroxide in the chemical method, it was replaced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. And in the bio- phase of chitosan de steelation fungus Aspergillus niger enzyme was replaced instead of sodium hydroxide at high temperatures. The results showed that chitin and chitosan can be extracted from Artemia cyst shell using biological method and their characteristics included as in chitin49.6% C , 8.2 % N , 7.5 % H, and 34.5 % O . Also the same levels for chitosan were 44.4 %, 8.9, 7.2 and 39.5 %, respectively. Their other quality characteristics were included chitin average molecular weight 4.9 × 10 6 Dalton , crystallinity percentage of 36.4 , viscosity at 20 ° C 31 centipoise and its color was gray to brown . In the biologic method, the average molecular weight of chitosan, crystallinity percentage, viscosity at 20 ° C, were 5.1 × 105 Dalton, 94.5, and 18 centipoises, respectively. Also, its color was pale brown. Chemical structure of extracted chitin and chitosan from the shell of Artemia urmiana cysts were C_7H_12NO_4 and C_6H_11 NO_4c , respectively . The comparison of chitin and chitosan obtained from each chemical and biological method revealed that replacing biological methods instead of chemical methods is possible in achieving these products at suitable condition and better quality . This can eliminate the use of chemicals damaging the environment such as sodium hydroxide and decrease environmental pollution.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : Nr47668;