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Recent Submissions

  • Current status of aquaculture in Singapore.

    Heng, Neo Chin; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
    Singapore is a small country state with a demographic profile of over 5 million in population. With limited land for agricultural purposes and sea space available for fish farming, Singapore depends heavily on importation of fresh seafood. Even so, Singapore has a small but thriving and increasingly important food fish farming industry which accounts for about 6% of local food fish consumption. The main bulk of local food fish production comes from coastal farming in floating netcages along the northern coast of Singapore. Popular species of marine food fish cultured include seabass, pompano, groupers, mullets and milkfish. There are also a few land-based fish farms culturing species like tilapia, marble goby and snakehead. The ornamental fish farming industry is concentrated mainly in Agrotechnology Parks and there are about 75 fish farms producing ornamental fishes with an approximate value of $76.7 million that is exported to over 80 countries.
  • Good aquaculture practices (VietGAP) and sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam.

    Nguyen, Thi Bang Tam; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
    The shrimp (black tiger and white leg shrimp) and catfish industries in Viet Nam continue to experience increasing growth due to rapid aquaculture development. However, disease outbreaks become a major issue. Moreover, seafood consumers at present are likely to be more concerned about how the products are produced and how to control/manage aquatic animal health instead of treatment. Hence, the main objective of this abstract is to focus on one of the solutions to address these problems/issues and ensure sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam.
  • The Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program.

    Dieta, Romeo E.; Dieta, Florida C.; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
    The Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) is a banner program of the Department of Agriculture (DA) being implemented by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). To implement the PNAP, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was executed between BFAR and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). The program concept is primarily mangrove resource rehabilitation and livelihood provision to help address climate change, food security and poverty among municipal/artisanal coastal fisherfolks. To achieve its goals and objectives, the BFAR identified three strategic interventions, such as: (1) replanting of destroyed mangrove resources; (2) establishment of community-based multi-species hatcheries (CBMSH), and (3) provision of aquasilviculture livelihood projects to fisherfolkbeneficiaries throughout the country. As envisioned, the BFAR shall provide support funds for the establishment, operation and management of the PNAP while CHED shall provide logistical support during program implementation. The program covers at least 71 state universities and colleges (SUCs) and 61 provinces throughout the country. Potential areas targeted by the PNAP are abandoned, undeveloped and underutilized (AUUs) fishpond lease agreements (FLAs) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) identified areas (Key Biodiversity Areas, reforestation areas and co-management agreement areas) from BFAR coastal Regions 1 to 13 and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Participating agencies are DA-BFAR Regional Fisheries Offices (RFOs) and Provincial Fisheries Offices (PFOs), CHED (SUCs), DENR Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Offices (PENRO) and Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENRO), and the local government units (LGUs) in the provinces and municipalities. Target beneficiaries for the aquasilviculture livelihood projects are at least 1,000 coastal fisherfolks and for the community-based multi-species hatcheries are 64 SUCs who were signatories to the MOA. For mangrove rehabilitation, the PNAP will involve the coastal fisherfolks in the planting of 100 million propagules for the next 3-4 years. Funding support from BFAR are PhP 6.00 per surviving propagule, PhP 1.2 million per SUC for the establishment and operation of CBMSH and PhP 65,000 per aquasilviculture project. As part of the over-all management strategy, a National Steering Committee (NSC) was formed to formulate policy guidelines of the PNAP while Regional Steering Committees (RSCs) were created to oversee policy implementation in the regions. Program Management Offices (PMOs) were formed to implement and supervise program implementation in the provinces. Community Organizers (COs) were hired in each province to assist in the implementation of daily activities. The approved PNAP implementing guideline details the procedures to follow, both relating to the technical and administrative operations of the program.
  • Status of resource management and aquaculture in Malaysia.

    Yusoff, Aishah; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
  • Status of resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Japan.

    Okuzawa, Koichi; Takebe, Takayuki; Hirai, Narisato; Ikuta, Kazumasa; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
    Contrary to the rapid increase in the world aquaculture production, fish production in Japan has been decreasing slightly due to the decreasing trend in seafood consumption of Japanese. Aquaculture production is approximately 20% in terms of yield, and 30% in terms of market value, of the country s total fisheries production. In Japan, about 80 species are targeted for release for sea ranching and resource enhancement purposes. The local governments (prefectures) are the main driving force in resource enhancement programs. Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, and scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensisis are examples of successful resource enhancement in Japan. Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and red seabream, Pagrus major, represent intensely released fish species in Japan, and around 10% of the total catch of those species are estimated as released fish. The low price of products and increasing costs of production, such as costs of fuel and fish meal, are the major pressing issues in coastal fisheries and aquaculture in Japan. For aquaculture, the guarantee of food safety, minimization of environmental impact, and management of natural stock populations are highly necessary in order to achieve the sustainability of the industry. For resource enhancement, budget constraint is the major issue, and possible impact on natural stocks caused by released fish should also be considered. The Government of Japan (GOJ) is implementing some measures to rectify unstable business practices of aquaculture and to improve production techniques in aquaculture. For resource enhancement, the GOJ encourages cooperation among local governments (prefectures) for seed production and release of certain targeted species in order to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of stock enhancement. In Japan, traditionally, the purpose for release was mainly sea ranching, namely harvesting all released animals. Nowadays, actual resource enhancement, i.e. the integrated release program including resource management and development of suitable nursery for released fish, is encouraged by the government. The evaluation and counter measures for the negative impact of stocked fish on genetic diversity of the wild population are also implemented. Recently, marked progress was achieved in seed production technologies of two important tropical fish species, namely coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, and humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus. These technologies are expected to contribute to the advancement of the aquaculture industry in the South East Asian region.
  • Current status of sustainable aquaculture in Cambodia.

    Lang, Ouch; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
    In Cambodia, the extension of technologies in fish aquaculture is a vital activity that contributes to improving the daily livelihood of the rural poor farmer communities. Technology extension was introduced since 1994 through a project of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and other local non-government organizations (NGOs) or international organizations (IOs) in some fish production deficient provinces. Prior to the introduction of such activities, wild fish were still abundant. From then to date, aquaculture extension is being done under the Freshwater Aquaculture Improvement and Extension Project Phase II of Japan International Cooperation Agency (FAIEXII-JICA), and Department for International Development/Danish International Development Agency (DFID/DANIDA) Projects. Recently, aquaculture extension is one of the national policies under the National Rectangular Strategy Policies of the Government. There are several different freshwater aquaculture systems including floating cage/pen culture, earthen pond culture and rice-fish culture, and other fish culture in smallwater bodies or aquaculture-based fisheries in Cambodia as practiced in over 20 provinces and cities, with less development focused on coastal aquaculture. Freshwater aquaculture production continued to grow over the past two decades and increased from 1,610 tons in 1984 to 20,760 tons in 2004, representing 11.9 times increase or growth of 16.3% per year This further increased to 74,000 tons in 2012, representing 11.9 times increase or a growth rate of 15% per year. However, aquaculture development in Cambodia is in its infancy stage compared to other countries in the region. It has encountered some problems and constraints during its development, which include inadequate and unreliable supply of good quality seed; lack of capital, fund or credit for aquaculture investment; inadequate knowledge of aquaculture technology; inadequate manpower for aquaculture extension service; and climate change, which have adversely impacted aquaculture development in Cambodia. In order to achieve the goal of supplying the nation s future fishery requirements through aquaculture, the Cambodia Fisheries Administration (FiA) published the Strategic Planning Framework (SPF) for Fisheries (2010-2019). Within this framework, the scenarios for future fish demand-supply for 2019 suggest that aquaculture production will increase by 15% per year to 185,000 tons by the end of 2019.
  • Assessment of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), spawning aggregations and declaration of marine protected area as strategy for enhancement of wild stocks.

    Romero, Filemon G.; Injaki, Akkil S.; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
  • Rapid adaptation to a new environment: is it reversible?

    Araki, Hitoshi; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
    Accumulating evidence suggests rapid adaptation of fish populations when they are exposed to artificial hatchery environments. However, little is known if rapidly-adapted populations can readapt to their original, natural environment at the same rate. Here, I review recent studies on salmonid fish that address this issue. They indeed suggest rapid adaptation of hatchery populations, in which reproductive fitness under a natural environment became much lower than that in the wild population after only 1-2 generations of captive breeding. However, the reproductive fitness did not recover after one generation of natural rearing, implying that rapid adaptation to a new environment was not reversible at the same rate. I discuss potential consequences of the irreversible fitness reduction in extensively stocked fish species. Understanding the mechanism behind the irreversible rapid adaptation in fish populations will help us figure out a better, nature-friendly, and hence sustainable means of hatchery operations for human welfare.
  • Is small-hold tropical aquaculture in a genetic plunge towards extinction?

    Doyle, Roger W.; Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Parado-Estepa, Fe D.; Salayo, Nerissa D.; Lebata-Ramos, Ma. Junemie Hazel (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2015)
    Tropical shrimp aquaculture is in a disease-induced crisis of lost production. The response to this crisis currently focuses on microbiology and pathology, quarantine, and transboundary transfer of shrimp. The crisis also involves an interaction between shrimp genetics and various human interests including protection of intellectual property. Breeders of high-quality strains generally employ (and are encouraged to employ) some form of breeder lock that generates inbreeding when broodstocks are copied . Smaller hatcheries sell these copied, inbred shrimp to farmers, who thereby increase the likelihood of losing their crops to disease. The joint behavior of breeders, hatcheries and farmers causes inbreeding to accumulate in tropical regions. The depressive effect of inbreeding on disease resistance is exceptionally strong in shrimp, as shown in a re-analysis of published field and experimental data. Inbreeding increases the severity and frequency of disease through a variety of mechanisms. We have relatively few, marker-based estimates of accumulated inbreeding in any non-pedigreed shrimp aquaculture system. Simulation shows, however, that locked post larvae (PLs) can be distinguished from copies in broodstocks and farm ponds, given appropriate analysis of genetic markers. Culture of stocks certified to be free of specified pathogens (specific pathogen free or SPF stocks) is strongly recommended and only SPF stocks can now be legally imported into most jurisdictions. These recommendations are appropriate, beneficial and necessary. But insofar as they increase the commercial value of proprietary genetic strains, such regulations may also increase the likelihood of copying, and thus inbreeding at farm level and ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and climate stress (Doyle, 2014a). The intellectual property value of disease-resistant strains will be extremely high and intellectual property rights are fundamental to science-based economic innovation. Breeders will, and must, continue to protect their genetic improvement programs with genetic locks, especially in regions where judicial sanctions are ineffective. The regulatory objective should be to encourage biosecurity and genetic progress while discouraging copying and consequent inbreeding. The current consensus that inbreeding is unimportant may therefore be out of date. Inbreeding may be amplifying the severity of diseases (including the major current threats: white spot syndrome virus or WSSV, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus or IHHNV and early mortality syndrome or EMS (acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease or AHPND). Continuing to ignore the interaction between inbreeding and disease may become a fatal error for tropical shrimp aquaculture.
  • SEAFDEC/AQD experience in mangrove-friendly aquaculture training and extension.

    Agbayani, Renato F.; Corre, Kaylin G.; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) is mandated to develop human resources and disseminate and exchange information in aquaculture. Towards this direction, AQD’s recent thrusts are focused on the verification, packaging, and commercialization of the technologies developed through research. AQD disseminates and exchanges information on aquaculture research and technology through training, extension services, community-based projects and mass media. Through these strategies, AQD aims to reach out to more clientele which include among other sectors the private industry, research and academic institutions, regional and international organizations, policy-makers, non-government organizations, resource managers, SEAFDEC member-countries, local and national government and the fisherfolk. For the past two years, the scope of training courses and extension services of AQD have been expanded from technological viability to sustainability i.e., technological feasibility, economic viability, environmental sustainability and social equity. To attain sustainable aquaculture the following elements were considered: status of technology, conditions of the coastal resources, socio-economic attributes of the community and other stakeholders and institutional arrangements on sustainable aquaculture. Starting 1997, subjects on mangrove-friendly aquaculture and coastal resource management were incorporated into the curriculum of training courses. These courses are the following: Third Country Training Program on Coastal Aquaculture and Resource Management for trainees from Asian countries On-site Training on Sustainable Aquaculture and Coastal Resource Management in Vietnam Sustainable Aquaculture and Coastal Resource Management for extension workers and fishery school teachers In terms of technology verification and extension, the culture of mudcrab (Scylla sp.) was tested in mangroves or tidal flats with existing mangroves in two different sites (Puerto Princesa, Palawan and Kalibo, Aklan) in collaboration with local government units and the fisherfolk. These activities started in 1997 and will be replicated in other areas of the country. Also in 1997, AQD published and distributed an issue on integrated farming with aquasilviculture in its SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture newsletter. In 1998, AQD produced a 12-minute video on Conserving Mangrove Resources.
  • Mangrove-associated mollusc research at SEAFDEC/AQD.

    De Castro-Mallare, Teresa R.; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    Mollusc research at the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center started in 1975 and focused on two commercially important mangrove-associated bivalves, the slipper-shaped oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) and the green mussel (Perna viridis). Studies conducted were on spatfall forecasting to increase collection of seeds from the wild; improvement of farming techniques; seed production in the hatchery; bivalve sanitation; and transplantation. These studies have led to the development of a suitable spat collector for oyster and mussel; promotion of the raft culture method for oysters and mussels to prevent siltation of growing areas, including a low-cost raft design for this purpose; refinement of transplantation techniques to increase production and to grow osyters and mussel in suitable areas without natural populations; and desgin of a prototype low-cost depuration unit. A socio-economic study of oyster and mussel farming practices in Western Visayas provided information on current farming practices and profitability. A study done on the use of green mussel as biofilter in a semi-intensive shrimp pond showed that shrimp stocked with mussels grew faster than those without. A study on the biology and fishery of the "imbao" Anodontia edentula, another mangrove-associated bivalve, is ongoing. Spawning has been achieved in the laboratory and larval stages monitored were first polar body, 2-cell stage, morula, ciliated gastrula, trocophore, veliger, and pediveliger.
  • Mud crab (Scylla serrata) culture in tidal flats with existing mangroves.

    Triño, Avelino T.; Rodriguez, Eduard M.; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    The performance of the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskal) in 200 m2 pens installed in tidal flats with existing mangroves was determined in a factorial experiment with stocking density (0.5 or 1.5/m2) and feed (salted fish by-catch or a mixed diet of 75% salted brown mussel flesh and 25% salted fish by-catch) as main factors. Duration of the experiment was 160 days. Results showed no interaction between feed and stocking density so data were pooled for each feed and stocking density treatment. There was no significant differences in growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival, and production among two types of feed. Regardless of feed, the FCR was significantly more efficient and survival significantly higher at 0.5 than at 1.5/m2 stocking density. Growth, however, was not significantly different. Cost-return analysis on a per crop/200 m2 basis showed that the use of either of the two stocking density levels with either of the two types of feed was economically viable with a return on capital investment of 65-87%. Partial budgeting analysis, however, revealed that net earnings were increased by P1,128.00 if crabs were stocked at 1.5/m2 and P881.00 if fed a mixed diet of 75% salted brown mussel flesh and 25% salted fish by-catch compared with crabs stocked at 0.5/m2 and fed salted fish by-catch alone.
  • Property rights and collective action in the management of mangrove ecosystems: implications of the adoption of mangrove friendly-aquaculture.

    Agbayani, Renato F.; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    The SEAFDEC/AQD experience in Malalison Island on the Community Fishery Resources Management Project is well used in the Aklan project on community-based mangrove-friendly aquaculture. The territorial use rights in fisheries that was implemented in Malalison has become a model in investigating property rights regime in state-owned mangrove areas in Ibajay, Aklan. The concept of property rights as a management strategy in arresting the further destruction of mangroves and rehabilitating destroyed mangrove forest requires the collective effort of different users and stakeholders. There is a need to balance environmental conservation and food security in the management of mangrove resources.
  • Marine fishes and coastal resource management: mangrove-friendly development strategies.

    Garcia, Luis Maria B.; Toledo, Joebert D.; Agbayani, Renato F.; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    Recent statistics of fishery production in the Philippines reveal outputs that are either declining (municipal fishery) or levelling off (commercial fishery and aquaculture). These trends are, in part, a reflection of the serious effects of unregulated economic activities in the coastal zone. The degradation of coastal ecosystems means a loss of livelihood among many communities of impoverished fishers as catches from municipal waters have declined over the years. Considering that mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs are vulnerable to anthropogenic perturbations, several development strategies are presented to meet the twin issues of ecosystem conservation and food security for coastal fishing communities. Mariculture, searanching, habitat alteration and restoration are a few of these strategies. Our recent experience in village-based reef resource management in Mararison Island, central Philippines may likewise be a viable option in the management of shoreward ecosystems (mangroves and seagrasses). In particular, the establishment of a marine reserve in the island may find some relevant applications in mangrove management and development.
  • Myanmar: mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

    Win, Tin; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    Myanmar has extensive mangrove forests in Ayeyarwady Delta, Rakhine, and Tanintharyi, but these have been drastically reduced due to paddy rice cultivation. Today, only 382,032 ha remain. Myanmar is only now starting to modernize shrimp farming. Current government policy supports and encourages foreign investment in shrimp culture.
  • Cambodia: mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

    Sreymom, So; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    Cambodia has 435 km of coastline with 85,000 ha of mangrove forest. A big part of the mangrove area is in Koh Kong province (63,700) where intensive shrimp culture activity is also concentrated. Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) farms occupy 850 ha, producing 450 tons/yr (1995). But lately, production decreased by 20% due to diseases and self-pollution. The government has since placed restrictions on shrimp farming.
  • Indonesia: mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

    Sukardjo, Sukristijono; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    The paper describes the mangrove forests in Indonesia, the most extensive in the world. It also describes the causes for their destruction, and the government intervention for aquaculture development ("tambak") and mangrove area conservation ("tambak tumpangsari"). A strategic plan for improving the mangrove areas is presented, including a development program for coastal planning and land zoning process. The paper concludes that "tambak" will continue to be developed to expand fish production. The statement is based on Indonesia's rate of population increase vis-a-vis the certain decrease in natural resources on a per capita basis. Aquaculture would continue to expand while capture fishery declines. Thus, a socio-economic shift to other employment alternatives would be necessary.
  • Brunei Darussalam: mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

    Hamid, Hajah Laila Haji Abdul; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    Aquaculture in Brunei Darussalam is quite recent compared to other countries. Cage culture of marine fishes and pond culture of marine shrimp are popular. Mangrove area utilized for aquaculture (shrimp ponds) is very minimal, 190 ha of the total 18,418 ha. This report describes the status of mangroves and practices of aquaculture in Brunei Darussalam.
  • Malaysia: mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

    Sze, Choo Poh; Ahmad, Raihan Sh. Hj.; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    The paper describes some mangrove-friendly aquaculture activities that are practiced in Malaysia. Among these are the culture of cockle and oyster, semi-intensive culture of tiger prawn, fish cage culture, and pen culture of mud crab. Policies, regulations, future directions and priority areas in research and development that can contribute to sustainable mangrove utilization are discussed.
  • Viet Nam: Mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

    Luu, Tran Truong; Primavera, J.H.; Garcia, L.M.B.; Castaños, M.T.; Surtida, M.B. (Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000)
    The paper presents the status of mangroves and mangrove-friendly aquaculture practices in Viet Nam.

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