Recent Submissions

  • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 6: Increase Community Resilience to Ocean Hazards.

    Pinardi, N.; Kumar Tummala, S.; Alvarez Fanjul, E.; Ansong, J.K.; Burgos, A.; Cabana, D.; Canals, P.; Coppini, G.; Duffy-Mayers, L.; Harley, M.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
    By 2030, successful achievement of Ocean Decade Challenge No. 6 will require demonstrating substantial advancements within the global community towards enhancing their resilience to coastal and ocean hazards. This includes implementing two crucial elements: (1) establishing comprehensive 'people-centered' early warning systems capable of addressing multiple hazards, and (2) devising adaptation strategies that specifically target risks associated with the ocean, including those linked to climate change. These endeavours will play a pivotal role in guiding sustainable practices in ocean planning. Success will also hinge on addressing critical gaps in scientific understanding and knowledge across important components such as risk assessment and risk reduction, in addition to putting in place robust institutional mechanisms for implanting novel solutions that contribute to coastal resilience. Some key elements to be addressed in this context include: (i) gathering and generating observational and modelling datasets relevant to risk assessment, including downscaled climate scenarios for coastal regions, within robust data-sharing frameworks; (ii) promoting interdisciplinary and international research and innovation to tackle challenges comprehensively, with a focus on methodologies like Digital Twin approaches; (iii) improving standards for risk communication at both national and international levels; (iv) fostering partnerships at various scales involving local communities, public and private disaster risk reduction entities, governmental bodies, and academic institutions; (v) building capacity in research and communication to cultivate a shared understanding of coastal resilience strategies; and (vi) enhancing resilient infrastructure and promoting sustainable resource management along coastlines. It is imperative to establish partnerships with existing international UN programs dedicated to disaster risk reduction and coastal resilience. Strengthening connections with UN Decade Actions through Decade Coordination Offices and Decade Collaboration Centers is of utmost importance for effective coordination and collaboration. Based on the above strategic ambition it is also suggested that the formulation of the Ocean Decade Challenge could be modified as follows: Increase community resilience to ocean and coastal risks
  • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 1: Understand And Beat Marine Pollution.

    Hatje, V.; Rayfuse, R.; Polejack, P.; Goddard, C.; Jiang, C.; Jones, D.; Faloutsos, D.; Fiedler, H.; Akrofi, J.; Sheps, K.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
    By 2030, the success of Ocean Decade Challenge No.1 ‘Understand and Beat Marine Pollution’ will be demonstrated by the generation of scientifically sound data enabling a holistic understanding of the extent and impact of pollution across the land-ocean continuum, thereby supporting the achievement of a cleaner and healthier ocean where all ecosystems and their inhabitants thrive free from the impacts of marine pollution, allowing for their full functioning and service provision. This success will be based on completion of a comprehensive review of all available evidence about marine pollution, including an analysis of data gaps and the development and implementation of strategies for filling those gaps, as well as a comprehensive analysis of solutions for addressing and preventing the negative effects of marine pollution. Achieving this success will require knitting together existing and new data sets using AI and other technologies, identifying priority pollutants and areas for action, and providing globally consistent monitoring, data collection, storage and sharing protocols. Success will further be demonstrated through the establishment of new connections and partnerships among users across the public - private spectrum that lead to the funding, development and implementation of new technologies and projects aimed at monitoring, controlling, reducing, and/or mitigating marine pollution from any source, including the creation and sustainability of a global network of strategically positioned sentinel stations and regional laboratory hubs for sustained, long-term monitoring of marine pollution. Success will include fulfilment of the following critical knowledge gaps: • a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the impacts of priority pollutants (e.g., pollutants found or expected to emerge in high concentrations, or with high toxicity, or with significant adverse effects on biota or human health) across the land to ocean continuum; • a better understanding of the sources, sinks, fate and impacts of all pollutants, including the pollutants of emerging concern; • improved knowledge on the distribution and impacts of marine pollution, particularly in the Global South and deep ocean waters, which currently represent the largest geographical gaps. and the following priority datasets gaps: • long-term time series of marine pollutants; • baseline and toxicity data of pollutants across the land-ocean continuum; • data on the impacts of the co-occurrence of multiple pollutants; • data on the effects of climate change on the toxicity, bioavailability and impacts of multiple co-existent pollutants. • It will include development of: • a global network of strategically positioned sentinel stations for continuous, long-term monitoring; • cost-effective, real-time monitoring systems and technologies for tracking pollutant sources, distribution, and transfers across the land-ocean continuum; • a global network of regional laboratory hubs focused on generating high-quality data, promoting capacity building and facilitating technology transfer; • training programs on harmonized protocols for the acquisition, reporting and recording of quality-controlled data on marine pollution; • environmentally robust new technologies and processes for the control and mitigation of marine pollution.
  • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 5: Unlock Ocean-Based Solutions to Climate Change.

    Sabine, C.; Robinson, C.; Isensee, K.; Bastian, L.; Batten, S.; Bellerby, R.; Blasiak, R.; Laarissa, S.; Lira Loarca, A.; McGeachy, C.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
    By 2030, success for Ocean Decade Challenge number 5 will be marked by a move toward a more sustainable and climate-resilient ocean that aligns with the United Nations’ sustainable development goals. Crucially, the success of Challenge 5 is intricately linked to the outcomes of Challenges 1 to 4, which focus on understanding climate-ocean interactions, controlling marine pollution, conserving biodiversity, and ensuring sustainable food production. Success will include fulfillment of critical science and knowledge gaps with respect to climate adaptation and mitigation. Both approaches need to be addressed in parallel. Key mitigation approaches include the development of marine renewable energies, reduction in marine pollution, the development of blue carbon ecosystems, and marine carbon dioxide removal (mCDR). Adaptation approaches include increased ocean literacy/awareness; co-designed governance and co-operation; improved risk reduction policies; and improved predictive capability of ocean, climate, and weather forecasts. Challenge 5 was reported as one of the most commonly cited Challenges for knowledge uptake in the Decade. However, important gaps still remain in terms of the geographical scope of the actions under this and other challenges.
  • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 4: Develop a Sustainable and Equitable Ocean Economy.

    Haugan, P.; Rhodes, A.; Hollaway, E.; Abdul Rahman, M.; Appiott, J.; DeBeauville-Scott, S.; Gelcich, S.; Gericksky, E.; Gonzales-Quiros, R.; Harms, E.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
    This draft White Paper is one of a series of ten White Papers all of which have been authored by an expert Working Group. Accompanied by a synthesis report authored by the Decade Coordination Unit, it will be discussed at the 2024 Ocean Decade Conference before being finalised and published. 1.2 Strategic Ambition of Ocean Decade Challenge No. 4 By 2030, success for Ocean Decade Challenge No. 4: Develop a sustainable and equitable ocean economy, will be marked by significant advancements in establishing a knowledge-driven framework for informed decision-making and policy formulation. There will be enhanced collaboration among stakeholders, ensuring diverse community engagement and equitable benefit sharing while acknowledging and prioritising the culture, identity, and rights of IPLC that have historically depended on and thrived alongside ocean resources. Strategic mobilisation of blue finance will support investments in sustainable coastal and marine infrastructure, innovative technologies, and conservation efforts, reinforcing the economic foundation. Key policies and governance frameworks promoting sustainability and equity will be in place, alongside a balanced and reflective approach, laying the groundwork for a resilient and inclusive ocean economy. This success will be underpinned by improved data accessibility and capacity-sharing efforts, fostering a shared understanding and commitment to sustainable ocean use. Success will include fulfilment of the following critical science and knowledge gaps: addressing the interface between knowledge systems, policy implementation, and public-private partnerships to enable informed decision-making, focusing on biodiversity restoration, protection, and sustainable management as foundational elements of a sustainable and equitable ocean economy, and ensuring the inclusion of local and indigenous knowledge alongside environmental sustainability and social equity. The following priority datasets gaps will be targeted: comprehensive and up-to-date data on both human activities and state of the environment supporting informed and equitable decision-making and ensuring stakeholder and rights holder engagement in data capture and knowledge co-production. It will include robust capacity development and sharing as well as knowledge exchange to deepen understanding of ocean-human activity interconnections, emphasising investment in context-specific education, training, and research programs, and the integration of appropriate technology and innovation to support a sustainable, equitable, and resilient ocean economy and ensuring that future generations can benefit from the ocean's diverse resources and opportunities.
  • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 3: Ocean Contributions to Nourishing the World’s Population.

    Agostini, V.; Olsen, E.; Tiffay, C.; Alison, E.; Coetzee, J.; Cojocaru, A.L.; Costello, c.; Darias, M.J.; Fabinyi, M.; Fulton, B.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
    This draft White Paper has been prepared as part of the Vision 2030 process of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (hereafter, Ocean Decade). The Vision 2030 process aims to identify tangible measures of success for each of the ten Ocean Decade Challenges by 2030. From a starting point of existing initiatives underway in the Ocean Decade and beyond, and through a lens of priority user needs, the process determines critical gaps in science and knowledge, needs for capacity development, priority datasets, infrastructure, and technology for each Challenge. Focusing investments in science and knowledge to address these needs will help ensure progress towards meeting each critical Challenge by the end of the Ocean Decade in 2030. The results of the process will contribute to the scoping of future Decade Actions, identification of resource mobilisation priorities, and ensure relevance of the Challenges over time. This draft White Paper is one of a series of ten White Papers, all of which have been authored by an expert Working Group and discussed at the 2024 Ocean Decade Conference. A synthesis report, authored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO/IOC), will accompany the White Papers. With a substantial portion of people depending on the ocean as a primary source of nutrition and livelihood, a significant challenge comes into focus: How can we ensure that the ocean's resources continue to effectively nourish an expanding global population? The Ocean Decade responds to this critical concern through its Challenge 3: “Sustainably nourish the global population”.
  • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 2: Protect and Restore Ecosystems and Biodiversity.

    Muller-Karger, F.E.; Hwai, A. T. S.; Allcock, L.; Appeltans, W.; Barón Aguilar, C.; Blanco, A.; Bograd, S.J.; Buttigieg, P.; Costello, M. J.,; Darnaude, A.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
    This draft White Paper has been prepared as part of the Vision 2030 process being undertaken in the framework of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The Vision 2030 process aims to achieve a common and tangible measure of success for each of the ten Ocean Decade Challenges by 2030. From a starting point of existing initiatives underway in the Ocean Decade and beyond, and through a lens of priority user needs, the process determines priority datasets, critical gaps in science and knowledge, and needs in capacity development, infrastructure and technology required for each Challenge to ensure that it can be fulfilled by the end of the Ocean Decade in 2030. The results of the process will contribute to the scoping of future Decade Actions, identification of resource mobilization priorities, and ensuring the ongoing relevance of the Challenges over time. The process identifies achievable recommendations that can be implemented in the context of the Decade, or more broadly before 2030 to achieve the identified strategic ambition and indicators that will be used to measure progress. This draft White Paper is one of a series of ten White Papers all of which have been authored by an expert Working Group. Accompanied by a synthesis report authored by the Decade Coordination Unit, this white paper was discussed at the 2024 Ocean Decade Conference (Barcelona. Spain). Input received from diverse groups through public consultation and at the Conference was reviewed and incorporated as relevant.
  • Warm conveyor belt activity over the Pacific: modulation by the Madden–Julian Oscillation and impact on tropical–extratropical teleconnections

    Quinting, Julian F.; Grams, Christian M.; Kar-Man Chang, Edmund; Pfahl, Stephan; Wernli, Heini (2024)
    Weather and Climate Dynamics
    Research in the last few decades has revealed that rapidly ascending airstreams in extratropical cyclones – socalled warm conveyor belts (WCBs) – play an important role in extratropical atmospheric dynamics. However on the subseasonal timescale, the modulation of their occurrence frequency, henceforth referred to as WCB activity, has so far received little attention. Also, it is not yet clear whether WCB activity may affect tropospheric teleconnection patterns, which constitute a source of predictability on this subseasonal timescale. Using reanalysis data, this study analyzes the modulation of WCB activity by the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO). A key finding is that WCB activity increases significantly over the western North Pacific when the convection of the MJO is located over the Indian Ocean. This increased WCB activity, which is stronger during La Niña conditions, is related to enhanced poleward moisture fluxes driven by the circulation of subtropical Rossby gyres associated with the MJO. In contrast, when the convection of the MJO is located over the western North Pacific, WCB activity increases significantly over the eastern North Pacific. This increase stems from a southward shift and eastward extension of the North Pacific jet stream. However, while these mean increases are significant, individual MJO events exhibit substantial variability, with some events even exhibiting anomalously low WCB activity. Individual events of the same MJO phase with anomalously low WCB activity over the North Pacific tend to be followed by the known canonical teleconnection patterns in the Atlantic–European region; i.e., the occurrence frequency of the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is enhanced when convection of the MJO is located over the Indian Ocean and similarly for the negative phase of the NAO when MJO convection is over the western North Pacific. However, the canonical teleconnection patterns are modified when individual events of the same MJO phase are accompanied by anomalously high WCB activity over the North Pacific. In particular, the link between MJO and the negative phase of the NAO weakens considerably. Reanalysis data and experiments with an idealized general circulation model reveal that this is related to anomalous ridge building over western North America favored by enhanced WCB activity. Overall, our study highlights the potential role of WCBs in shaping tropical–extratropical teleconnection patterns and underlines the importance of representing them adequately in numerical weather prediction models in order to fully exploit the sources of predictability emerging from the tropics.
  • 5 Passos para Incentivar a Cultura Oceânica nas Escolas

    Martins Morais, Alice; Isensee, Marcio; Bragança, Daniele (Eco e Mare de Ciencia, 2023)
    O OCEANO QUE PRECISAMOS PARA O FUTURO QUE QUEREMOS Este é o slogan usado pelas Nações Unidas (ONU) para sensibilização em campanha da Década da ONU de Ciência Oceânica para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável, também co- nhecida como Década do Oceano. Você já ou- viu falar? A Década foi declarada pelas Nações Unidas em 2017 e está sendo implementada de 2021 até 2030, com o objetivo de ser um período que deixe o assunto sempre em evidência, ga- rantindo que a ciência oceânica possa apoiar os países na implementação da Agenda 2030 para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Sabe quando os profissionais da escola se únem antes do início das aulas (o famoso pla- nejamento anual), para fazer uma espécie de intensivão para alinhar as metas, estratégias e “deixar a casa em ordem”? É basicamente para isso que foi instituída a Década do Oceano, resumindo de forma bem simples. É um jeito simbólico de incentivar que toda a sociedade se una, durante dez anos, para promover a conservação do oceano e a gestão dos recursos naturais de zonas costeiras. Dessa forma, o planeta pode atingir os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS). À primeira vista, isso tudo pode parecer um tema muito complexo e de competência ape- nas de governos e cúpulas internacionais. Mas, enquanto as decisões são tomadas em escala global, é no local, na nossa prática, que as ações tomam vida. As pequenas ações do cotidiano podem fazer uma grande diferença, especialmente quando falamos do ambien- te escolar, um dos espaços mais importantes para formar gerações de cidadãos e transfor- mar o mundo em um lugar melhor, não acha? Este ebook traz, resumidamente, um guia dos primeiros passos a se dar para incentivar a cul- tura oceânica na sua escola, dando uma mão para você e sua comunidade fazerem parte desse movimento.
  • MONITOR: Mitigation of Natural Incidence Towards an increased Oceanic Resilience [Poster]

    MONITOR (Second Institute of Oceanography, MNR, 2023)
    The proposed project will make contributions to marine natural disaster prevention of countries in the Indo-Pacific region. The project will have major focus on education and intelligent collaborations among young scientists. There will be summer course being offered to students from all participating institutions every year, together with personnel exchange program. The technology for developing regional physical-biological modeling will be introduced and the operational forecasting systems for regional environments are expected to be developed in the coastal regions along the Indian and western Pacific Ocean.
  • Garotas STEM: Histórias que Inspiram 2022

    Birtwistle, Tom; Daste, Diana (British Council, 2023)
    A valorização de talentos e o empoderamento para indivíduos atingirem o seu potencial perpassa diferentes momentos da vida e abrange diferentes esferas sociais. O respeito à diversidade e a identificação de estratégias para facilitar acesso e oportunidade é um pilar fundamental para avançar num modelo de sociedade que visa o desenvolvimento sustentável nas esferas econômica, social, ambiental e humana. O programa Mulheres na Ciência (Women in STEM) do British Council surge como uma dessas estratégias, para contribuir com o universo de mulheres e meninas nas áreas STEM (sigla em inglês para ciência, tecnologia, engenharia e matemática)...
  • All-Atlantic Blue Schools Network

    Takahashi, Camila Keiko; de Andrade, Mariana M. (All-Atlantic Blue Schools Network, 2023)
    The All-Atlantic Blue Schools Network (AA-BSN) is a remarkable network implemented under the All-Atlantic Ocean Research and Innovation Alliance. It has really embraced the spirit of this science diplomacy process: Connect, Act and Collaborate. It started from an idea back in 2019 when several Ocean Literacy experts from along and across the Atlantic Ocean got together in scope of the AANChOR project, funded to implement the Belem Statement. It builds on the experience of the Blue School in Portugal and the AAORA Working Group on Ocean Literacy in scope of the Galway Statement. With 16 Atlantic countries engaged (as of January 2023), 28 National coordinators from 18 institutions, 455 schools reached, 125 178 students and 3 458 teachers engaged it is truly an example of the desire of the All-Atlantic Ocean Literacy community to get together, to effectively act through a very specific collaboration opportunity and to impact tomorrow’s generation! By connecting schools from Atlantic countries to raise and promote ocean literacy and society awareness AA-BSN is contributing to European, National and International strategies. The bottom-up process where each school builds its own project based on its socio-cultural-economic reality is, in my opinion, the basis for the success of AA-BSN. And imagine… all that was possible in less than two years and with a pandemic period in between. AA-BSN is really an inspiring joint activity from the Atlantic Ocean Literacy community! Congratulation to all the team and those engaged. Well done!
  • COESS: Seafloor seeps in Japan Sea. [Full Depth drone video]

    Chemistry, Observation, Ecology of Submarine Seeps (COESS) Project (University of Tokyo, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, 2024)
    Seafloor journey around methane seeps
  • Atlas Aquatica: Empowering Scuba Diving Ecotourism for Marine Conservation and the Blue Economy

    Favoretto, Fabio; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Centro para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservación A.C. (Atlas Aquatica Project, 2023)
    Healthy oceans are essential for life, but a mere 2.9% are fully protected1. The question then arises - why is ocean protection so challenging? Among the many reasons is the economic allure of extractive activities which poses a barrier to alleviating human pressure on ocean areas. Marine protected areas (MPAs), primarily designed to preserve biodiversity, are often rationalized through a business lens and are expected to yield revenue by increasing tourists’ willingness to pay. However, MPAs are not business entities and require a set of enabling conditions to successfully reach their goals. In a successful marine protected area, a unit increase in natural capital results in a rise in tourist revenue. We developed a bioeconomic model to show how fully protecting diving sites can significantly enhance nature’s recovery and lead to larger revenues for the scuba diving industry. In Mexico, scuba diving generates as much revenue as the fishing industry, yet only 7% of the country’s diving sites are fully protected. Globally, the scuba diving industry generates up to $20 billion dollars per year, even though about half of the diving sites worldwide lack protection. Using global experiences, we designed a five-step bottom-up approach that scuba diving operators can use to amplify marine protection. This approach could catalyze the creation of stricter or new fullyprotected areas designed to incorporate existing businesses - a significant departure from the traditional business framework. The Atlas Aquatica initiative advocates for a significant shift in narrative to stimulate broader acceptance of marine protection worldwide. We aim to contribute to a sustainable blue economic growth and the 30x30 conservation target by promoting the protection of diving sites globally
  • Oceano sem mistérios : Construindo cidades azuis

    Bumbeer, Janaina; Baladelli Ribeiro, Juliana; Alberti, Liziane; Leopoldi, Giovanna; Adriano Christofoletti, Ronaldo; Keiko Takahashi, Camila; Eon, Fábio; de Pinho, Roberto (Conexao Oceano, 2023)
    Cidade Azul é aquela que promove a sustentabilidade - social, ambiental, econômica, cultural e em sua governança - integrando políticas públicas e ações de cidadãos e instituições com o oceano. Portanto, ser uma cidade azul é fortalecer a relação da sustentabilidade com o oceano! E não importa a distância do mar, mesmo cidades do interior podem, e devem, ser azuis. A cultura oceânica é definida como o “entendimento da influência do oceano em nossas vidas e de nossas ações no oceano”, no qual “nós” corresponde a indivíduos e instituições, sejam elas públicas ou privadas. Ela é feita com todos os diferentes setores da sociedade, considerando suas especificidades locais e de forma integrada e colaborativa. É importante pontuar que este documento não traz uma fórmula única ou guia para uma Cidade Azul, pois cada cidade possui sua realidade social, cultural, ambiental, econômica e de infraestrutura política e administrativa. Este documento também não busca iniciar ou trazer novas demandas, mas sim inserir uma lente azul nas iniciativas, projetos e ações já realizadas ou em andamento, valorizando e ampliando o impacto destas ações. Aqui, você vai encontrar estratégias divididas em sete esferas principais - educação, economia azul sustentável, turismo, adaptação, água e saneamento, saúde e bem- estar e conservação - que podem ser adotadas de forma conjunta ou individualmente. Todas elas dialogam e ajudam seu município a alcançar os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável da Agenda 2030, além de responder aos Desafios da Década da Ciência Oceânica para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável (2021 - 2030). Tomadores de decisão, servidores públicos dos municípios e Estados, este é um convite e oportunidade para discutir, adaptar e aplicar os caminhos aqui apresentados e, assim, construir sua cidade azul.
  • Advancing National Ocean Best Practices and Standards Workshop and Questionnaire Report

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Gibbons, Brooke; Langlois, Tim; Monk, Jacquomo; Pini-Fitzsimmons, Joni; NSW Department of Primary Industries, University of Tasmania, University of Western Australia (National Environmental Science Program, 2023)
    The NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub (2015-2021) delivered a project that developed and progressed the adoption of nine national standards for marine survey design and sampling (field-manuals-marine-sampling-monitor-australian-waters). The project was a success, with 136 individuals from 53 organisations contributing to what is colloquially known as the SOPs (standard operating procedures). The SOPs are now considered best practices, being adopted at State, Commonwealth, and international levels by a range of users, including industry and in developing nations. Without taking the next steps and establishing national and long-term governance and application guidance, the SOPs run the risk of becoming outdated and being no longer fit-for-purpose as related to national marine monitoring objectives for key values and pressures. The first step in the development of a future framework for national marine standards is to solicit input from the marine science community about their needs. As such, we coordinated a workshop and questionnaire to collect this information (Advancing National Ocean Best Practices and Standards). The aims of the online workshop and questionnaire were: ● To improve the uptake and applicability of the national marine standard operating procedures (SOPs) and other best practices across diverse users; and ● To guide further actions on the development of future SOPs and how they are used. The workshop had 46 attendees, while the questionnaire had 47 respondents, both predominantly represented by people from Australia. High-level barriers to uptake of the SOPs were related to funding, awareness, training, content, and institutional support. Workshop participants also identified operational barriers and potential solutions. Importantly, there was consensus to continue the SOP program in the long-term, including the possible inclusion of methods, guides, and practices outside of NESP. Feedback from workshop participants and questionnaire participants was summarised into the following broad recommendations: ● Develop new SOPs, including those currently planned for NESP 2.2 (drop cameras, socioeconomic surveys, microplastics) as well as SOPs related to eDNA, drones, sub-bottom profiling, threatened and protected species, and underwater visual census ● Develop revised SOPs to provide clearer or more specific data release guidelines, updated guidelines regarding Indigenous partnerships, engagement and Indigenous Cultural Intellectual Property, glossary or list of standardised terminology and case studies to highlight diversity of users and objectives. ● Increase relevance to other user groups, particularly First Nations, by understanding the needs, preferences and capabilities of these groups and using this information to tailor existing SOPs or develop new ones as required. ● Establish an oversight committee to develop and implement a national best practice endorsement process; identify the need for new and revised SOPs, facilitate accessibility and uptake of SOPs, and track uptake and impact. The input described in this report will be used in a 2024 implementation plan to guide the future of the SOP program.
  • At-sea application of the comet assay to a deep-sea fish

    Hartl, Mark G.J.; Baumann, Lukas M.; Sweetman, Andrew K. (2024)
    Deep-Sea Research Part I
    Given the go ahead, deep-sea mining operations are likely to continue for decades on a substantial spatial scale and the resulting sediment plumes combined, are likely to extend beyond the licenced mining areas, and could lead to the chronic exposure of deep-sea organisms to a mixture of metals, even mobile species, such as fish, that could conceivably display avoidance behaviour. The metal concentrations, often substantially below lethal doses, mean that individual mortality is too blunt a measure to allow assessment of “serious harm”. Commonly used cellular biomarkers of exposure in ecotoxicology include DNA damage using the Comet assay. True deep-sea ecotoxicological studies with fish are rare and to our knowledge, there are no published data or method optimizations for deep-sea fish. Coryphaenoides ssp. were collected during SMARTEX expedition 1 (Feb/Mar, 2023) to the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the Eastern Pacific Ocean using a baited trap deployed between 4580–4,732m depth for 24–48 h. Blood and gill tissue were removed and processed for the Comet assay. In order to reduce artefactual DNA damage from cryopreservation observed previously, two sets of samples were prepared: a cryopreservative (10% DMSO) was added to one set of samples and stored at − 80 ◦C; the second set was used to perform a Comet assay within hours of collection. A custom-built gimble table enabled horizontal electrophoresis at sea after which Comet assay slides were dried and stored at room temperature until further analysis. The Comet assay was also assessed in freshly sampled and frozen rainbow trout cells as a proxy control in order to evaluate potential artefacts from the collection and sampling procedure of the deep-sea fish. The blood samples processed at sea had a significantly reduced level of DNA damage compared to the frozen samples. There was no significant difference between the fresh deep-sea and rainbow trout samples. However, the freshly prepared gill samples in Coryphaenoides ssp. showed substantial artefacts, possibly as a consequence of barotrauma. These results represent the first effort at establishing baseline DNA damage data for deep-sea fish, an essential component in understating and quantifying the impact of deep-sea mining.
  • Atmospheric Flash Drought in the Caribbean

    Ramseyer, Craig A.; Miller, Paul W. (2023)
    Journal of Hydrometeorology
    Despite the intensifying interest in flash drought both within the United States and globally, moist tropical landscapes have largely escaped the attention of the flash drought community. Because these ecozones are acclimatized to receiving regular, near-daily precipitation, they are especially vulnerable to rapid-drying events. This is particularly true within the Caribbean Sea basin where numerous small islands lack the surface and groundwater resources to cope with swiftly developing drought conditions. This study fills the tropical flash drought gap by examining the pervasiveness of flash drought across the pan-Caribbean region using a recently proposed criterion based on the evaporative demand drought index (EDDI). The EDDI identifies 46 instances of widespread flash drought “outbreaks” in which significant fractions of the pan-Caribbean encounter rapid drying over 15 days and then maintain this condition for another 15 days. Moreover, a self-organizing maps (SOM) classification reveals a tendency for flash drought to assume recurring typologies concentrated in one of the Central American, South American, or Greater Antilles coastlines, although a simultaneous, Caribbean-wide drought is never observed within the 40-yr (1981–2020) period examined. Furthermore, three of the six flash drought typol- ogies identified by the SOM initiate most often during Phase 2 of the Madden–Julian oscillation. Collectively, these find- ings motivate the need to more critically examine the transferability of flash drought definitions into the global tropics, particularly for small water-vulnerable islands where even island-wide flash droughts may only occupy a few pixels in most reanalysis datasets.
  • Oceanum Humanitatis Forums

    Academia Brasileira Da Vela Educativa (ABRAVELA) (Academia Brasileira Da Vela Educativa, 2023)
  • Transport inventories and exchanges of organic matter throughout the St. Lawrence Estuary continuum (Canada)

    Lévesque, David; Lebeuf, Michel; Maltais, Domynick; Anderson, Caroline; Starr, Michel (2023)
    Frontiers in Marine Science
    Hypoxia (O2 < 2 mg/L) driven by eutrophication in estuaries and shelves is a worldwide expanding problem. The role of organic matter (OM) inputs is emerging as an important contributor to this issue, beside the well-known implication of inorganic nutrients. The St. Lawrence Estuary, one of the largest and deepest estuarine system in the world is facing strong persistent and increasing hypoxia. In this context, transport and exchange of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM, respectively) were investigated as a first step to understand their implication in hypoxia. Tributaries and Gulf contributions were compared to St. Lawrence Estuary inventories for the spring freshet (May), the summer low-flow (August), and the fall-mixing (October). Furthermore, changes in OM ratios were examined along the estuarine gradient from the upper St. Lawrence Estuary (USLE), downstream of the maximum turbidity zone, to the lower estuary (LSLE). For the USLE, net transport was always positive and net export/loading ratios suggested that 64–90% of POM and 30–63% of DOM were either retained or transformed during its course from tributaries to LSLE. Net transport from the USLE toward the LSLE was 3–13 fold more important in May than in August or October. For the LSLE, net transport to the Gulf was generally negative meaning that OM production was the dominating proces. The extremely high net export/loading ratios in August indicate that POM production was 28.8 to 41.4 times the combined inputs of tributaries and Gulf. Net export/loading ratios remained superior to one during May and October (1.7–9.4) for the LSLE. Changes along the upstream–downstream continuum were seen for POM, with a steady increase relative to total suspended matter from 7.3% to 50.2%, but they were not observed for DOM, for which no obvious trends were detected. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly considering OM in eutrophication monitoring programs of the St. Lawrence Estuary, as the mineralisation of a portion of the large OM pool size could influence our understanding of hypoxia and acidification of the deep waters of LSLE.
  • Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability - A Community Vision for the Ocean Decade.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO, 2024)
    The global ocean acidification research community responded to the Decade call by co-designing a pioneering UN Decade programme entitled “Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability” (OARS). The programme is led by three partners: Plymouth Marine Laboratory (UK), University of Washington (USA), and IOC-UNESCO. OARS provides the blueprint to foster cooperation of ocean acidification research, improve understanding of the impacts of the phenomenon and, ultimately, develop approaches for mitigating its effects by acting on sources and identify adaptation approaches. The OARS white papers in this publication summarize where the global community currently is on this path and what should be done in the future to include the ocean acidification dimension for combatting the degradation of ocean health under various anthropogenic stressors including the changing climate.

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