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  • Ice gouging effects on the eastern Arctic shelf of Russia

    Libina, N. V.; Nikiforov, S. L. (2018)
    Results of the latest geological and geophysical marine cruises indicate activating of natural risks (or hazards) processes connected with ice gouging, permafrost melting, landslides, coastal thermoerosion and seismic activity. These processes represent great risks for all human marine activities including exploitation of the Northern Sea Route (NSR). One of the most dangerous natural processes is ice gouging, which results in the ploughing of the seabed by an underwater part of ice bodies. Ice gouging processes can create some emergency situation in the construction and operation of any underwater engineering structures. Natural seismoacoustic data obtained within the eastern Arctic shelf of Russia have recorded numerous ice gouging trails both in the coastal shallow and deep parts of the shelf as well. Modern high-resolution seismic devices have allowed receive detailed morphology parameters of underwater ice traces. The actual depth and occurrence of traces of the effect of ice formations on the bottom significantly exceed the calculated probability of occurrence according to ice conditions. Seismic data have allowed classify all these traces and subdivide them on modern coastal and ancient (or relict) deep ones. During Late Quaternary sea level down lifting the absence of cover glaciation did not exclude the presence of powerful drifting ice that produced ice gouging processes in the present deep part of the sea. Afterwards during sea level up lifting ice gouging follows to the sea level changes. In this case there could be destructed some dense clay dewatered sediment layer formed during the regression period. Further, during the repeated transgressive-regressive sea level fluctuations the generated ice traces could be frozen and thus preserved until our days. Modern coastal ice traces into marine shallow are the result of nowadays interaction of drifting ice and seabed that in conditions of global climate warming are activated and represent natural risks along the NSR.
  • Distribution of background contents of elements in sediments of Lake Imandra

    Dauvalter, V. A.; Kashulin, N. A. (2018)
    The background contents of the elements in the sediments of the largest lake of the Murmansk region – Imandra – have been investigated. The background concentrations values of the elements have been determined in the deepest parts of the collected sediment cores. The sedimentation rate in the lakes of North Fennoscandia, including the Murmansk region, is on average 1 mm per year, and the range is between 0.3 and 3 mm/year. The collection of sediment cores 20–25 cm long has been carried out during the study of Lake Imandra. Industrial development of unique deposits of sulfide and apatite-nepheline ores on the watershed of Lake Imandra started in the early 30s of the last century. Consequently, the natural background element contents are fixed in the lower layers of the collected sediment cores. Two groups of elements have been identified by the mathematical statistics methods (correlation and factor analysis): the first group is heavy metals, the second group is alkaline (Na and K) and alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Mg and Sr), Al and P. These elements are in elevated contents in the rock-forming minerals on the catchment area of Lake Imandra: the first group is in the northern part of the catchment area (sulfide copper-nickel ores of Monche Tundra), the second group is in the southeastern part of the catchment area (apatite-nepheline deposits of the Khibiny Alkaline Massif). The largest average background contents of heavy metals (except Co, Pb and As) are noted in the northern part of the Bolshaya Imandra; Ca, Na, Sr, Al and P – in the southern part of the Bolshaya Imandra; Mn – in the Yokostrovskaya Imandra, and Fe – in the Babinskaya Imandra, which is associated with specific conditions for the formation of oxides and hydroxides of these metals in the sediments. The highest background contents of K and Mg are noted in the Babinskaya Imandra, which may be due to the wide distribution of clay minerals with a high content of these metals.
  • Zoning of the White Sea catchment area by the degree of continental runoff influence on the marine environment

    Bulavina, А. S. (2018)
    Methodologies for the integral evaluation of the potential impact of continental runoff on the marine aquatic environment have been developed and tested in relation to the catchment area of the White Sea. Integral indicators of pollution potential (PP) and self-purification capacity (SPC) of the river waters have been calculated within the boundaries of the hydrologic areas. The following indicators have been used to calculate the PP: the volume of wastewater and the population density in the catchment area (anthropogenic components of pollution), sediment load (a natural component of pollution). Such natural settings of the catchment as the lake percentage, woodiness and the role of topography in self-purification of rivers have been used to calculate the SPC. The quality of river waters, entering the sea, is the result of the ratio of the proposed integrated indicators. On the basis of the quantitative ratios of PP and SPC, the zoning of the catchment area according to the degree of the negative impact of river waters on water quality in the White Sea has been performed. The resulting zoning scheme is demonstrated as a holistic picture, representing a complex of natural-economic factors on the river catchments of the White Sea basin. It has been revealed that river runoff from a considerable part of the catchment area has not a significant negative impact on the water quality on the White Sea. The greatest pollution effect on the waters of the White Sea has the Northern Dvina River and the Niva River. The obtained data are well correlated with the data of hydrochemical observations in the bays of the White Sea. The objectivity of integrated assessment has been provided by the base on a large number of field data and the exception of the indicators that have not quantitative expression. The obtained results can be used to develop scientifically valid environmental programmes and to plan industrial development in the catchment area.
  • The formation of the chemical composition of groundwater in South Prohibiny using the example of "Predgorny" water intake

    Mazukhina, S. I.; Pozhilenko, V. I.; Masloboev, V. A.; Sandimirov, S. S.; Gorbacheva, T. T.; Drogobuzhskaya, S. V.; Ivanov, S. V. (2018)
    Researchers from Russia and foreign countries, studying medical and environmental contamination of drinking water, point to the relationship of public health with chemical composition of groundwater and anthropogenic inclusions. The aim of the work is to detect the change in chemical composition of natural waters formed within the Khibiny massif and its closest framing depending on the composition of rocks in the catchment area and on anthropogenic impact by means of physical and chemical modeling and modern precision methods of analysis. To achieve the goal the sampling has been taken at the "Predgorny" water intake (Koashva, the Kirovsk district). The complete hydrochemical analysis has shown the presence in waters of such elements as uranium, molybdenum, silver, barium, which supplemented the database of groundwater chemical composition. For the physical-chemical modeling, there have been made some samples of chemical analyzes of the most common rocks composing the southeastern part of the Khibiny massif as the main catchment area. The analysis of the obtained results has made it possible to separate the rock influence from anthropogenic, natural chemical composition of waters from filtered mined (anthropogenic). It has been shown that already in natural (pure) waters the ratios of Ca/P and Ca/Sr can lead to bone diseases. It has been determined that the chemical composition of groundwater from the "Predgorny" water intake is affected by the chemical composition of rocks and surface waters containing oxygen, nitrogen nitrates, chlorine, which affect pH (reducing it), the migration patterns of aluminum, manganese, iron and other elements. In the bones of humans and animals, approximately 70 % falls on hydroxyl apatite Ca5(PO4)3OH. OH group can be replaced by F, Cl, O. Calcium can be isomorphically replaced by a number of elements: Sr, U, Ba, etc. that lead to diseases of bones and teeth. The research results can be useful in the fields of geochemistry, hydrology, ecology, and medicine.
  • Extraction of bioflocculants from activated sludge and their application to wastewater treatment

    Vasilieva, Zh. V.; Moshnyatckaya, E. Yu. (2018)
    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) – biopolymers produced by the microorganisms – are effective flocculants of wastewater pollution and lack the shortcomings of traditional coagulants and flocculants, which can pose direct threat to health and human life, as well as to the sustainable existence of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. EPS do not form secondary contamination of their degradation intermediates, are biodegradable and eco-friendly. Industrial production of bacterial EPS is associated with high cost of growing specific microbial biomass and the functioning of technologies for the synthesis of microbial products. At the same time, there is an underused resource of excess activated sludge, which can be used as cheap substrate for producing bioflocculants and a possible measure to reduce costs. The conducted researches have shown the prospects of extracting EPS from excess activated sludge for their subsequent use as wastewater treatment bioflocculants. EPS extraction has been conducted using three methods: combination of centrifugation processes, extraction using the aqueous solution of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and precipitation with isopropyl alcohol (the EDTA method); combination of centrifugation, extraction with (NH2)2CO, precipitation and ethanol reprecipitation (the (NH2)2CO method); combination of activated sludge ultrasonic treatment, centrifugation, extraction with glacial acetic acid, and precipitation with acetone (the CH3COOH method). The research has shown that the extraction method affects not only the efficiency of EPS extraction, but also the possibility of EPS application for the purification of certain types of sewage. The (NH2)2CO method has shown the best extraction efficiency, but at the same time EPSs produced have not be able to perform fish processing wastewater treatment. The EDTA and CH3COOH methods are more preferable for producing efficient bioflocculants for fish processing wastewater treatment. The use of EPS obtained by the EDTA method has resulted in the significant reduction of total suspended solids and optical density; EPS produced by the CH3COOH method have reduced the content of dissolved solids and the optical density. According to the conducted research EPS produced from surplus sludge with the EDTA and CH3COOH methods have good flocculation and are harmless for humans and the environment, and thus may be a potential substitute for traditional synthetic flocculants and could be used in the treatment of fish processing plants wastewaters.
  • Functional activity of microorganisms in mining and processing of copper-nickel ores in the Murmansk Region

    Fokina, N. V.; Yanishevskaya, E. S.; Svetlov, A. V.; Goryachev, A. A. (2018)
    The quantitative indices and structure of the microbial community in flotation samples of sulfide copper-nickel ores at concentration plant of Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company have been determined. The smallest number of saprotrophic and oligotrophic bacteria has been observed in samples of ore and recycled water, which can be explained by the low temperature of samples and the lack of nutrients. It has been found out that the bacteria contained in the ore and recycling water flowing from the tailings increased their number during the flotation process due to coming of the organic compounds with the flotation reagents, aeration and increased temperature. Dominating strains have been isolated from recycled water and basic flotation products and classified as Pseudomonas. It has been shown that with an increase in the number of bacteria, the flotation time of copper-nickel ores increases. There is also a tendency to change the extraction of copper and nickel, which can be caused by both the increase in the flotation time for operations and the change in the number of bacteria in the circulating water. The thionic bacteria have been distinguished from the flow tailings of the Allarechensk deposit. The heap leaching experiments have proved the bacterial leaching to give good results on the ore samples passed through magnetic separation, having shown high content of the nickel and copper in filters. When leaching low-grade ore of the Nude Terrasa, the advantage of bacterial leaching use in comparison with the sulphuric-acid leaching only to copper has been revealed. The nickel content in the filtrates for bacterial leaching is 275 mg/l, and for sulfuric acid – 310 mg/l. The average copper content in the filtrates is 19 and 15 mg/l.
  • Spatial-temporal variability of soils' acidity of Northern taiga forests at lower technogenic load

    Sukhareva, T. A. (2018)
    The condition of soil under the influence of airpollutions сopper-nickel smelter "Severonickel" (Monchegorsk, the Murmansk region) have been analyzed. The spatial-temporal dynamics of acidity of Al-Fe podzolic organic soil horizon in the process of technogenic digression of spruce and pine forests has been performed. The studies conducted in 1992 and 2007 on fixed sample plots at different distances from the emission source. Parcellary differences have been found in background spruce forest, where the actual acidity of organic soil horizon spruce parcels is lower than between crown space. Under air pollution parcellary differences of soil acidity are not expressed. In the pine forests the spatial dynamics is characterized by reduced actual and hydrolytic acidity of the organic horizon and the growing exchange of aluminium along a gradient of atmospheric pollution. In defoliating spruce forests and sparse forests the actual soil acidity reduction is observed only in between crown spaces, and hydrolytic soil acidity – in both parcels. The stage of initial defoliation of the crowns of coniferous trees, most remote from the source of emission of pollutants is identified. At this stage, the organogenic horizon of the spruce soils is more acidic than in the undisturbed phytocenosis, and the hydrolytic acidity of the soils remains at the background level. Under the reduction of atmospheric emissions soil acidity decreased in defoliating forests in 2007. In the immediate vicinity of the smelter (7–10 km) soil pH has not changed during the study period. In the pine defoliating forests and sparse forests hydrolytic soil acidity has increased. In spruce forests under atmospheric pollution, the level of hydrolytic and exchange acidity has decreased, with the exception of the stages of initial defoliation of North taiga forests. The exchange soil acidity, the content of the exchange of aluminium and exchange of hydrogen reliably increase at this stage of forest digression. The results of the research can be used in monitoring environment, assessing soil fertility of forest ecosystems under the influence of natural and technogenic factors and contribute to the development of methods of disturbed soils' rehabilitation.
  • Isotope-geochronological study of Ingozero massive (the Kola Peninsula)

    Nitkina, E. A.; Bayanova, T. B. (2018)
    The Ingozero massive composed of Archeaen gneisses and granitoids is situated in the north-eastern part of the Belomorian mobile belt. The Ingozero massive petrochemical and geochemical characteristics are similar to those of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) complexes established on other Archean shields. High concentrations of Na, Ca, and low of K characterize the gneisses of the Ingozero massif and the samples points lie on the tonalite and trondhjemite fields on the Ab-An-Or diagram. The high content of light rare earth elements and the absence of Eu anomalies indicate the origin of rocks from enriched sources without the essential role of fractional crystallization. The isotope U-Pb single zircon grains dating of the biotite gneisses yielded the oldest age for the Ingozero gneisses magmatic protolith at 3 149 ± 46 Ma. Model Sm-Nd ages have shown the formation of the gneisses protolith initial melt occurred at 3.1–2.8 Ga. The ages of metamorphic processes were determined by isotope U-Pb dating (ID TIMS): biotite gneisses – 2 697 ± 9 Ma; amphibolebiotite gneisses – 2 725 ± 2 and 2667 ± 7 Ma; and biotite-amphibole gneisses – 2 727 ± 5 Ma. The ages for granitoids, which cut the deformed gneisses are 2 615 ± 8 Ma and 2 549 ± 30 Ma for plagiogranites and pegmatoid veins in gneisses respectively.
  • Genesis of apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites of the Petyayan-vara rare-earth occurrence (Vuoriyarvi, the Kola Region)

    Kozlov, E. N.; Fomina, E. N.; Sidorov, M. Yu.; Kirkin, V. V. (2018)
    The objects of the study are apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites ("titanium carbonatites") associated with the rare earth carbonatites of the Petyayan-Vara area of the Vuoriyarvi complex (the Kola region). In this paper, the following mechanism for the formation of these rocks has been substantiated based on the agreed results of mineralogical and geochemical studies. Prior to the onset of carbonatite genesis, a fluorine-enriched fluid phase originated in the lower horizons of the complex passed along the deep-permeating fracture system of several hundred meters length up to the level of the modern erosion surface. It transported Al, Fe2+, Mg, Ti, P into the pyroxenites and Si, Ca and Na out of them, as a result of which the pyroxenites were transformed into giantgrained phlogopite rocks – glimmerites. The most probable source of this fluid is alkaline aluminosilicate magma. Then carbonate melts intruded along the same fractures. In the course of carbonatite genesis, F-fluid caused a local migration of K, Al, Si, Fe, P, Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and HREE out of glimmerites into igneous dolomite carbonatites, which led to the formation of apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites. They represent several paragenetic associations superimposed on each other, the mineral composition and the formation sequence of which correspond to the metasomatic column zones directly observed within the contact "carbonatite – altered pyroxenite". The separation of HFSE and REE is controlled by the same metasomatic column: Ti, Nb and Ta were accumulated in titanium carbonatites, i. e. in associations of the frontal and intermediate zones, and Zr, Hf and HREE – in apatitized fields corresponding to the rear zone of the column. Accordingly, the fractionation of these elements occurred due to the "fluid – rock" interaction. Subsequently, the same long-lived fractures served as a channel for REE-Sr-Ba-S fluids, but the recrystallization caused by K-Al-Si-Ti-F-metasomatism made titanium carbonatites dense and fine-grained in texture, what, in most cases, "protected" these rocks from the influences of later processes.
  • Alteration of rocks, massive sulfide ores and perspectives for gold mineralization of the Panarechenskaya structure (the Kola Peninsula)

    Kalinin, A. A.; Chernyavsky, A. V. (2018)
    The present paper has been written on the base of petrographical, geochemical, and mineralogical study of massive sulfide ores and their host rocks from the Panarechenskaya tectonic-volcanic structure in the central part of the Imandra-Varzuga belt. The massive sulfide deposit is situated in the northern part of the western caldera of the Panarechenskaya structure in medium-acid volcanics of the Samingskaya unit. Massive sulfide ore forms lens bodies 0.1–4 m thick, and have been traced with drillholes for 100 m. Lenses of massive sulfides are accompanied by zones of intense sulfide dissemination up the cross section. Host rocks are intensively altered, the main alteration processes are carbonatization and silicification. Silicification is accompanied by re-deposition of ore minerals in quartz and quartz-carbonate veinlets. The main ore mineral is pyrite, minor sulfides are chalcopyrite, pirrhotite, marcasite, arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite, and some other sulfides, as well as rarely tellurides of Pb, Ag, Bi, Au, and native gold (electrum). Precious metal mineralization is noted mainly in zones of disseminated sulfides near massive sulfide lenses. Au content in the ores is 0.25–0.35 ppm, Ag content is 1.75–2.25 ppm, Au/Ag ratio varies within 1/6–1/7 interval. High geochemical background can serve as a source of precious metals for formation of gold deposits during later superimposed hydrothermal processes. Our investigations have shown that the Panarechenskaya structure, and, first of all, its western caldera, is the area promising for gold deposits, and exploration works should concentrate on searching for quartz-carbonate mineralized veins and zones of silicification.
  • On the influence of latitudinal climatic zonation on the degradation of the Late Valday (Late Visla) glaciation with the example of marginal formations of the territories of Finland and Karelian-Kola region

    Yevzerov, V. Ya. (2018)
    It is established that the Keyva-2 ridge developed in the eastern Kola Peninsula is not a marginal formation of the Ponoy ice shield. It was mainly formed between the Kola and Belomorian glacial lobes of the late Valdai glaciation spread eastward. Using the example of the last cover glaciation, it has been shown that the latitudinal climatic zonation influenced the deglaciation process of the territories of Finland and the Karelian-Kola region. This influence manifested itself as follows: in the Kola region, where the Kola and Belomorian lobes were located near east-west, the areal deglaciation took place. On the surface of both lobes, about the same amount of solar energy came, resulting in a decrease of the ice thickness over the entire area, followed by separation of vast peripheral massifs from the active ice massif. In other words, here an areal deglaciation occurred. The areal deglaciation also manifested itself irrespective of climatic zonation during the final interstadial-stadial climatic cycle due to the low thickness of the ice cover and it spread as far as the south of Finland. However, climate exerted some influence during this period, too: the glacier in the Late Dryas in the south only overlapped Allerod bulk ridges by moraine, deformed them northward and, having moved further to the east, created a ridge of predominantly pressure moraines. In Karelia, where the glacial lobes stretched from the northwest to the southeast, the distal (frontal) part of the blades received significantly more solar energy than the proximal part. Therefore, a frontal deglaciation with a free movement of the glacier edge during the periods of interstadial warming and cooling occurred with the formation of stripes of marginal pressure-bulked (mainly pressure) formations during cooling.
  • Study of the nature of high-magnesian xenoliths of the Gabbro-10 massif, Monchegorsk Complex, the Kola Region

    Groshev, N. Yu.; Malygina, A. V.; Timofeeva, M. G. (2018)
    The results of studying geology, petrography and geochemistry of chlorite-amphibole rocks and fine-grained metagabbro in the Gabbro-10 massif have been presented. Chlorite-amphibole rocks are found as large fragments of irregular shape. They have a porphyraceous texture, a schistose structure and are enriched in magnesium and chromium (19 and 0.3 wt % respectively) concerning the metagabbro prevailing in the massif. According to the classification and variation diagrams of main elements, as well as to the diagrams of the traceelement composition normalized to primitive mantle, the chlorite-amphibole rocks are metamorphosed xenoliths of melanocratic norites of the Nyud-Poaz massif. Fine-grained metagabbros, on the other hand, occur in the form of numerous angular fragments concentrated near the lower contact of the intrusion. These massive rocks of the blastogabbroic texture are less enriched in magnesium and chromium (8 and 0.02 wt % respectively) and correspond to the composition of mesocratic gabbronorites. According to the spectra of trace elements normalized to the primitive mantle, fine-grained metagabbro, with pronounced negative Nb-Ta & Zr-Hf anomalies and positive Sr & Eu anomalies, corresponds to the rocks of the marginal zones of the NKT and Nude-Poaz massifs. However, the greatest similarity is established between these rocks and the schistose gabbroids of the marginal zone of the Gabbro-10 massif. Thus, the fragments of fine-grained metagabbro are possibly autoliths of the intrusion. Collectively, the obtained data have indicated the late intrusion of the Gabbro- 10 massif following the crystallization of the Nude-Poaz rocks, and the presence of autoliths of its own marginal zone in the massif points at several magmatic impulses during its formation.
  • Macroalgae's flora of the Kola Bay (the Barents Sea)

    Malavenda, S. V. (2019)
    The Kola Bay is the most developed part of the Barents Sea. Benthic phytocenoses of its southern part are well studied, and the Northern ones have almost no modern descriptions. Flora of the Kola Bay has not been revised since the beginning of the XX century. The list of species for the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea has been compiled based on the results of expeditions in 2009–2013. The distribution of species in the areas of the bay has been analyzed. Altogether flora according to our data includes 94 species of algae macrophytes. Species diversity decreases towards the top of the Kola Bay: in the northern knee 87 species have been identified, in the middle one – 75, and in the south – only 24. The largest number of species along one incision has been observed on the island of Toros, at the mouth of the bay, – 51. Kornmannia leptoderma and Saccorhiza dermatodea have been detected as species having conservation status.
  • Mannitol content in different parts of Fucus vesiculosus thallus from the Barents Sea in different seasons

    Klindukh, M. P. (2019)
    The data on the mannitol content in different parts of the brown algae F. vesiculosus thallus from the Barents Sea have been obtained for the first time in different seasons. Seaweed for research was collected in the Belokamennaya Bay of the Kola Bay once a season during the year. Determination of mannitol has been carried out in different parts of the thallus of algae in the physiological activity and functions performed: the apical part, the middle part of the thallus, the vesicles and the receptacles. It has been determined that the season of algae harvest significantly affects the mannitol content in different parts of the F. vesiculosus thallus. The trend of changes in the mannitol content in all researched parts of the thallus has been found: the lowest mannitol content is detected in winter (90.9–99.2 mg/g dry weight), in the summer – autumn period its content has increased to the highest within a year (111.4–150.4 mg/g dry weight). The obtained data on the change in the mannitol content in different parts of the brown alga F. vesiculosus thallus in different seasons corresponded to the previously obtained data on the change in the mannitol content in the mean sample. Unlike Saccharina latissima (Laminaria saccharina) growing in the Oscar Cove of the Barents Sea, high heterogeneity in the mannitol distribution over the brown alga F. vesiculosus thallus has not been observed. In January, April and October, there was no significant difference in the mannitol content in different parts of the brown alga F. vesiculosus thallus. In August, the greatest heterogeneity in the mannitol content in different parts of the F. vesiculosus thallus was determined. The mannitol content in F. vesiculosus receptacles in April and August was almost identical despite the varying maturity of the reproductive cells.
  • Phytobenthic communities of the Barents Sea Arctic zone and climate change

    Kapkov, V. I.; Shoshina, E. V. (2019)
    The study of species structure of benthic seaweeds populations in plant communities of the coastal Arctic zone of Arctic archipelagoes of the Barents Sea on the basis of expeditionary works' materials has been carried out. The use of benthic phytocoenoses occupying a certain biotope with characteristics of ground features, currents, ice conditions while assessing the ecological state of marine coastal Arctic ecosystems has been substantiated. The species composition of phytocoenoses of open and ice-covered areas of the sea is different. It has been established that in extreme Arctic conditions the open areas are characterized by relatively high species diversity. On the contrary at ice-covered areas the reduction of species diversity, the belt distribution of algae and simplification of the community structure as a result of reducing the links between algal populations take place. Algae in such communities are related to each other and to other benthic organisms by topical, trophic and mediative connections. The use of plant communities, rather than individual species of algae as biological indicators and monitors, allows obtaining more complete information about the ecological state of coastal biocoenozes and the ecosystem as a whole. The results of the study can also be used in forecasting the state of the biotic community under climate change in the Arctic zone of the Barents Sea. The similarity of the species composition of the phytocoenozes of the Arctic zone with those living in the boreal zone of the sea, including the Murmansk coast, with a high coefficient of floristic similarity, allows us to conclude that a possible warming will lead to formation of benthic plant communities with characteristics typical for the southern regions of the Barents Sea.
  • On the resistance of epiphytic cyanobacteria of the Kola Bay to the effects of oil hydrocarbons in the aquatic ecosystem

    Pugovkin, D. V.; Miroshnichenko, E. S.; Voskoboinikov, G. M.; Jensen, J. B.; Liaimer, A. V. (2019)
    The epiphytic communities of cyanobacteria of Fucus vesiculosus L. of the Kola Bay are able to bear the high amounts of the oil products in the environment. The results of studying the resistance of epiphytic cyanobacterial communities to oil pollution using both classical (cultural) and molecular-genetic methods of microbiological analysis have been presented. The objects of the study are the epiphytic cyanobacterial communities living on the surface of brown algae Fucus vesiculosus L. The percentage of this group of microorganisms in epiphytic bacteriocenosis in the water chronically polluted with oil products reaches 6.8 %. Morphologically epiphytic cyanobacteria are represented by single cells, filaments and colonial forms with small (1–2 µm) cells. The experiments of determining the resistance of epiphytic cyanobacterial communities to oil pollution have been carried out. There is no visible growth during the work with pure cultures of cyanobacteria in media with addition of diesel fuel. In cultures exposed in the dark, there is an increase in the intensity of the blue staining of the filaments. The survival of cyanobacteria in the long period of darkness in the presence of oil products can indicate a transition from autotrophic nutrition to heterotrophic, as well as a high adaptive ability of epiphytic cyanobacterial communities of fucus algae to the conditions of chronic oil pollution.
  • Spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Hg, As) in the estuary area of the Red River (Vietnam)

    Nguyen, N. T. T.; Volkova, I. V. (2018)
    The features of spatial distribution of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, As) in the system "suspended substance – bottom sediments" in the mouth area of the Red River (Vietnam) have been studied. The studies have been carried out during the main hydrological seasons of the years 2014–2016 (during the flood and low-water periods). Spatial analysis of the amount of heavy metals (HM) in the suspended form and in the bottom sediments has been carried out using the interpolation model in ArcGIS 10.2.2. Distribution of Pb, Hg, As concentration in the suspended form and bottom sediment phases in the estuary area of the Red River is characterized by a maximum in the mouths of the arms and a general decreasing gradient towards the sea. The maximum concentrations of Pb, Hg in suspended forms are observed in the water surface layer at the river – sea barrier. The content of Hg and As in the estuary region of the Red River has been observed in the following order: SSsurf < SSbott < BS; and content of Pb – SS > BS. By the values of the average enrichment coefficient of KSS/BS, heavy metals are located in the following decreasing series: Pb > Hg > As. Being on the river and sea boundaries of saline and fresh waters mixing zone, bottom sediments mark the local barriers within the mouth area at a distance of 20 to 30 km from the shore. Intense sedimentations and accumulations of HM in bottom sediments take place at these local barriers as a result of successive changes in the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions in the mouth area of the Red River.
  • Forest degradation as a factor of the snow cover and hydrological regime transformation in the pollution zone of Lake Imandra

    Kulesh, K. M.; Priymak, P. G. (2018)
    Degradation of terrestrial plant communities at "Severonickel" plant area (the Kola Peninsula, the town of Monchegorsk), in particular the woody layer of forest communities, has led to disturbance of the water regime and soil erosion. Early snowmelt is a consequence of the structure transformation in snow cover of the complete tree layer degradation. The increase of snow depth and density parameters is high in areas with the disturbed tree layer and is caused by a mosaic distribution of snow cover. The speed and duration of winds as well as relief significantly affect the snow cover density. Intensive wind influences in conditions of the rough terrain intersection have led to redistribution of snow: snow moves from the tops of relief to depressions and causes a strong variability in the depth and density of snow cover, especially during the snowmelt period. The snow cover is a convenient environment for depositing various pollutants which fall into the soil in the period of melting snow. From open and the most polluted territories of the impact zone thawed waters enter watercourses and reservoirs earlier than from afforested catchment areas. Removal of soil particles by groundwater into the hydrological network of Lake Imandra is an essential element of water objects eutrophication and causes early ice cover from lakes and streams along with early snowmelt in the zone of intensive pollution. Thus, results of the "Severonikel" plant activities are expressed in change in the hydrochemical regime, the structure and diversity of phyto- and zoocenoses for the hydrological water pond network of Lake Imandra.
  • Growth of Pedicularis palustris L. (Orobanchaceae) in the grassy fens of the Murmansk Region

    Kirillova, N. R. (2018)
    The main stages of ontogenetic growth of Pedicularis palustris (Orobanchaceae) in the multi-species communities of grassy fens in the central part of the Murmansk region (in the vicinity of the town of Apatity) have been considered. The work was carried out in 2012-2016 within the boundaries of two communities: a slope eriophoro-baeothrio-cyperetum mire (Population 1) and a slope eriophoro-triglochino-cyperetum mire (Population 2); herbarium and descriptive material has been collected (more than 200 individuals in 17 parameters) reflecting the sequence of passage of age-related conditions, their duration and signs. As a result of the experiments, the low germination of seeds of Pedicularis palustris has been detected. In the development of this biennial semi-parasitic plant, three periods (latent, regenerative, generative) have been identified, four ontogenetic states (resting seeds, seedlings, juvenile, vegetative and generative) and their main features have been described. The scheme of ontogenesis has been presented. The full growth of wetland marsh in the communities under study takes place during two growing seasons. The main phenological phases of the generative period have been determined: flowering from the end of June to August, maturing of seeds from the end of July to the end of August. In the autumn of the first year of life, a rosette vegetative plant forms a vegetative-generative kidney and in the spring of the following year it continues vegetation, reaches a generative state, fructifies and dies. It has been established that the entire cycle of Pedicularis palustris ontogenesis in the Far North takes place in 14–15 months. Juvenile species that gravitate towards r-development strategies respond quickly to changes in the environment by changing the structure of the population, therefore studying their biology and development features helps to track these species in their habitats.
  • On formation of substance flows in aerotechnogenically degraded forest landscape

    Yevtyugina, Z.A.; Kopylova, Yu.G.; Guseva, N.V. (2018)
    A retrospective analysis of the formation of substance flows in aerotechnogenically degraded forest landscape has been carried out based on the results of testing the atmospheric, soil and stream waters in the vicinity of the Severonickel Combine. The composition of the stream waters draining the aerotechnologically transformed landscape is compared in the period of the greatest volumes of the plant's emissions (1987–1990) with the chemical composition of the stream waters in 2014 and 2016. The current composition of the watercourse is determined using ion chromatography, potentiometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The influence of forest litter of different stages of decomposition on the structure of waters infiltrating into mineral horizons of soils has been shown. The decrease in Ni concentrations in the litter on the fallow as compared to Ni in atmospheric precipitation is not reliable, however the Ni flow (mg/m2) from the litter is reduced. The Cu flux from the litter on the fallow is almost eight times less than the atmospheric flow of Cu. In the zone of intensive exposure to emissions in the absence of stagnant moistening, the organic material can be a source of nutrients for vegetation, even if the Cu and Ni content in the waters seeping through this material is hundreds of times higher than their baseline values, but under the condition of multiple dominance of Ca concentration above the content of Cu and Ni in these waters. On steep slopes where the soil is eroded to mineral horizons, and moisture cannot be retained in the biologically active area of the landscape, the development of vegetation is impossible without meliorative measures. A reconnaissance survey of the territory has shown that in the zone of destroyed forests and technogenic wastelands, in areas where there is running water and there are outcrops of groundwater in the form of springs, vegetation develops, renewal of deciduous and coniferous trees begins. In the stream waters draining the aerotechnologically transformed landscape the concentrations of SO42–, Cl– and K have decreased, and HCO3– and Si have increased. Concentrations of Ni and Cu and Al, Fe, Mn as well according to the Mann – Whitney test have not changed. It has been assumed that this is due to increasing the size of man-made wastelands in the autonomous positions of the landscape.

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