Biology and distribution of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in province waters (Abadan Bhrakan)
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AbstractThis survay has been done from Januray 2000 till May 2002 in Khouzestan costal waters. Four species of grouper were identified from which orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was the dominant species. For studing environmental parameters and reproductive biology, age, growth parameters and mortality rate samples were collected by fishing ship. Samples were taken montly in 4 days by fishing traps and trawls. In addition, some samples were obtained from Khozestan fish landing centres. Environmental factors such as PH, 02, salinity, water temperature and depth of traping areas, were measured. To identify species, morphometric characteries of 452 individal fishes were measured. Stomach contents of 394 fish were has survaid, from which stomach of 226 fish, and 168 fish had empty stomachs. Percentage of empty stomachs (cv) in males was more than females. Food items found in 73 percent of stomach were crab (11%), shrimps (8.8%) , squids (3.9%), gastropods (17%) and bivalves (0.4%). Feeding intensity in year classes did not obay logic trends The importance relatively indicator (I.R.I) were 81, 9.9, 4, 1.5 and 0.3 percent for fish, crab, shrimp, squid, gastropod and bivalve respectively. For age determination, sagita otoliths of 450 fish were taken and countable sections were obtained from 425 specimens. Relative frequency distribution of opaque and transparent rings showed that each opaque growth ring generates once a year from November to September. It seemed that generation of opaque rings is affected by temperature and photoperiod changes. Correlation between length and age was calculated using Von Bertalanffy's least square method. Following equasion was obtaind: L(t) : 122.27 (1 e 0.146 (t+0.482)) Growth parameters were determined through by Ford Walford equasion and Response Surface and Shepherd subcommands in Elefan program and L00 and K amounts were have determined. Correlation between length and age of 635 fish was determined by gender . Length and age correlation was calculated by exponential model and between total length and standard length by straghit line model. Correlation between age and weight of sagita was calculated by total length and age. The most Correlation was between sagita weight and fish age (r=0.876). Total mortality rate (z) was estimated by Length Converthed Method , Jones and Vanzaling and Powel Wetherall. Total mortality rate was z=0.39. Natural mortality rate, using Pauly method was calculated M=0.32. Fishing mortality (F) was 0.08. Gonads of 425 fishes were surveid within 18 month, from which 363 were female, 46 were male and 16 were sex reversing individuals .Total length of females varied from 26 to 95.5 centimeters while males length varied from 56.5 to 107 centimeters. Sex reversing individuals had a length of 47.5 centimeters, when two years old and 62.5 centimeters at age of 3 years. From the mentioned 425 fish, 401 individuals were matured, containing 339 females and 62 males, 5.47 females against each male. Montly changes of Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) by total body weight and standard length and total body length showed that this index increases from march to May and maximum increase was in May . This experiment was adapted in spawning season. Potential, relative, and absoulate fecundity was estimated by counting eggs in three samples. Total amount of traped fish using special traps was 16182.18 kg from which Epinephelus coioides provided catching 15353.43 kg of it (91.27 %) and By catch was 141.18 kg (8.24 %). Total average CPUE for whole catch was 123.33 kg/day/vessel. Total amount of catch was estimated 232.04 tons, considering CPUE of total catch and total Khuzestan trap ships effort.
Publisher or UniversityIranian Fisheries Science Research Institute