Evaluation of the effect of electromagnetic waves of mobile phone on koi fish reproduction (Cyprinus carpio)
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Sayyad Bourani, Mohammad
Sadeqinejad Masouleh, E.
Sayyad Bourani, M.
Maqsoudiyeh Kohan, H.
Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H.
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AbstractGiven the advancement of electronic technologies and the impact of its application on the environment, especially aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to address its various aspects, to be attended its various aspects, particularly about electromagnetic waves and their effects on fish as the most important aquatic animal with economic aspects. The present study was designed to reduce the dramatic decline in the production of ornamental fish, in particular the koi fish in Zanjan province, and the research application of the provincial fisheries department to investigate the effects of environmental electromagnetic waves as one of the important alternatives to reduce the proliferation of koi fish. In the present study, the effect of mobile electromagnetic waves (900 MHz) on gonadosomatic index (GSI) and Hepatosomatic index (HSI), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), and gonadal tissue structure of male and female fish brooders during 10 days and in 3 experimental groups including: control (without receiving waves), treatment 1 and treatment 2 (each one, 4 times a day and each time for 30 minutes in faced with mobile phones in standby position and calling mode, respectively). Biometry of broodstocks, blood sampling from caudal vein, centrifuge and serum isolation, determination of RBC, WBC, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, and LH, dissection, GSI and HIS calculation, Gonadal sampling, and classical histology were done at the end of the experiment. The success of reproductive production in males and females was more than the other two treatments. In both sexes, the HSI index of treatment 2 significantly increased. The lowest mean of RBC, Hb and Hct was in broiler breeders, and the highest levels of WBC and neutrophil and the lowest percent of lymphocyte in male broodstocks belonged to treatment 2. Histological results showed that the number of ovaries in treatment 1 and 2 was significantly higher than control. Atresia and defects in the previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes and degeneration in nuclei, cytoplasm, vitelline envelope and membrane folliclar cells were found in the ovarian tissue of the treatment groups 1 and 2. In gonad of male broodstocks, the mean of large and small diameters and the mean of area and perimeter of the testis lobules, and the sperm occuping the lumen of the testis lobules in treatments 1 and 2 were less than control. Epithelial thickness and tissue defect of treatment 1 and 2 were higher in the control group. The histopathological signs observed in the testis tissue of the brooders in treatment 1 were: Degeneration and breakdown in the testis lobul epithelium, abnormal lobular structure, lumens filled with inactive or anomalous spermatogonies and pre-existing of nucleos of sperm cells, testis tissue necrosis, thickness and fibrosis of epithelial wall of lobuls, and cellular degeneration In some of the lobules, and in treatment 2: degeneration and destruction of stroma in some lobules, degradation in a significant part of the testicular tissue, the appearance of alveolus in epithelium cells (destruction of the germ cell nucleus), fibrosis, and filamentation in the epithelium of lobules, thickness and breakdown in the epithelium of the lobules, in some places, and extensive vacuolization in the lumen of the lobules was observed. In general, the results showed that mobile-induced electromagnetic waves (frequency: 900 MHz, wavelength: 1-103 mm) produced numerous negative biological effects on female and male of koi fish, especially male brooders. So, with providing the necessary conditions for reproduction in Koi brooders (including: the temperature of water near 20 ° C, the oxygen level is at least 5 mgL-1, Non-ionized ammonia and nitrite levels of less than 0.05 mgL-1 and pH range near 7), it should be avoid to use of electromagnetic devices, especially mobile phones at the hatcheries and in the adjacent of fish tanks at the reproduction time.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute