Survey of reproductive physiology on Epinephelus coioides in Khozestan province, Persian Gulf
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AbstractEpinephelus coioides (family serranidae) is protogynous. This species is one of the most important fishes in food chain of marine proteins of persian Gulf. Therefore knowing about the reproductive biology and physiology of this species is an important role on aquaculture procedures. Monthly samples of Epinephelus coioides were obtained in khozestan Bahrekan province from 2001 to 2002 for annual variation of base line of reproductive hormone. The hormones such as: 17-B estradiol, Testosteron, Progesterone, Gonadotropin I ,II GTHI, II) and cortisol have assayed and also different stages of gonads from the histological point of view were studied by light and electron microscope. Aditional to morphometric and fecundity measurements, the important factors such as : Gonadosomatic index (GSI) Hepatosomotic index (HSI) and Condition factor (KF) were also studied. Environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, photoperiod and pH were analyzed for the determination of effective factors responsible for the changes of reproductive cycles. The flactmation of estroid hormones and gonadotropines show a significant variation in different stages of maturation, e.g 17-B estradiol's concentration in the third stages, GTH II in fourth stages of sexual maturation or final oocyte maturation, plasma Testosteron in post ovulation and Progesterone during maturation indicates the highest levels of above mentioned hormones. The total calcium concentration was high in all year. calcium concentration was correlated with GTH II synthesis and increases with GTH II in June. 17-B estradiol concentration was also correlated with GSI. The high concentration of cortisol throughout the year was an index of stress and development of ovary maturational processes. This species was protogynous synchronous hermaphrodites , and belongs to annual spawning species, being monandric. The sexual transition was found to occure in individuals of 51.2- 105 cm in length. GSI and HSI level confirms the time of spawning period is in April- June. Electrone microscopic studies of gonad tissues showed some changes in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in the post ovulation, maturation and post spawning periods. During the monthly sampling the biochemistry of tissues variations indicated decrease in protein and lipid content, but an increase in water content of spawning fishes which was correlated to the maturation of Epinephelus coioides . sex ratio indicative of higher frequences of females to males during monthly sampling periods. The females were smaller than males in sizes, therefore the females lived in 8-15m depth, but males were living in upper limits of depth. The results indicated that the temperature was the most effective parameter in reproductive cycle of Epinephelus coioides and the mean 24°c was a convenient temperature for spawning. Photoperiod was the second effective. factor on the reproductive cycle for this species. It seemed that the increase in the photoperiod between January to May caused a development of the oocyte. Regarding to the results of this research, it seems that the period of spawning in Epinephelus coioides is in May- June and the aquaculture procedure of Epinephelus coioides could be performed in the above mentioned periods.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute