• Instructions to the Marine Meteorological Observers of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 1st edition.

      Page, James (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1906)
      The form of weather Report at present issued to vessels by the U. S. weather Bureau is a slight modification of that devised by the U. S. Signal Service for the purpose of its series of International Simultaneous Meteorological Observations, covering the period 1878- 1887, which form in its turn superseded the once well-known Meteorological Journal. The last-mentioned form of record, which went into effect in 1876, and which was in many respects identical with that recommended by the Maritime Conference held at Brussels in 1853, contemplated that the various meteorological observations should be entered at the end of every two hours throughout the twenty-four, or a total of twelve sets of observations per day. The new form demanded, in place of this series, a single daily observation, this, however, to be taken over the entire sea at· the same absolute instant of time, viz, mean noon on the meridian of Greenwich, the object of the change being the utilization of a principle whose value, already recognized ashore, had meanwhile been shown to be equally applicable to meteorological observations at sea. The principle in question was the study of weather changes by means of daily synoptic weather charts, i.e., charts showing the conditions of pressure, temperature, wind, etc., existing at a given instant of time over a wide extent of territory. In the days of Maury, and for some years subsequent to the period of his greatest activity, the common aim of the various institutions engaged in the study of ocean meteorology was to obtain for each unit area of the sea's surface (generally a field bounded by the even 5° parallels and meridians, 5°, 10°, 15°, etc.) a reasonable number of observations of wind, weather, etc., extending over any period of years. The observations were then assembled by months, the average for each month taken, and the result stated as the normal condition for the month, i.e., the condition which the mariner might expect to find most frequently prevailing throughout the given field or square during the given month. Sailing routes were then laid down for the successive months in accordance with these normal conditions, and shipmasters were instructed to adhere to these routes as rigidly as the winds would permit, even when convinced by their own experience of weather changes, as well as by the indications of their meteorological instruments, that better results might be attained by adapting the course of the voyage to the conditions actually encountered. With the advent of weather forecasting as a science, using as a basis the daily synoptic weather charts, a new importance was attached to the sailor's meteorological observations. It was seen that in taking them he was not only adding to the stock of general knowledge of the climatology of the sea, the value of which to him was future and problematical, but also that he was putting himself in possession of certain special knowledge, the value of which might prove absolute and immediate. His last preceding observation revealed a certain existent condition of the meteorological elements, his present observation a more or less different condition. What did the changes which had taken place during the time intervening between the observations foretell? Did the existence of adverse winds in his immediate neighborhood imply better or worse conditions elsewhere 1 If better, would he not in this instance be justified in abandoning the route which had been laid down for him as the best under average circumstances, and seeking that which his present observations led him to believe would prove more favorable. A satisfactory answer to these various questions demands, in addition to a knowledge of the general periodic changes which occur in the several meteorologic elements from season to season, and from month to month, a knowledge of what may be termed the nonperiodic or accidental changes which occur from day to day; of the relation which· exists between the simultaneous changes in the several elements, and of the effect which a decided variation of pressure, temperature, or wind in any one neighborhood has upon the conditions existing in other parts of the ocean. To obtain this latter knowledge it is requisite that we have at hand for the purposes of study a series of charts or pictures, as it were, of the weather covering the entire ocean at a given instant of time, taken at regular intervals so brief that we may be confident that no marked change can occur without appearing, in its different stages, upon several of these pictures in succession. An examination of this series will then serve to reveal what changes have taken place in the interval separating any two of them; to trace the development and progress of any disturbance of the normal conditions that may have arisen; to compare the conditions of wind and weather prevailing simultaneously at points of the sea more or less remote from each other; to determine the constant relation, if any, which exists between these conditions; to make plain the manner in which a vessel, beset by foul winds, might have been navigated with the result that these winds would have been avoided, or even been replaced by fair; and finally, to instruct the navigator as to the conclusions to be drawn from his meteorological observations, in order that this result may be accomplished. It was with a view to combining these two equally essential methods of meteorological' investigation-the old, having for its aim the collection of a large number of observations, independent as to time, to serve as a basis for the study of the climatological changes as they occur from month to month, and the new, having for its aim the collection of a large number of daily simultaneous observations, to serve as a basis for the study of the weather changes as they actually occur from day to day-that the present form of weather report was adopted. It demands but a single observation per day, instead of the twelve demanded by the Meteorological Journal, this large reduction being made in the hope that the number of observers would increase in the same ratio as the services required of them would diminish, a hope which has proved more than justified. This single observation, however, is to be taken each day over the entire globe at the same instant of time, viz, Greenwich mean noon. The local or ship's time of the observation will thus vary with the longitude; on the meridian of Greenwich it will be local or ship's noon; in longitude 60° E. it will be 4 p. m.; in longitude 60° W. it will be 8 a. m.; in 120° E. it will be 8 p. m.; in 120° W. it will be 4 a. m. On the meridian 180° it will be midnight.
    • Instructions to the Marine Meteorological Observers of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 2nd edition.

      Heiskell, Henry L. (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1908)
      The form of Weather Report at present issued to vessels by the U. S. Weather Bureau is a slight modification of that devised by the U. S. Signal Service for the purpose of its series of International Simultaneous Meteorological Observations, covering the period 1878-1887, which form in its turn superseded the once well-known Meteorological Journal. The last-mentioned form of record, which went into effect in 1876, and which was in many respects identical with that recommended by the Maritime Conference held at Brussels in 1853, contemplated that the various meteorological observations should be entered at the end of every two hours throughout the twenty-four, or a total of twelve sets of observations a day. The new form demanded, in place of this series, a single daily observation- this, however, to be taken over the entire sea at the same instant of time, viz, mean noon on. the meridian of Greenwich, the object of the change being the utilization of a principle whose value, already recognized ashore, had meanwhile been shown to be equally applicable to meteorological observations at sea.
    • Instructions to the Marine Meteorological Observers of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 3rd edition.

      Heiskell, Henry L. (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1910)
      Introduction.- The Meteorological Report at present issued to vessels by the U. S. Weather Bureau, for forwarding observations , is a slight modification of that devised by the U. S. Signal Service for the purpose of its series of International Simultaneous Meteorological Observations, covering the period 1878-1887, which form in its turn superseded the once well-known Meteorological Journal. The last-mentioned form of record, which went into effect in 1876, and wh ch was in many respects identical with that recommended by the Maritime Conference held at Brussels in 1853, contemplated that the various meteorological observations should be entered at the end of every two hours throughout the twenty-f our, or a total of twelve sets of observations a day. The new form demanded, in place of this series, a single daily observation -this, however, to be taken over the entire se a at the same instant of time, viz, mean noon on the meridian of Greenwich, the object of the change being the utilization of a principal whose value, already recognized ashore, had meanwhile been shown to be equally applicable to meteorological observations at sea.
    • Instructions to the Marine Meteorological Observers of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 4th edition.

      U.S. Weather Bureau (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1925)
      The ocean meteorological program of the Weather Bureau calls in general for the making of but one regular observation a day, this, as well known, being made at noon G.M.T. (civil). However, in certain designated areas from which observations are transmitted by radiotelegraphy an additional regular observation is provided for at Greenwich midnight. Supplementing these regular observations are extra ones made under conditions of threatening or severe weather, gale and storm reports, and descriptive notes of weather experienced between observations, the last- named taking the form of a Daily Journal. The total requirements are such, however, as to make the smallest possible demands on observers consistent with the needs of the Bureau in me ting its responsibilities for the issuance of forecasts and warnings, the procuring of data for publication on charts, and otherwise effectively carrying out its marine meteorological program.
    • Instructions to the Marine Meteorological Observers of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 5th edition.

      U.S. Weather Bureau (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1929)
      The ocean meteorological program of the Weather Bureau calls in general for the making of but one regular observation a day, this, as well known, being made at noon· Greenwich mean time, (civil). However, in certain designated areas from which observations are transmitted by radiotelegraphy an additional regular observation is provided for at Greenwich midnight. Supplementing these regular observations are extra ones made under conditions of threatening or severe weather, gale and storm reports, and descriptive notes of weather experienced between observations, the lastnamed taking the form of a Daily Journal. The total requirements are such, however, as to make the smallest possible demands on observers consistent with the needs of the bureau in meeting its responsibilities for the ·issuance of forecasts and warnings, the procuring of data for publication on charts, and otherwise effectively carrying out its marine meteorological program. The provision that observations over the entire ocean should be made at the same moment of time is to make possible the construction of synoptic weather maps of large areas. While this object has been attained in part, nevertheless, owing to the varying observational requirements of different countries, the hope of a world synoptic weather map has never been completely realized. Generally speaking, in the Western Hemisphere where land observations are customarily made at 12 and 13 hours, Greenwich mean time, land and sea observations are in close agreement as to time; whereas in the Eastern Hemisphere agreement is at the present time almost wholly lacking. The value of simultaneous observations has received fresh recognition with the development of radio communication. The exchange of weather advices at sea and the growing practice among ships officers of constructing weather maps has had the effect of renewing interest in the entire subject. Concerted international action is now being taken to effectively organize the making of reports from ships at sea by radio to designated coastal centers of collection. It will be seen that by the daily receipt of ships' reports by radio an opportunity is afforded for the great national meteorological services to broadcast important advices to ships concerning daily weather conditions in their vicinity and along their course. There thus arises a reciprocal opportunity, as well as obligation, for ships to cooperate in this scheme of making observations of ocean conditions and reporting them by radio. Such cooperation will be coupled with the broadcasting and disseminating of useful advices and information by the national forecasters, made possible by observations from a large number of ships. Instructions for the transmission of observations by radio are contained in a separate publication, Radio Weather Code for Vessel Weather Observers. The material contained in these instructions has been restricted for the most part to information considered essential or helpful in observational work. For information on the general subject of meteorology observers are referred to the publications named in the bibliography on pages 63 to 66.
    • Instructions to the Marine Meteorological Observers of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 6th edition

      U.S. Weather Bureau (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1938)
      The ocean meteorological program of the Weather Bureau has two separate and distinct parts. First, there is the daily service by radio. Owing to the need for brevity, the radio reports contain a limited amount of essential information. The daily weather reports from ships and islands reveal the conditions over the ocean; when assembled on a map, including continental reports, they give a picture of weather conditions existing momentarily over a large region. A collection of observations is immediately returned to the mariner by radio broadcast so that he may draw his own weather map on shipboard. By this process, the weather at the earth's surface is mapped and much can be inferred as to conditions above the surface. Formation and movement of storms are revealed: advices and warnings of storms and forecasts of wind and weather are included in the broadcasts for the benefit of the mariner. For this first part of the Weather Bureau's program, observations are secured by radio from certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic (including the Gulf of Mexico and the Carribean Sea). This service is of great value to agriculture and commerce as well as navigation; the daily weather forecasts for land areas depend to a considerable extent upon the ocean weather observations. To a very large degree ships' weather reports form the basis of warnings of the destructive storms that sometimes move from the ocean into coastal areas. As the second part of the program. the Weather Bureau uses more complete reports, forwarded by mail at the end of the voyage, in order that the weather of the oceans may he studied in greater detail. Results of these studies are the wind roses and weather data in other forms, as they appear on the pilot charts, also weather summaries for all parts of the oceans published for the information of the navigator. The life histories of important storms at sea are determined and recorded from ships' weather observations. Information regarding weather conditions at sea is furnished for use in admiralty cases. Observations are used in connection with land data for the construction of weather maps of world areas. Since the oceans influence the weather of the continents, the study of ocean temperatures is one of the important lines of work of the Bureau.
    • Instructions to the Marine Meteorological Observers, 7th Edition.

      U.S. Weather Bureau (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1941)
      The ocean meteorological program of the Weather Bureau has two separate and distinct parts. First, there is the daily service by radio. Owing to the need for brevity, the radio reports contain a limited amount of essential information. The daily weather reports from ships and islands reveal the conditions over the ocean; when assembled on a map, including continental reports, they give a picture of weather conditions existing momentarily over a large region. A collection of observations is immediately returned to the mariner by radio broadcast so that he may draw his own weather map on shipboard. By this process, the weather at the earth's surface is mapped and much can be inferred as to conditions above the surface. Formation and movement of storms are revealed; advices and warnings of storms and forecasts of wind and weather are included in the broadcasts for the benefit of the mariner. For this first part of the Weather Bureau's program, observations are secured by radio from certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic (including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea). This service is of great value to agriculture and commerce as well as navigation; the daily weather forecasts for land areas depend to a considerable extent upon the ocean weather observations. To a very large degree ships' weather reports form the basis of warnings of the destructive storms that sometimes move from the ocean into coastal areas. As the second part of the program, the Weather Bureau uses more complete reports, forwarded by mail at the end of the voyage, in order that the weather of the oceans may be studied in greater detail. Results of these studies are the wind roses and weather data in other forms, as they appear on the pilot charts, also weather summaries for all parts of the oceans published for the information of the navigator. The life histories of important storms at sea are determined and recorded from ships' weather observations. Information regarding weather conditions at sea is furnished for use in admiralty cases. Observations are used in connection with land data for the construction of weather maps of world areas. Since the oceans influence the weather of the continents, the study of ocean temperatures is one of the important lines of work of the Bureau. For these purposes the detailed entries of the mail report are of great value. It is a world-wide problem, hence mail reports are desired from every part of the oceans. While radio reports of the weather are required twice or even four times daily, the observations that are sent only by mail are required once each day at Greenwich mean noon, with appropriate notes in the Daily Journal as to conditions between observations.
    • Manual of Marine Meteorological Observations, Eighth edition.

      U.S. Weather Bureau (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1950)
      The Conference of Brussels, called in 1853, was the first International Maritime Conference ever held. It sponsored the idea that Governments should foster systematic weather observations on ships, and should prepare and publish charts of the prevailing winds, ocean currents, average sea and air temperatures, and tracks of dangerous storms based on the additional data. With the introduction of radio and fast ships, weather information became of vital importance to safe and efficient ship operation. Many countries began regularly scheduled weather forecasts to ships in nearby waters. Today, weather forecasts as well as charts arc prepared from data collected through ship observations. Forecasts of weather and sea conditions arc prepared for ship operation, air-sea rescue missions, over-water air travel, military operations, etc. The need for accurate data is apparent, since the forecast cannot be any better than the basic observation. Organization of the Manual. - This manual has been designed to serve primarily as a guide in the taking of weather observations at sea. It will be helpful in using the manual to keep in mind that the material in it has been organized to accord with the order of the various elements of the observation as they arc entered in the basic Weather Bureau Form 1210F "Log of Ship's Weather Observations." Each major element of the observation is completely covered in a separate chapter. The first portion of each chapter is presented from the point of view of observing and evaluating the element without reference to its ultimate use; and the second portion from the point of view of making a permanent record of it and preparing it for dissemination (coding). A complete index and a table of contents have been included. They should be consulted whenever there is any doubt about the location of instructions in the manual.
    • Report of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission for the years 1950 and 1951

      Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1952)
      ENGLISH: The Convention between the United States of America and the Republic of Costa Rica for the establishment of an Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission was signed May 31, 1949. Ratifications were exchanged on March 3, 1950, after arrival at understandings respecting the interpretation of certain provisions. The text of the Convention is appended to this report. Also appended are the enabling legislation passed by the United States Congress, giving effect to the Convention, and the Decree ratifying the Convention adopted by the Republic of Costa Rica. The most important provisions of the Convention may be summarized here, as the basis for the policy and actions of the Commission. SPANISH: La Convención entre los Estados Unidos de América y la República de Costa Rica para el establecimiento de la, Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical fué suscrita el 31 de Mayo de 1949. El cambio de ratificaciones, después de haber llegado a un entendimiento respecto de la interpretación de ciertas cláusulas, se efectuó el 3 de Marzo de 1950. El texto de la Convención se agrega a este informe. También se agrega la legislación correspondiente, emitida por el Congreso de los Estados Unidos para dar efectividad a la Convención, y el Decreto de Ratificación del Convenio promulgado por la República de Costa Rica. Los aspectos más importantes de la Convención se sintetizan aquí por constituir las bases que regulan la política y los actos de la Comisión, creada en virtud de aquélla.(PDF contains 58 pages.)
    • Report of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission for the year 1952

      Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1953)
      ENGLISH: The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, established by a Convention between the United States and Costa Rica, has as its purpose the collection and interpretation of information which will facilitate maintaining, at levels of maximum sustained yield, the populations of tropical tunas in the Eastern Pacific and of the bait species used in their capture. To this end, the Commission is directed by the Convention to undertake investigations of the tunas and bait species, and to make recommendations for joint action by the member governments designed to attain the objectives of the Convention. The year 1952 is the second since the initiation of the investigations of the Commission. The Commission was organized in 1950. Its program of investigations ~as outlined and work commenced during 1951. The work during 1952 has been a continuation and logical development of the research commenced the previous year. SPANISH: La Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical, establecida por una Convención entra Costa Rica y los Estados Unidos de América, tiene como deberes recolectar e interpretar la información que facilite el mantenimiento, a niveles de una contínua producción máxima, de las poblaciones de las especies tropicales de atún en el Pacífico Oriental y de los peces de carnada que se emplean para su pesca. Con este propósito la Comisión se encarga, en conformidad con los términos de la antes expresada Convención de efectuar investigaciones sobre los atunes y mencionadas especies de carnada, y de hacer recomendaciones a los Gobiernos Miembros a fin de que pueden tomar una acción conjunta que les permita obtener los resultados que el citado Convenio persigue. El año 1952 es el segundo desde la iniciación de las investigaciones de la Comisión. Esta fué organizada en 1950. Durante 1951 se preparó el programa de estudios y se comenzaron los trabajos. La tarea realizada en el año 1952 ha sido una continuación y lógico desarrollo de las investigaciones empezadas en el año anterior.(PDF contains 61 pages.)
    • Manual of Marine Meteorological Observations, Ninth edition

      U.S. Weather Bureau (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1954)
      The Conference of Brussels, called in 1853, was the first International Maritime Conference ever held. It sponsored the idea that governments should foster systematic weather observations on ships, and should prepare and publish charts of the prevailing winds, ocean currents, average sea and air temperatures, and tracks of dangerous storms based on the additional data. With the introduction of radio and fast ships, weather information became of vital importance to safe and efficient ship operation. Many countries began regularly scheduled weather forecasts to ships in nearby waters. Today, weather forecasts as well as charts are prepared from data collected through ship observations. Forecasts of weather and sea conditions arc prepared for ship operation, air-sea rescue missions, over-water air travel, military operations, etc. The need for accurate data is apparent, since the forecast cannot be any better than the basic observation. . Organization of the Manual.--:This manual has been designed to serve primarily as a guide m the taking of weather observations at sea. It will be helpful in using the manual to keep in mind that the material in it has been organized to accord with the order of the various elements of the observation as they are entered in the basic Weather Bureau Form 1210F, "Log of Ship's Weather Observations." Each major element of the observation is completely covered in a separate chapter. The first portion of each chapter is presented from the point of view of observing and evaluating the clement without reference to its ultimate use; and the second portion, from the point of view of making a permanent record of it and preparing it for dissemination (coding). A complete index and a table of contents have been included. They should be consulted whenever there is any doubt about the location of instructions in the manual.
    • A study of populations of the anchoveta, Cetengraulis mysticetus, based on meristic characters

      Howard, Gerald V. (1954)
      ENGLISH: This study was undertaken to determine whether meristic characters indicate that more than one major population of anchovetas occurs in the range of the species from Mexico to Peru. Interest in this species lies in the fact that it is the principal bait fish used to catch yellowfin and skipjack tunas in the Eastern Pacific. Specimens examined were from collections made by California tuna fishing vessels at six major baiting localities covering nearly the entire range of the species, namely, Almejas Bay on the outer coast of Baja California, Guaymas and Ahome Point in the Gulf of California, Gulf of Fonseca, Gulf of Panama, and Gulf of Guayaquil. Four meristic characters were selected for study: vertebrae, dorsal fin rays, anal fin rays, and gill rakers on the first gill arch. Vertebral counts, using X-ray film, were taken from a total of 1,500 fish, 250 each from each of the six localities. For the other characters, 125 anchovetas were examined from each locality for a total of 750, the counts being made with the aid of a binocular microscope. Specimens were between 80 and 165 mm. standard length. SPANISH: Este estudio ha sido hecho con el propósito de determinar si los caracteres numéricos de las anchovetas indican que existe más de una población de este pez en la zona en que se encuentra la especie, comprendida entre México y Perú. El interés en dicha especie radica en el hecho de que éste es el pez de carnada usado principalmente para lapesca de los atunes "aleta amarilla" y "barrilete" en el Pacífico Oriental. Los especímenes que han sido examinados, se tomaron de las muestras recogidas por los barcos atuneros de California en seis de las mejores localidades en que se pesca la anchoveta, las cuales comprenden casi toda la zona en donde se encuentra la especie, a saber, Bahía de Almejas en la costa exterior de Baja California, Guaymas y Punta Ahorne en el Golfo de California, el Golfo de Fonseca, el Golfo de Panamá y el Golfo de Guayaquil. Cuatro caracteres numéricos fueron escogidos para su estudio: los que presentan 1) las vértebras, 2) los radios de la aleta dorsal, 3) los radios de la aleta anal y 4) las branquispinas del primer arco branquial. Mediante el uso de películas con rayos X, se contaron las vértebras en un total de 1,500 peces, es decir, 250 de cada una de las seis mencionadas localidades. En relación con los otros caracteres, se examinaron 125 anchovetas de cada área, o sea, un total de 750 ejemplares, habiendo sido hecho el conteo por medio de un microscopio binocular. Los especímenes tenían un largo standard entre 80 y 165 milímetros.(PDF contains 24 pages.)
    • Report of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission for the year 1953

      Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1954)
      ENGLISH: The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission was established in 1950 by a Convention between Costa Rica and the United States. The Convention provides for the subsequent adherence of other nations interested in the tuna fishery of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. Panama adhered to the Convention in September 1953. The Commission has the duties of collecting and interpreting all necessary factual information respecting the tunas and tuna-bait fishes in order to facilitate maintaining the populations thereof at levels permitting maximum sustained yields, and of making recommendations to the member governments for joint action toward this objective. The Commission commenced its investigations in 1951. The year 1953 is the third year of scientific study. During the year investigations along several lines were continued and further developed. SPANISH: La Comisión Interamericano del Atún Tropical fué establecida en 1950 en virtud de una Convención entre Costa Rica y los Estados Unidos. La Convención abre la puerta para que otras naciones interesadas en las pesquerías de atún en aguas tropicales del Pacífico Oriental, puedan adherirse posteriormente. Panamá se adhirió al Tratado en Septiembre de 1953. La Comisión tiene como deberes recolectar e interpretar todos los informes necesarios respecto de las especies de atún y de los peces de carnada que sirven para pescarlas¡ a fin de facilitar el mantenimiento de las respectivas poblaciones a niveles que permitan un rendimiento máximo permanente; y hacer recomendaciones a los gobiernos miembros para que actúen conjuntamente en pro de los indicados objetivos. Nuestro organismo comenzó sus investigaciones en 1951. El año 1953 es el tercero de estudios científicos. Durante dicho año se continuaron investigaciones en diversas líneas y se prosiguió su desarrollo.(PDF contains 87 pages.)
    • Manual of Marine Meteorological Observations, Ninth edition, Change No. 1

      U.S. Weather Bureau (Government Printing OfficeWashington, DC, 1955)
      Change #1 to Circular M consists of the attached page changes; i.e., pages v-vi, 3-6, 27-30, 39-40, 47-54, 67-68 and 71-86. These changes are effective January 1, 1955, as indicated at the top o'£ each page in which changes were made. As a. further aid in identification, an asterisk has been placed in the left margin at the beginning of sections, paragraphs, lines, tables, etc., in which changes were made. In summary, the changes pertain to the fallowing: 1. Use of the symbol "X" in coding, wherever a. slant ( /) was used in the past. 2. Changes in Code Table 6, Symbol ww - Present Weather (mostly of a clarifying nature) 3. Changes in the definitions of code figures 0, 1 and 2 of Code Table 7, Symbol W - Past Weather. 4. Changes in the meaning of code figures in Code Table 15, Symbol a. - Barometer change characteristic in the last 3 hours. 5. Change in the meaning of Symbol Nh - See Par . 8320 and Code Table 3. 6. Change in the meaning of Symbol h - See Par . 8330 and Code Table 10. 7. Minor changes in the description of cloud categories for coding purposes and format changes in Code Tables 9, ll and 12, Symbols CL, CM and CH. 8. Minor changes in Ice Group Code Tables 20, 21 and 22 pertaining to Symbols K, Di and r. It is suggested that this page be initialed by the person inserting the attached pages and filed with the manual as a record that the change has been received and incorporated in the manual.
    • Algunos aspectos de la dinamica de las poblaciónes y su importancia para la administración de pesquerías marinas comerciales

      Schaefer, Milner B. (1955)
      Una población de peces oceánicos explotada por una pesquería, puede ser influenciada por un gran número de factores dentro del complejo sistema ecológico de que forma parte. De todos estos factores, solamente uno, la predación por el hombre, es susceptible de ser controlado o modificado en grado apreciable por la acción del hombre mismo. Cualquier administración o control de una pesquería, si tal cosa es siquiera posible, debe en consecuencia,ejercitarse a través de las actividades de los pescadores. Parece importante elucidar algunos de los principios básicos de los efectos de la pesca sobre una población de peces y, recíprocamente, el efecto de esa población en el volumen de la pesca, a fin de saber en qué circunstancíasy de qué modo tal control a la acción de los pescadores puede influenciar los stocks y el rendimiento que de ellos se obtiene.(PDF contains 32 pages.)
    • Morphometric comparison of yellowfin tuna from Southeast Polynesia, Central America and Hawaii.

      Scaefer, Milner (1955)
      ENGLISH: It is important to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission to determine whether or not the yellowfin tuna (Neothunnus macropterus) which support the large commercial fishery along the American West Coast are distinct from populations of this species further to the westward. Previous research has shown that there are marked differences in morphometric characteristics of specimens from Hawaii and from the West Coast. In the present study there are compared biometric data from specimens from Southeast Polynesia (Marquesas, Society, and Tuamotu Islands) with data from specimens from Central America and from Hawaii. SPANISH: Es importante para la Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical determinar si los atunes "aleta amarilla" (Neothunnus macropterus) que mantienen las grandes pesquerías comerciales a lo largo de la costaoccidental americana, son diferentes de los atunes de la misma especie que se hallan más al Oeste. Investigaciones previas han indicado que las características morfométricas de los atunes de Hawaii y las de los que se encuentran en la costa occidental difieren notablemente. En el presenteestudio se comparan datos biométricos de especímenes de la Polinesia sudoriental (Islas Marquesas, Society y Tuamotu) con datos de especímenes de América Central y de Hawaii.(PDF contains 48 pages.)
    • Report of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission for the year 1954

      Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1955)
      ENGLISH: The Governments of Costa Rica and the United States, being mutually interested in the conservation of the tropical tunas and of the bait-fishes required for capturing them, entered into a Convention in 1950 establishing the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. The Convention provides that other governments having an interest in the tuna and tuna-bait resources may adhere to the Convention by a simple exchange of correspondence with the existing members. The Government of Panama adhered to the Convention in the fall of 1953. SPANISH: Los Gobiernos de Costa Rica y de los Estados Unidos, mutuamente interesados en la conservación de las especies tropicales de atún, así como en la de los peces que sirven de carnada para su pesca, suscribieron en 1950 una Convención por la que se estableció la Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical. La Convención permite que otros gobiernos interesados en los recursos del atún y los peces-carnada puedan adherirse a la misma mediante un simple intercambio de correspondencia con los Gobiernos Miembros. El Gobierno de Panamá se adhirió a la Convención en el otoño de 1953.(PDF contains 100 pages.)
    • A quantitative analysis of the phytoplankton of the Gulf of Panama III. General ecological conditions and the phytoplankton dynamics at 8°45'N, 79°23'W from November 1954 to May 1957

      Smayda, Theodore J. (1956)
      Bi-weekly phytoplankton samples were collected at 0, 10, and 20 m and enumerated by the Utermöhl sedimentation technique; 14C productivity measurements at 10 m, oblique zooplankton tows, and routine hydrographic observations were also made. Northerly winds induce upwelling during December-April, followed by a rainy season; a slight resurgence in upwelling may occur during July and/or August. Annual variations in upwelling intensity and rainfall occur. During upwelling, the upper 50 m, about 30 per cent of the total volume of the Gulf of Panama, is replaced with water 5 to 10 C colder than the more stratified, turbid and nutrient impoverished watermass present during the rainy season. The mean annual runoff accompanying an average annual precipitation of 2731 mm is estimated to equal a layer of fresh water 3.2 m thick. About 10 per cent of the phytoplankton phosphate and inorganic nitrogen requirements during the rainy season are accreted.(PDF contains 260 pages.)
    • A study of changes in fishing effort, abundance, and yield for yellowfin and skipjack tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean

      Shimada, Bell M.; Schaefer, Milner B. (1956)
      ENGLISH: The rapid growth of the Eastern Pacific fishery for yellowfin and skipjack tuna since the end of World War II has given rise to questions concerning the rational utilization of these resources. As part of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission's program of research designed to investigate these problems, a study was undertaken to determine from the historical records of the fishery the effects of fishing upon the stocks of yellowfin and skipjack tuna of the Eastern Pacific region and to evaluate the present condition of these stocks with respect to the maximum equilibrium yield. SPANISH: EI rápido crecimiento, desde la terminación de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, de la pesquería de atún aleta amarilla y barrilete en el Pacifico Oriental, ha dado lugar a que se hagan algunos comentarios sabre la racional utilización de estos recursos. Como parte del programa de la Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical designado para la investigación de estos problemas, un estudio fué llevado a cabo para determinar, de los informes historicós de la pesquería, los efectos de la pesca sobre los stocks de atún aleta amarilla y barrilete de la región del Pacifico Oriental y para evaluar la presente condición de estos stocks con respecto al máximo rendimiento de equilibria.(PDF contains 123 pages.)