Determination of best condition for fermentation of organic manure for utilization in aquaculture
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AbstractIn 22 August of 2000 an adequate amount of fresh cow manure was transported form Golshahr Cow Farm and deposited in the experiment site. The transported manure was divided equally between five treatments of siloes, depots without plastic coverage, depots with plastic coverage, barrels and tubes. Deposited manures retained in the treatments till 20 May 2001. During the retention time, sampling from three points of cow farm and other treatments carried out with monthly intervals and samples were analyzed for determination -of Ca, Na, NDF. ADF. crude protein, crude fat, moisture; crude fiber, minerals, dry mater and NFE. Temperature, pH and redox potential were measured in situ and all data were analyzed statistically by SAS general linear models. The results showed that month and treatment exert significant effects (P<0.01, on the variations of the most measured parameters. Depots with plastic coverage had highest mean temperature and then there were depots without plastic coverage, siloes and barrels, respectively. “The temperature increased significantly in the first month of retention but showed some fluctuations in subsequent 4-5 months and then remained relatively constant till the end of experiment period. Depots without plastic coverage showed highest moisture. Optimum moisture value of 40-50 percent obtained for siloes and depots with plastic coverage. Lowest Ca and highest Na values were measured in fresh manure of the cow farm. In two first month of retention time NDF decreased significantly in most treatment but increased subsequently and reached maximum 'percentages during 5-6th month of retention. In first month of retention ADF showed significant decrease in most of treatments but increased in further months and reached to maximum percentage after 4 month retention. In siloes, depots without plastic coverage, and depots with plastic coverage the percentages of protein and fat reduced significantly in the first month of retention, modified during subsequent 6 months and reach valuable percentages. Depots with plastic coverage showed maximum and most suitable protein and fat percentages of about 9 and 2.75 percent after 6 months retention. The percent of crude fiber decreased to minimum level after 3, 5 and l, retention months in siloes, depots without plastic coverage, and depots with plastic coverage and barrels respectively. Values of surface pH in siloes, depots without plastic coverage vice versa of other parameters were minima of 7.1-7.5 at the beginning of retention time that reached to 7.8-8.4 after 4 retention months. The pH of cow farm mostly was more than other treatments. Amount of redox potential in cow farm, siloes, depots without plastic coverage, depots with plastic coverage and barrels fluctuated between -48 to -109, -84 to -12, -62 to -22, -86 to -30 and -65 to -21 millivolt. The minimum levels were at beginning of period and the maximum levels obtained after 4 months of retention in treatment I and 2, after 3 months in treatments 3 and after 5 months in treatment 4. Therefore with care to extent and terns of parameters changes in variation treatments, depots with plastic coverage can introduce the best retention conditions during 4-6 months for decomposition of organic manure for usage in aquaculture.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Series : NrOcr Translate Report (68);