Recent Submissions

  • Ore mineralization of gold-uranium occurrences Ozernoe and Lagernoe (Kuolayarvi structure, North Karelia)

    Koval, A. V.; Bogachev, V. A.; Petrov, S. V. (2019)
    Alkaline-carbonate metasomatites of fault zones are widely distributed within all Precambrian shields. Their studying has attracted the close attention of researchers in connection with the confinement of various concentrations of ore-forming elements. In addition, a clear structural control of metasomatites, their composition and stages of development are of great importance for the predictive assessment of geological structures. Kuolayarvi zone is one of the most promising in the Republic of Karelia in terms of prospecting, evaluating and possible industrial production of gold and uranium. On its territory, the Mayskoye gold deposit has been identified, as well as a number of complex gold-uranium ore occurrences, among which Ozernoye and Lagernoye are of the greatest interest. This paper discusses the features of the ore mineralization of these ore manifestations, as well as the dependence of its composition on the primary rock that has undergone hydrothermal-metasomatic study. In the general sequence of forming ore minerals, six parageneses (rock, uranium ore, sulphide, selenide-telluride, low-temperature and hypergenic) have been revealed. It has been also established that gold mineralization is associated with the selenide-telluride paragenesis, and uranium – with the uranium ore and low-temperature ones. The interrelation of the ore parageneses with the global stages of the development of the Kuolayarvi structure (Svekofennian and Paleozoic activization) has been shown. New data on the Re-Os isotope dating of sulfide formation minerals (chalcopyrite and molybdenite), with which gold mineralization is closely associated, have been presented. The so-called "chemical" isotope age of uraninite has been calculated as well. The obtained isotopic data allow us to consider that the formation of minerals of the uranium and gold ore formations took place during the period of the Svekofennian activation of the Kuolayarvi structure.
  • Sequence of REE-Th-U minerals in the Litsa uranium ore area (the Kola Region)

    Kaulina, T. V.; Lyalina, L. M.; Il'chenko, V. L. (2019)
    Mineralogical and petrographic study of REE-Th-U mineralization in rocks of the Litsa uranium ore area has been carried out to detail the sequence of formation of rare-earth, uranium and thorium minerals in rocks. The study has been aimed to Dikoe ore occurrence with the earliest in the area REE-Th-U mineralization described by previous workers. Rocks and minerals have been studied by means of optical and electron microscopy, as well as microprobe methods, this has made it possible to identify the relationship of minerals and the sequence of their crystallization. In monzodiorite veins and host biotite gneisses are found accessory minerals represented by monazite-(Ce), uraninite, zircon, apatite, and thorite, which are in close association with each other, but are formed at different stages of formation and transformation of the host rocks. Monazite-(Ce) with high thorium content (9–10 %) in association with apatite grows at the magmatic stage of monzodiorite crystallization both in the veins themselves and after the fine-grained mass of minerals in the biotite plates of the host gneisses. Magmatic zircon with elevated content of thorium and uranium crystallizes in veins together with monazite and apatite. The formation of uraninite, containing impurities of sulfur, yttrium and calcium, and associated with areas of granulation of plagioclase, occurs as a result of hydrothermal-metasomatic processes in veins simultaneously with the formation of textureless zircon rims with high calcium, iron, and hafnium content in the host gneisses. The development of galgenbergite and anglesite rims around uraninite grains reflects the next superimposed hydrothermal processes.
  • The inclusion of grothite in the zircon from granitoids of the crystalline basement of the Southern Yamal Peninsula

    Erokhin, Yu. V.; Ivanov, K. S.; Khiller, V. V. (2019)
    Grothite – rare F-Al-rich type of titanite – has been found in accessory zircon from the granitoids of the preJurassic basement of the Verkhnerechensky oil-gas area (in the southern part of the Yamal Peninsula) as a result of the study. Titanite forms rare inclusions (so-called minerals-prisoners) in the central parts of zircon crystals; in our sample of 35 individuals only two grains of titanite have been discovered. The measurement of the chemical composition of the mineral has been carried out on an electron-probe microanalyzer CAMECA SX 100, equipped with five wave spectrometers (IGG UrB RAS, Ekaterinburg). According to the microprobe analysis, the mineral has an unusual chemical composition, it shows the presence of significant concentrations of alumina (Al2O3 to 8.5 wt.%), rare earths elements (REE to 4.3 wt.%), and fluorine (F to 2 wt.%). This grothite is dramatically different in chemical composition from the accessory titanite of the matrix granitoid (monzoleicogranite), which is characterized by values close to the reference sphene. Overall, grothite is an intermediate connection between the two extreme members CaTiSiO4O (titanite) – CaAlSiO4F (synthesized Al-F-titanite), and the Verkhnerechensky mineral content of a hypothetical Al-F-titanite achieves a high level of 24–26 %. Unfortunately, grothite is crystallized in a wide range of temperatures and pressures which does not allow its use in thermodynamic reconstructions. The existence of grothite (or Al-F-titanite) is apparently determined not so much on the PT-conditions of rocks' formation, but most likely on the chemistry of the environment. So it is obvious that the Verkhnerechensky titanite was formed in the melt with an increased concentration of fluorine. It is the first record of grothite in the form of inclusions in accessory zircon.
  • Qualitative visualization of the development of stresses through infrared thermography

    Stange, E.; Andleeb, Z.; Khawaja, H. A. (2019)
    In this work, the IR thermography has been used to study the steel specimens (DIN 50125 Standard) undergoing the tensile tests. The tensile tests were performed using GUNT® Hamburg Universal Material Tester. The tensile specimens were clamped, and the test force was applied using a hand-operated hydraulic system. A dial gauge measured the elongation of the specimens. The steel specimens were coated with high emissivity paint. Using the WP 300.20 system for data acquisition, the measured values for force and displacement were recorded in a PC. The IR thermographic imaging was performed using the FLIR® T1030sc IR camera and ResearchIR Max software. The tests have revealed that the steel specimens show noticeable thermal signature when undergoing tensile loading.
  • Insulation resistance monitoring of ship electrical systems using queuing theory

    Matveev, Y. V. (2019)
    The control of electrical insulation resistance is one of the important parameters characterizing the reliability of the ship's electric power system and the safety of its operation. A significant part of the faults and failures of elements of the shipboard power system is associated with reducing insulation electric resistance relative to the ship hull due to exposure to high humidity and temperature, and also mechanical damage of the insulating layer, electrical cables, wires, electrical machines and devices. The rules of technical operation establish the lowest values of insulation resistance of the elements of the ship's electric power system relative to the hull. At the same time, the presence of highly branched electrical networks on the ship complicates the task of centralized and localized control of insulation resistance. In addition, the increase in the number of power plants, possible change of the number of concurrent consumers in the power system, as well as increasing the share of high-voltage electrical equipment on the ship requires a more reliable control system of electrical insulation resistance. The author concludes that to ensure more reliable monitoring of insulation resistance of ship power system elements it seems relevant to use additionally new principles and methods for controlling the measurement information in the monitoring system and processing it, which differ from those traditionally used in the construction of such systems. For this purpose, as well as to improve the characteristics of the insulation resistance control system of the electric power system, it has been proposed to apply the Queuing theory with the assessment of its parameters. The presence on the vessel of a system of continuous automatic control of insulation resistance is an important component that ensures the reliability and safety of operation of the vessel by its crew.
  • Features of implementing the quantitative thermographic diagnostics method while introducing digital technology

    Vlasov, A. B.; Alloyarov, K. B. (2019)
    The development of non-destructive testing methods for power equipment including methods of thermal imaging diagnostics is relevant in view of the tasks set for implementing the concept of "Digital Transformation 2030". The paper provides a review and theoretical analysis of the problems that arise during the quantitative thermographic diagnostics of electrical equipment. On the example of analysis of the thermal imaging tests of heating a contact compound during electric current flow, the advantages of the method and the disadvantages of the existing approaches have been considered. It has been shown that with the existing recommendations for processing thermal imaging tests, in particular, "RD 34.45-51.300-97. Scope and norms of testing electrical equipment", forecasting and expert assessment of the thermal state lead to significant errors. The data of numerous diagnostic parameters taken into account in the process of thermal imaging diagnostics have been evaluated, namely: current load, geometric and thermophysical parameters of the object and the environment, emissivity, wind speed and others. Taking into account the electrophysical parameters of an object, the features of its structure allows for an adequate expert assessment and data reduction to a single criterion; this makes it possible to compare the results of various tests, to accumulate a data bank, the prospect of which is to calculate reliability indicators and recommendations for improving the technical base of power engineering. The similar approach headed by the analysis of quantitative data accumulated during thermal imaging tests, and a comparative analysis of the data of other diagnostic methods, will make it possible to implement and expand the capabilities of the method when developing digital technologies.
  • Model of an analytical system for damage searching on power lines due to lightning discharges

    Burtsev, A. V. (2019)
    The problem of searching for damage on overhead lines due to a lightning discharge is relevant for consumers of electricity and its suppliers. A direct lightning strike into power line elements leads to the destruction of insulators, breakage of wires and cables, and a consumer disconnection. The main task of the maintenance staff is to search for damage that occurs after a lightning discharge. Usually, special devices are used, they are installed in substations and based on the wave method, the visual method is also used. The paper proposes a model for detecting likely damage to power transmission line elements by creating a detailed database on the region's power transmission line and combining this database with a real-time archive of lightning discharges. The model in accordance with the proposed algorithm will make it possible to compile a list of supports likely to be affected by a lightning discharge, to identify the affiliation of these supports to specific power lines, and to notify the maintenance personnel of these power lines about the coordinates and supports of the power lines, where damage is possible. The model has a low cost and operating cost, can be easily deployed in any power system, but requires sufficient accuracy to detect lightning discharges and determine their coordinates. The solution to the problem of detection accuracy comes down to installing in the region a certain number of lightning direction finders of a particular system. The paper considers these issues on the example of the power system of the Murmansk region and lightning direction finders of the Blitzortung system.
  • Changes of lighting characteristics of semiconductor light sources of different constructional performance during operation

    Kovalenko, O. Yu.; Zhuravleva, J. A.; Mikaeva, S. A.; Nemov, V. V. (2019)
    Lighting using LED technology is used for domestic purposes, as well as in various sectors of the economy. In the process of studying low-power LED lamps with a power of 9, 10, 12W (various manufacturers), differing in their design and used as a replacement for incandescent lamps, such characteristics as power, light flux, light output, spectral distribution of radiation, correlated color temperature have been considered; the analysis of the indicated characteristics of light sources depending on the operating time has been given. The study of the electrical and lighting parameters of the lamps at the rated voltage of the mains has been carried out using a Gooch & Housego photocolorimetric measuring device, including the OL IS 7600 photometric ball and the OL 770 VIS / NIR multi-channel spectroradiometer. The measurements were carried out in accordance with GOST R 54350-2011 which establishes the lighting requirements and the corresponding test methods for lighting devices with electric light sources. Prior to the measurements, stabilization of all light characteristics of the lamps was established after they were turned on at the rated mains voltage. Analysis of the measurements has shown that Philips and Ecola lamps correspond to the declared parameters. In the process, the Ecola lamp has the smallest drop in parameters, the HomeClub lamp has the largest. The greatest luminous efficiency for the entire period of research has the Philips lamp, the smallest one – the lamp FL-LED BA ECO. As a result of studying the semiconductor light sources parameters, their high efficiency and feasibility of use in comparison with traditional light sources have been proved.
  • Maneuvering analysis of a vessel equipped with two azipods using its mathematical model

    Pashentsev, S. V.; Egorov, V. Yu. (2019)
    Azimuth propulsion systems (azipods, screw-steering columns, SSC) are widely used on new types of vessels intended for the implementation of large-scale projects for the integrated development of the Northern Sea Route. The main way to study the operation of such vessels is their mathematical modeling with the inclusion in the model of both the hull of the vessel and the azimuth propulsion that it is equipped with. The model is complicated when the ship is equipped with not one but two azipods, which in the process of work affect each other in a certain way. During the study, a complicated model of a ship with the displacement of about 36 thousand tons, equipped with two azipods, has been considered. The hull is described using the model in displacements, the operation of each azipod is described using the algorithm of A. D. Gofman. When determining the base value of the stop of each azipod screw (before it is turned), the action curve of the Lammeren screw has been used. Further calculations related to the rotation of the azipods and changes in the flow around the propeller blades are based on the approximation of the curves given in the A. D. Gofman reference book. The computer study of the model (both the hull of the ship and each azipod) consists in the arbitrary maneuvering of the ship to obtain kinematic (linear and angular velocities) and power (forces and moments) characteristics. The results are presented in the form of a set of graphs and a number of conclusions made based on the analysis of the obtained model data. The simulation has been carried out using a software package performed by the authors in two software and computing environments (VB6 and MathCad) and registered by the Federal Service for Intellectual Property.
  • The use of plant enriching additives in the production of pasta: Literature review

    Fazullina, O. F.; Smirnov, S. O. (2019)
    The quality of food and the overall balance of the human diet are crucial for the health and quality of life. Food industry enterprises produce functional and enriched food products, but their quantity is not enough today. Pasta has a strong demand in all population groups, therefore it can be considered as an object for the introduction of functional food ingredients. In this regard, the possibility of including functional food ingredients in the pasta dough in order to change the chemical composition and increase nutritional value can be considered a relevant and promising area of research. In order to systematize the information on the use of enriching additives in the recipe and technology of pasta production, we have carried out an analysis of the scientific works of Russian and foreign researchers. The analysis presented in this article may help to find new approaches to a more complete use of the local raw materials and expand the range of products, including those with functional properties.
  • Methods for determining the scattering of transformer windings individually

    Popov, I. P. (2019)
    The total leakage reactance of the transformer with concentric cylindrical windings depends on the thickness of the coils and the gap between them. Existing methods do not allow measuring reactance of scattering for each winding of a transformer separately, therefore, for simplicity they are often considered equal to each other. In fact, in relation to the case under consideration, they are essentially not equal. In fact, the calculation of the flux linkage of the external winding shows that its reactive scattering resistance is greater than the total scattering resistance of both windings. Two circumstances follow from this. First, the internal winding of the transformer absorbs magnetic flux to a greater extent than it scatters (scatters its magnetic flux, absorbs from the external winding). The second is that its (equivalent) scattering reactance is capacitive. The purpose of the study is to justify the possibility of experimental determination of the scattering reactance for each transformer winding separately. The relevance of the work is due to the widespread distribution of transformers. The dissipation reactance of each winding of the transformer individually can be determined by at least three experimental methods that give satisfactory agreement between the results. An almost paradoxical result is the capacitive nature of the scattering resistance of the inner winding of the transformer obtained only for concentric cylindrical windings. It should not be generalized to other types of windings. The presented experimental methods are not tied to the nature of the reactivity of scattering resistances. They are universal and can be used with any type of windings. The results obtained are recommended for use in the design and study of transformers.
  • Harmonic filtering of frequency controlled asynchronous double fed machines

    Hasanova, L. H. (2019)
    Frequency-controlled asynchronous double fed machines are widely used both as motors and as generators. They are especially widely used in renewable energy sources as generators for wind power devices and installations of small hydroelectric power stations. In recent years, they have been actively introduced into marine generator sets. One of the main methods for studying their operation modes is mathematical modeling. Frequency converters supplying the rotor winding of a dual-power machine use power transistors or fully controllable power thyristors. Modern circuits of these converters controlled on the basis of sinusoidal pulse-width modulation do not allow to get rid of the harmonic components arising in the output voltage curve. In the process of studying the operating modes of frequency-controlled asynchronous double fed machines, a device for suppressing harmonic components in the output voltage curve has been considered. A mathematical model has been developed for the frequency-controlled double fed machine from the rotor taking into account the harmonic composition of the output voltage of the frequency converter and the batteries of static capacitors in the rotor circuit; the filtering modes of the harmonic components of the output voltage of the frequency converter have been studied using the simplest filter – a static capacitor battery. Placing these batteries at the output of the frequency converter can significantly reduce the harmonic components in the curves of rotor currents, and hence in the whole machine. Thus, the developed modeling scheme and the results of the study have demonstrated the effectiveness of using a filter consisting of static capacitors.
  • Prospects for using new soybean varieties breeding by All-Russian SRI of Soybean in the production of a soy-chocolate drink

    Litvinenko, O. V.; Korneva, N. Yu. (2019)
    One of the promising areas of food industry development in Russia is production of drinks based on soy "milk" intended for both mass consumption and specialized nutrition. The primary task in creating new technologies for food production based on soybean is to improve consumer properties, primarily their taste characteristics. Therefore, the correct choice of soy raw materials included in the recipe taking into account the breed biological characteristics is one of the factors, which determine the consumer properties of the finished product. The analysis of the research results of biochemical composition and technological properties of soybean grain new varieties breeding in All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Soybean – Topaz, Charodeyka, Statnaya and Koloritnaya – has been presented. The content of protein, fat, total carbohydrates, amino acid and fatty acid compounds in soybean grain has been determined; the organoleptic evaluation of soybean grain, soy "milk", soy chocolate drink has been carried out. The maximum content of protein (39.33 %) being part of the soybean grain is found in the Statnaya variety, fat (21.20 %) – in the Topaz variety. The results of the research have shown that varieties differ from each other in protein, fat and carbohydrate composition, the appearance, the amount of grain swelling and the yield of the intermediate product. Intervarietal differences in protein content in soybean grain amount to 3.52 %, fat – 3.60 %, total carbohydrates – 2.13 %, grain swelling value – 27.6 %, yield of soy "milk" – 61.0 g. It has been established that new soybean varieties – Topaz, Charodeyka, Statnaya and Koloritnaya, breeding in ARSRI of Soybean can be used in the production of a soy chocolate drink. However, for its preparation, it is preferable to use soybean varieties with higher rate of fat – Topaz and Charodeyka. Soy "milk" is perfectly combined with cocoa, the combination of these products allows to level the taste deficiencies of soy "milk" obtained from the grain varieties Statnaya and Koloritnaya.
  • Sunflower mesh rheological properties analysis during pressing with varying temperature, pressure and oil content

    Shorstkii, I. A.; Khudyakov, D. A. (2019)
    The correct choice of the rheological equation of the pressed mass flow affecting the capacity of the oil press is of great importance in the processes of development and modeling of press equipment. This work investigates the rheological characteristics of the sunflower oilseeds mash flow under conditions of hydrostatic overpressure in the range from 100 to 2 700 Pa, shear rate from 1–10 s–1, with an assessment of the effect of temperature in the range from 28 to 45 °С. Spline interpolation has been used to solve these tasks. Using the mathematical apparatus and experimental data it has been found that the plastic viscosity of the sunflower mash corresponds to the viscosity of vegetable oil, which confirms the assumption of the Bingham rheology put forward in this work. The presence of structure formation of the pulp has been recorded by the experimental data. It has been determined that the yield point of the mash varies linearly with the hydrostatic pressure and the oil content of the material. The effect of temperature is characterized by decreasing of the plastic viscosity of the test material from 0.0985 to 0.0917 Pa∙s for samples with a 1.8 kPa hydrostatic overpressure. The effect positively influences the pressing process, forming a thin boundary layer of the oil film upon contact of the material with the press equipment body and improves the oil yield. The increase in the material oil content is characterized by decreasing in the value of the yield strength of the material from 28.5 to 27.11 Pa, which leads to a reduction in the load of the pressing process. The obtained parameters of the engineering model make it possible to predict the rheology of the viscoplastic flow of sunflower pulp in a wide range of shear rates in the channels of the auger press and can be used to optimize the process of cold and hot pressing of vegetable oils.
  • Improving the process of grinding food products

    Pokintelitsa, N. I.; Levchenko, E. A. (2019)
    There are a large number of studies on the grinding of various types of food raw materials, however, today there is no comprehensive approach to justifying the influence of the design and operational parameters of the grinding process on a number of food product quality indicators. It negatively affects the process of improvement and modernization of technological equipment, production technologies and finished quality production. In this regard, the task is set to implement optimal approaches and technological methods for improving the process of grinding food raw materials and equipment in order to reduce the energy intensity and labor intensity of the process. The analysis obtained on the basis of experimental studies has confirmed the assumption of a significant reduction in cutting effort and work when using knives and gratings with sharp sharpening angles of knife edges and openings for meat products with a high content of high-strength connective tissue (elastin and collagen fibers). The development of modernized cutting tools for meat grinders with blunt and sharp angles of sharpening the edges of the holes of the knife gratings and the cutting edges of the knife blades has been proposed. The introduction of cutting tools with an acute sharpening angle (31°) into production compared with conventional tools makes it possible to reduce significantly (40–75 %) the specific load on the grinding process, which leads to a general reduction in the energy consumption of the grinding process by 25–40 %. Using cutting tools for grinding food products contributes to an increase in the dispersion of minced meat by 10–16 %. The development of a set of working bodies can significantly reduce the cutting work of raw material and increase the organoleptic quality indicators of finished culinary products due to the absence of unmilled connective tissue fibers in the minced meat. Indicators of the influence of the number of grindings, sharpening angles of knife blades and sharpening angles of the edges of the holes of the gratings on the specific work of cutting have been established.
  • The fractionation of 13С in the Тransbaikalia ecosystem

    Chimitdorzhieva, G. D.; Zhamsaranova, S. D.; Bazhenova, B. A. (2019)
    The analysis of isotopes of the main biogenic elements is carried out in determining the geographical origin of the sources of raw materials used for the manufacture of food products, as well as the authenticity of its origin (natural or obtained as a result of biotechnological synthesis). The experimental studies of the 13C isotope fractionation in the "soil – pasture vegetation – cattle meat" chain have been carried out using available data on pasture vegetation of Mukhorshibir, Ivolginsky, Eravninsky districts and soils of Mukhorshibir and Eravninsky districts of Transbaikalia. Also, the objects of research were samples of raw meat (taken in the trading network) from eight different regions of Transbaikalia: Kabansky, Bichursky, Dzhidinsky, Zakamensky, Kizhinginsky, Khorinsky, Zaigraevsky, Aginsky. The content of stable isotopes in samples has been determined in Joint Usage Center "Instrumental methods in ecology", A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEE RAS) (Moscow) using the Finnigan Delta V Plus mass spectrometer. The results of the studies have shown the relationship of the isotopic composition of carbon in the muscle tissue of meat from different regions of Transbaikalia with that in plants growing in the region and serving as fodder for cattle, which indicates the presence of an "isotopic signature" on the trophic chain: plants – soil – herbivorous animals. The isotopic composition of meat raw materials in Transbaikalia has been studied for the first time. The data obtained indicate that the samples of meat from the region's trading network are products of local origin and can be classified as natural raw materials. The isotopic composition of raw meat, soil and pasture vegetation from the Transbaikalia region can be used as data that will identify the geographical origin and help in assessing the recognition of a counterfeit product issued for raw materials of local origin.
  • Comprehensive monitoring of the bacterial plankton fish farm of the Tuloma River and the intestinal enteric microbiota cultivated in trout cages

    Uskova, I. V.; Poteshkina, V. A.; Kalinchuk, K. A. (2019)
    This paper deals with the field of protection and management of aquaculture growing technologies. The comprehensive monitoring of the microbiological parameters of the aquatic environment of the Tuloma River and the observation of fluctuations in the microbial communities of rainbow trout cultivated in cages (Parasalmo mykiss) has been presented. Based on researching patterns of distribution of heterotrophic bacterial plankton in the water of the cage farm of the Tuloma River, the trophic state index has been determined, the value of which increases in the spring-summer season and has a significant correlation with water temperature (the coefficient is 0.7). The analysis of seasonal dynamics of the ratio of autochthonous and allochthonous microbiota of water within the cage area has been given; the results indicate the suppression of water self-purification process in the spring-summer season and ending in winter. In spring the appearance of bacteria of the intestinal group, in the amount allowed by regulatory documentation, indicates sanitary assessment of water. A method of scraping mucous from the given area of the rainbow trout intestinal surface has been developed to calculate the seed material; it allows a comparative analysis of the numerical characteristics of the enteric microbiota of both the mucosa and the intestinal contents of the studied object. As a result of applying this method, it has been found that the number of bacteria in the intestinal mucosa of trout varies in a wide range, the maximum number of which is two times lower than that in the hydrobiont chyme, and its seasonal dynamics repeat the pattern of seasonal changes in bacterial plankton quantitative indicators. Studying the qualitative characteristics of the microbiota of water and fish, the dominant role of representatives of the genus Pseudomonas in the spring period, both in the water and in the composition of the microbiocenosis of fish, has been determined. Together with bacteria of the intestinal group, being conditionally pathogenic and able to infect weakened fish, these microorganisms can act as bioindicators of water pollution. The results can be used to develop technologies to fight infectious and invasive diseases of fish, to control the quality of hydrobionts and to ensure the environmental safety of fisheries reservoirs.
  • The study of the technological adequacy of raw materials used in the production of chocolate semi-finished product

    Linovskaya, N. V.; Mazukabzova, E. V.; Kondratyev, N. B.; Krylova, E. N. (2019)
    Glazed confectionery products are in great demand among consumers. The chocolate glaze is a high-calorie confectionery semi-finished products consisting of sugar, fat and cocoa. The quality of the chocolate glaze depends on the characteristics of the raw material, formulation and production technology. The aim of the research is to develop a recipe for chocolate glaze using fruit and vegetable raw materials. To optimize the prescription composition the quality indicators of the raw components of glaze have been studied. Scientific research has been carried out using conventional methods: physicochemical and organoleptic. The main factor that ensures the desired quality of the glazes is the complete and intensive crystallization of its fat phase, consisting of a mixture of cocoa butter and its equivalents, in the cooling process. It has been found that cocoa butter and equivalents have different characteristics of crystallization predicting some difference in the process of their structuring in the chocolate glaze production. The basic physical and chemical parameters of cocoa products and fruit-vegetable powders have been investigated. Recipe for chocolate glaze with the replacement of sugar on the composition of apple and carrot powder has been developed. The analysis of the comparative nutritional value of the classic chocolate glaze and the developed semi-finished product has revealed a decrease in energy value, an increase in protein by 25 %, dietary fiber by 33 %. The share of minerals and vitamins has increased: potassium – 1.8 times, calcium – 2.5 times, ascorbic acid – 10.7 times, vitamin PP – 2.5 times. The use of dry fruit and vegetable raw materials is a promising direction of correcting nutritional value and consumer properties of chocolate semi-finished products, improvement and expansion of the range.
  • The development of multi-structure in agriculture: A regional aspect

    Voitleva, Z. A. (2019)
    Analysis of the current state of agriculture in Russia suggests that it is necessary to take measures aimed at improving the efficiency of agricultural production. One of the promising areas for solving this problem is the development of the multi-structure agrarian economy. The main purpose of the paper is to intensify research on working out methodological approaches to the development of multi-structured agriculture. To achieve this goal, various methods of scientific research have been used in the framework of the system approach, such as comparative analysis, formalization, analysis, synthesis, economic and statistical methods, etc. The paper proposes methodological approaches to solving the problem of developing the multi-structure agrarian economy of Russia. The methodology has been developed for a comparative analysis of the efficiency of agricultural production carried out by farmers of various forms of management. Using the proposed methodology, an analysis has been carried out according to the data of agricultural organizations of the Republic of Adygea, and the form of management, an agricultural production cooperative showing greater relative efficiency of agricultural production in the conditions of the republic has been determined. It has been concluded that in order to solve the problem of increasing the efficiency of Adygea agriculture, developing its multi-structure, it is necessary to take measures by the republic executive authorities aimed at increasing the number and share of agricultural production cooperatives. To increase the efficiency of the agrarian economy of Russia, it is necessary to implement the state agrarian policy taking into account the multi-structural differences in agriculture. At the same time, special attention should be paid to regional differences in its development, since there is a differentiation of Russian regions according to climatic and economic conditions, established traditions, life-style and other conditions of villagers affecting on efficiency of agricultural production. The methodological approaches described in the work will allow to increase the agricultural production efficiency.
  • Drying processes of pumpkin candied fruits in the microwave field: Studying the oscillating mode of energy supply

    Paramonova, V. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. N. (2019)
    One of the modern trends in the food industry is the production of candied fruits and vegetables from various raw materials. In the process of production candied fruits are saturated with sugar, which partially improves the composition of fruit food acids, increases the shelf life of raw materials and facilitates its transportation. The aim of the research is to reveal the possibilities of intensifying the drying process of pumpkins in the production line of candied fruits by summing up microwave energy (microwave). The work is aimed at the justification and selection of technological modes of drying in the microwave field of pumpkin pieces pre-cooked in sugar syrup. To achieve this goal, analytical and experimental research methods have been used: planning of experiments, statistical analysis. During the research it has been found that the initial moisture content of the product and its pretreatment modes (blanching in the Combi oven) have a significant impact on the rate of moisture loss of the product during drying in the microwave field. Preliminary blanching of the pumpkin has been carried out in the Combi oven for 5 minutes at t = 120 °C. This mode of steam treatment allows better preservation of the capillary-porous structure of the product, while after five series of microwave energy supply (1 minute treatment, 5 minutes relaxation) a moisture level of 27.28 % has been achieved, as the remaining processing modes require a longer drying time. As a result of processing the obtained data, graphs of changes in mass, humidity and drying rate of the product during its processing have been created. The most significant indicators affecting the final properties of the product have been considered the total time of microwave processing of the product in the chamber, the total relaxation time of the product, the initial mass of the product and the limit shear stress of the product received for processing.

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