Recent Submissions

  • Marine Genetic Resources, Including the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits: An Intellectual Property Perspective

    Kirchner-Freis, Iris; ISRIM; University of Genoa (ISRIM; University of Genoa, 2023)
    In the third video (3/6) of the series, Prof. Dr. Iris Kirchner-Freis (@MLSLEGAL ) explains the provisions of Part II on "Marine genetic resources, including the fair and equitable sharing of benefits" of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement), which was adopted on 19 June 2023 in New York. In her presentation, she has a special focus on the intellectual property perspective. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (@ISRIM) and the University of Genoa (@Uni.Genova) on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • Introduction to the Workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)"

    Kirchner, Andree; Schiano di Pepe, Lorenzo; ISRIM; University of Genoa (ISRIM; University of Genoa, 2023)
    In the first part of the introductory video (1/6), Prof. Dr. Andree Kirchner (@ISRIM) and Prof. Dr. Lorenzo Schiano di Pepe (@Uni.Genova) are giving some background information about the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)". In the second part of the introductory video, Prof. Dr. Marco Giovine (Centro del Mare, @Uni.Genova) explains the importance of the topic from the perspective of the Centre of the Sea at the University of Genoa. The presentations are part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (ISRIM) and the University of Genoa on 1 September 2023. The workshop is an UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • Capacity-Building and the Transfer of Marine Technology

    Grainger, Carl; ISRIM; University of Genoa (2023)
    In the sixth video (6/6) of the series, Mr Carl Grainger (Department of Foreign Affairs, Ireland) explains the provisions of Part V on "Capacity-building and the transfer of marine technology" of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement), which was adopted on 19 June 2023 in New York. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (@ISRIM ) and the University of Genoa (@Uni.Genova ) on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • DITTO Programme Whitepaper

    Bahurel, Pierre; Brönner, Ute; Buttigieg, Pier-Luigi; Chai, Fei; Chassignet, Eric; Devey, Colin; Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; Hill, Katherine; Yong Kim, Sung; Kollert, Joana; et al. (DITTO Programme of the UN Ocean Decade, 2023)
    This white paper provides an outline of the concept of digital twins of the ocean and lays out the challenges, opportunities for action, and suggestions for their implementation as defined by the UN Decade Action “Digital Twins of the Ocean” (DITTO).
  • Nonlinear tide-surge interactions in the Río de la Plata Estuary

    Dinápoli, Matías G.; Simionato, Claudia G.; Moreira, Diego (2020)
    Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
    The nonlinear tide-surge interaction (NTSI) can significantly affect the levels associated with storm surges that threaten coastal areas. In this work, water level observations and numerical simulations are used to investigate those interactions in the large, mighty and socio-economically important Río de la Plata (RdP) estuary. We introduce a novel objective approach to seek evidence of nonlinear interactions in hourly water level records from six tide gauges collected along the coast. Results indicate that NTSI occurs in the RdP and suggest that it becomes more important upstream and along the southern coast of the estuary. CROCO ocean numerical model is used to quantify the interactions, to determine the areas where they are stronger, and to identify their sources. The amplitude of the interaction accounts for 16% of the total water level at the upper RdP, being comparable to tidal amplitude. The quadratic bottom friction is the principal cause of NTSI, and is modulated by the tidal current; therefore the nonlinearity is present all the time and is independent of the wind speed and direction. This is a particularity of this estuary and occurs because, as a consequence of its large width, surge currents are weak in spite of the big volume of water mobilized by the storms. Due to its nature, the interaction attenuates and smoothes the level anomalies due to the surge. Results highlight the need of utilizing a complete NTSI model for the forecast of the surge in the RdP; otherwise, the estuarine dynamic would be misrepresented generating significant forecasts errors (10%–20% at the upper RdP).
  • Environmental Impact Assessments

    Lindström Battle, Jessica; ISRIM; University of Genoa (Universita di Genova, Institutie for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law, 2023)
    In the fifth video (5/6) of the series, Ms. Jessica Lindström Battle (@WWF) the provisions of Part IV on "Environmental impact assessments" of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement), which was adopted on 19 June 2023 in New York. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (@ISRIM) and the University of Genoa (@Uni.Genova) on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • Measures such as Area-based Management Tools, Including Marine Protected Areas

    Becker-Weinberg, Vasco; ISRIM; University of Genoa (Universita di Genova, Institutie for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law, 2023)
    In the fourth video (4/6) of the series, Prof. Dr. Vasco Becker-Weinberg (New University of Lisbon) explains the provisions of Part III on "Measures such as area-based management tools, including marine protected areas" of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement), which was adopted on 19 June 2023 in New York. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (@ISRIM ) and the University of Genoa (@Uni.Genova) on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • The new BBNJ Agreement.

    Kirchner, Andree; ISRIM; University of Genoa (Universita di Genova, Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law, 2023)
    In the second video (2/6) of the series, Prof. Dr. Andree Kirchner (ISRIM) explains the historical background of the initiative and the negotiation processes, which lead to the adoption of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement) on 19 June 2023 in New York. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (ISRIM) and the University of Genoa on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • Baffling shades of blue: Addressing the impacts of the blue economy on small-scale fisheries in Latin America

    Leopoldo, Cavaleri Gerhardinger (International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), 2022)
    The incessant noise over ‘Blue Economy’ and ‘Blue Growth’ leaves artisanal and small-scale fishers dazed and confused. This report works through that confusion. It draws on scholarship from the trenches and the research centres across ten Latin American countries. From extensive interviews, policy reviews, analyses of finances and online datasets. In granular detail, it examines how Blue Growth affects artisanal fishers and their need for equity and justice. Through the baffling shades of blue—conflicts, priorities, the politics of managing our coasts and seas—this report finds clear light. It lays down the agenda for fishworkers and organizations working for them.
  • Making small-scale artisanal fishing zones work!: Research study on the tenure rights of the most vulnerable and marginalized fishers in Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh.

    Gupta, Vishakha (International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), 2022)
    Under Indian legislation, i.e. various state Marine Fishing (Regulation) Act (MFRAs), small-scale traditional fishers are granted exclusive rights to near-shore marine waters, ostensibly to protect their rights and livelihoods. However, failures in implementation, management and monitoring of these exclusive small-scale artisanal fishing zones (SFZs), has hampered the holistic actualization of these protections. Establishing secure tenure rights to marine and coastal spaces and resources can be considered sine qua non for equity and justice. It is essential to rejuvenate existing mechanisms and bolster them through the principles of human rights and the SSF Guidelines to protect and support small-scale fisheries in our future.
  • IQuOD 7th Annual Workshop Report, 10-11 July, 2023 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.

    Cowley, Rebecca; Macdonald, Alison; Good, Simon; Killick, Rachel; Cheng, Lijing; Tan, Zhetao; Castelao, Guilherme; Palmer, Matthew; Boyer, Tim; Cowley, Rebecca; et al. (International Quality-Controlled Ocean Database (IQuOD), 2023-07-11)
    The historical archive of global ocean subsurface temperature contains a large proportion of poorly quality-controlled as well as biased data. As a result, efforts to analyze past ocean change and variability are confounded, as is the use of ocean data assimilation systems. Currently many data centers perform automated ‘quick and dirty QC’ – redoing the same job poorly many times around the world. There have been no previous efforts to form a clean and definitive and very much needed historical archive. No single group has the manpower and resources to do the job properly – thus international cooperation is needed. The IQuOD 7th Workshop goals are to: 1. Ratify new co-Chairs. 2. Review work achieved so far. 3. Review IQuOD structure. 4. Plan for tasks for the coming 12-24 months.
  • IQuOD 6th Annual Workshop Report, 29-31 October, 2019. IFREMER, Brest, France.

    Cowley, Rebecca; Macdonald, Alison; Boyer, Tim; Castelao, Guilherme; Palmer, Matthew; Diggs, Steve; Goes, Marlos; Cowley, Rebecca; International Quality-Controlled Ocean Database (IQuOD) (International Quality-Controlled Ocean Database (IQuOD), 2019)
    The historical archive of global ocean subsurface temperature contains a large proportion of poorly quality-controlled as well as biased data. As a result, efforts to analyze past ocean change and variability are confounded, as is the use of ocean data assimilation systems. Currently many data centers perform automated ‘quick and dirty QC’ – redoing the same job poorly many times around the world. There have been no previous efforts to form a clean and definitive and very much needed historical archive. No single group has the manpower and resources to do the job properly – thus international cooperation is needed. The IQuOD 6thh Workshop goals are to: 1. Obtain agreement for the AutoQC process for application to the next product version. 2. Plan for the next IQuOD product: what will it consist of and what do we need to complete to get to the next release.
  • IQuOD 5th Annual Workshop Report, 16-18 April, 2018, Oostende, IODE headquarters Belgium.

    Domingues, Catia; Goes, Marlos; Killick, Rachel; Reseghetti, Franco; Simoncelli, Simona; Castelao, Guilherme; Domingues, Catia; International Quality-Controlled Ocean Database (IQuOD) (2018)
    The historical archive of global ocean subsurface temperature contains a large proportion of poorly quality-controlled as well as biased data. As a result, efforts to analyze past ocean change and variability are confounded, as is the use of ocean data assimilation systems. Currently many data centers perform automated ‘quick and dirty QC’ – redoing the same job poorly many times around the world. There have been no previous efforts to form a clean and definitive and very much needed historical archive. No single group has the manpower and resources to do the job properly – thus international cooperation is needed. The IQuOD 5th Workshop goals are to: provide an overview of what has been completed as part of IQuOD interim product v0.1 and discuss what went well and what could be improved (e.g., integrity checks, traceability, roadblocks, etc) • To review/discuss task teams plans beyond v0.1 and workout a draft plan/timeline (to note roadblocks and resources required to overcome them) • To start planning for training/outreach activities • To plan for dissemination/feedback strategies for IQuOD datasets/related products.
  • Workshop on the Development of Quantitative Assessment Methodologies based on Life- history traits, exploitation characteristics, and other relevant parameters for data-limited stocks (WKLIFEXII)

    Amorim, Patricia; Balestri, Elena; Bouch, Paul; Carleton, Liese; Castellanos, Paola; Chong, Lisa; Citores, Leire; Cooper, Anne; Danby, Rufus; Farias, Inês; et al. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), 2023)
    The objective of the Twelfth Workshop on the Development of Quantitative Assessment Methodologies based on Life-history traits, exploitation characteristics, and other relevant parameters for data-limited stocks (WKLIFE XII) was to further develop methods for stock assessment, stock status, and catch advice for stocks in ICES Categories 2–6, focusing on the provision of sound advice rules adhering to the ICES advisory framework and principles for fisheries management. This report addresses (i) questions from different ICES assessment working groups and stakeholders regarding the applicability of the data-limited technical guidelines, (ii) the prioritisation of future tasks regarding the ICES data-limited framework, (iii) further development and testing of data-limited methodologies with specific focus on the review of the current ICES advice framework for stock Categories 4-6, spatial indicators, and reference points for surplus production models, and (iv) other relevant data-limited topics. A survey of participants resulted in a high prioritisation score of four topics of the ICES data-limited roadmap: (1) risk equivalence, best available science, guidelines and communication of data-limited methods, (2) value of information of different data-types and data preparation, (3) better advice for slow-growing species, and (4) observation and parameter uncertainty in empirical harvest control rules and length-based approaches. The current ICES approach for Category 5 and 6 stocks, with an advice for constant annual catch and a periodic reduction with a precautionary buffer, is a form of non-adaptive management and an initial review revealed that it may not be precautionary if a stock is overfished but also overly precautionary in other situations. An exploration of spatial indicators showed that these have the potential to inform on stock status. A stochastic definition of MSY Btrigger for surplus production models takes uncertainty into account and leads to higher reference values than the current definition for stocks with low and intermediate biomass variability.
  • Marine Geohazards: Safeguarding society and the Blue Economy from a hidden threat

    Kopp, Heidrun; Chiocci, Francesco Latino; Berndt, Christian; Çağatay, Namık; Ferreira, Teresa; Fortes, Juana; Gràcia, Eulàlia; González Vega, Alba; Kopf, Achim; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; et al. (European Marine Board, 2021)
    Marine geohazards pose a significant threat to the European coastal population and to the development of the Blue Economy. This Position Paper discusses the type, distribution and impact of marine geohazards on the European coastal regions and the Blue Economy, as well as what and how novel scientific approaches may broaden our understanding of their trigger mechanisms and drive a risk-mitigating European policy.
  • Addressing underwater noise in Europe: Current state of knowledge and future priorities

    Thomsen, Frank; Mendes, Sónia; Bertucci, Frédéric; Breitzke, Monika; Ciappi, Elena; Cresci, Alessandro; Debusschere, Elisabeth; Ducatel, Cecile; Folegot, Thomas; Juretzek, Carina; et al. (European Marine Board, 2021)
    The Ocean presents a cacophony of sounds originating from natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Marine organisms heavily rely on sound to communicate and understand the world around them, and are therefore potentially impacted by anthropogenic sound. However, in developing our Blue Economy and in advancing our knowledge of marine environments and ecosystems, anthropogenic noise is sometimes unavoidable. Understanding the potential effects of anthropogenic noise is therefore integral to addressing this conflict, as it is needed to develop proportionate mitigation strategies and effective regulation. Next to providing an overview of our current knowledge about underwater noise, this publication highlights the priority areas for further research addressing the remaining knowledge gaps about the effects of anthropogenic noise. Furthermore, it points out the relevant actions needed to take in order to ensure ecosystem-based and precautionary legislation.
  • Marine Science Communication in Europe: a way foward

    Seys, Jan; Cox, Lucy; Şahin Yücel, Ezgi; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; García-Martínez, M. Carmen; Gili, Claudia; Kopke, Kathrin; Moreau, Kelle; et al. (European Marine Board, 2022)
    Marine Science Communication (MSC) aims to increase understanding and to raise awareness of Ocean science. It also increases curiosity about scientific discoveries and issues related to our Ocean. MSC is a tool to improve understanding of the importance of Ocean science, to help create awareness and inspire responsible behaviour at all levels of society, and to advocate for policy that is committed to a sustainable Ocean and planet.
  • To use, or not to use plastic- that is the question: Well, I would say REUSE

    EnviroVision2050 (EnviroVision2050, 2023)
    Plastic, a material often regarded as one of the biggest threats to the environment, has become so ingrained in our lives that we find it almost everywhere, ranging from something as small as a toothbrush to massive containers. In fact, this subject has gained so much prevalence that no science lectures in schools are complete without discussing the detrimental effects of plastic, which have become so deeply embedded in our brains that the moment I hear plastic, I see an ambulance siren wailing, screaming at the top of its lungs, “PLASTIC IS BAD, STAY AWAY”.
  • European offshore renewable energy: Towards a sustainable future

    Soukissian, Takvor; O’Hagan, Anne Marie; Azzellino, Arianna; Boero, Ferdinando; Brito e Melo, Ana; Comiskey, Patricia; Gao, Zhen; Howell, Dickon; Le Boulluec, Marc; Maisondieu, Christophe; et al. (European Marine Board, 2023)
    The global economic and geopolitical situations in 2022, including the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, increasing fuel prices, and the war in Ukraine leading to questions of energy security, have further increased the impetus on governments to accelerate the move away from a reliance on oil and gas as energy sources. Offshore renewable energy sources should play a key role in that move. In light of these geo-political, economic, and environmental drivers, this Future Science Brief outlines the state-of-the-art in knowledge on offshore renewable energy (ORE). It also highlights key research needs to help us fully understand the implications of such an energy transition.
  • EnviroVision2050: Project Green Leaders – Ocean

    EnviroVision2050 (EnviroVision2050, 2023)
    Committed to inspire & empower Indian youth to embrace entrepreneurship, self-leadership & environmental stewardship to become exemplary world leaders, EnviroVision2050 and its community of Explorers continuously seek ways to build awareness and take action towards a sustainable planet.

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