Recent Submissions

  • McMullin On-Farm Flood Capture and Recharge Project: Hydrologic and Hydraulic Analyses (H&H), final report

    Bachand, P.A.M.; Trabant, S.; Vose, S.; Mussetter, B. (Kings River Conservation DistrictFresno, CA, 2014-01)
    Approval of a Hydrologic and Hydraulic Analyses (H&H) by California Department of Water Resources (DWR) is a pre-requisite for projects being funded through DWR’s Flood Corridor Program. The H&H needs to show early in the project schedule in analysis acceptable to DWR that the project will produce the anticipated flood risk reduction benefits. A Benefit:Cost (B/C) ratio provides a metric for comparing benefits from a project in relation to DWR costs for the project. In our analysis, we calculated a B/C of 1.86 for Phase 1, the diversion of 150 cubic feet per second (cfs) from the Kings River onto the project during flood flow conditions between December and May, and of 1.98 for Phase 2/3, the diversion of 500 cfs from the Kings River onto the project during the same conditions. We provide background on the project and the area that will be affected by the project (the study area), summarize our methods, and present our findings.Two large hydrologic issues face the Kings Basin: severe and chronic overdraft of about 0.16M ac-ft annually, and flood risks along the Kings River and the downstream San Joaquin River. Since 1983, downstream communities along the Kings and San Joaquin Rivers have suffered over $1B in flood damages (2013$). To help mitigate these two issues, this project proposes diverting and capturing Kings River floodwater at the James Bypass onto agricultural lands adjacent to the Kings River for conjunctive use purposes (e.g. recharge, in lieu recharge, irrigation). This project is planned in three phases: Phase 1 (Ph1) will divert 150 cubic feet per second (cfs) onto agricultural fields from December through May and 100 cfs from June through September. Fifty-five hundred acres are planned for enrollment in Ph1 with 375 acres under flood easements; 1,125 acres managed under dual purpose of accepting flood flows and being managed for farming; and the remaining acreage receiving flood flows when available for in lieu recharge. Phases 2 and 3 (Ph 2/3) together will expand enrollment to 16,000 acres with expected equivalent ratios for flood easements, dual purpose and farming. Ph2/3 is planned to have a 500 cfs flood diversion and capture capacity. We assessed hydrologic and hydraulics conditions and economics for these planned phases following the scope of work defined in Task Order 1 between Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) and Tetra Tech.
  • Technical report: Modeling nitrate leaching risk from specialty crop fields during on-farm managed floodwater recharge in the Kings Groundwater Basin and the potential for its management

    Bachand, P.A.M.; Bachand, S.M.; Waterhouse, H.; Rath, J.; Ung, M.; Roy, S.; Kretsinger, V.; Dalgish, B.; Horwath, W.; Dahlke, H.; et al. (Sustainable ConservationSan Francisco, CA, 2017-07-31)
    This project has focused on better understanding the potential impact of On-Farm Flood Capture and Recharge (OFFCR) on groundwater quality pertaining to salts and nitrate and on assessing potential management opportunities. To achieve these goals, we used a combination of field and modeling studies. For the field study, soil cores were taken to a depth of 30 feet in replicate across fields with three different specialty crops identified as important to the San Joaquin Valley (tomatoes, almonds, vineyards) and with potential suitability for OFFCR. A prime goal of the field study was to provide data for parameterizing two models developed to assess nitrate, salt and water transport through the vadose zone, prior to percolating into the groundwater aquifer.However, the field study also resulted in key findings that show its value as a stand-alone study: 1) Nitrate concentrations are highest in the upper vadose zone and affected by texture. Those effects are not evident in the deeper vadose zone. 2) Vadose zone nitrate concentrations are affected by the crop grown. These results suggest an opportunity for lower legacy mass transport for grapes and higher legacy mass transport for both tomatoes and almonds.3) Variability in individual farmers’ past and present fertilizer and water management practices contributes to different legacy salt and nitrate loads in the vadose zone.Data from the field study and other related and concurrent OFFCR field efforts were used during model development. The overall modeling approach was designed to model nitrate and salt transport for lands under OFFCR operation for different crop types, vadose zone characteristics and groundwater characteristics. The defined goals of this design and modeling approach were to: 1) model nitrate and salt movement through the vadose zone and into groundwater; 2) test the model against scenarios that consider different recharge rates, cultural practices, soil types, and depths to groundwater, assessing the timing and magnitude of loading through the vadose zone and the effects on underlying groundwater; and 3) recommend management practices to mitigate potential groundwater impacts. To achieve these goals, two models were integrated to simulate nitrate and salt transport through the vadose zone to groundwater under different scenarios: a 1D Hydrus model and an analytical groundwater model (AGM).
  • On-Farm Flood Capture and Recharge (OFFCR) at an Organic Almond Orchard, Recharge Rates and Soil Profile Responses Groundwater Recharge Project, 2016

    Bachand, S.M.; Carlton, S.; Bachand, P.A.M. (Sustainable ConservationSan Francisco, CA, 2017-04-18)
    Groundwater in much of California’s Central Valley (CV) has been critically over-drafted resulting in the implementation of the 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA). As Groundwater Sustainability Agencies (GSAs) work to comply with SGMA requirements and timelines, On-Farm Floodwater Capture and Recharge (OFFCR) is being studied to help increase recharge capacity. We implemented an OFFCR test on an organic almond orchard in the CV to assess achievable recharge rates attained through over-irrigation, and potential soil and water quality impacts. Irrigation water was applied via flood irrigation. We developed study sites and installed soil sensors for moisture and salinitymonitoring, took post-irrigation deep cores to assess changes in soil and porewater nitrogen and salt concentrations through the vadose zone, and monitored agronomic practices, recharge loading and crop yields.These studies were conducted on three recharge treatments with three replicated stations for each: 1) Control at about 6 inches of flooded water to meet ET as typical for irrigation (Control treatment), 2) Low Flooding of about 12 inches per irrigation application (Mid treatment), and 3) High Flooding of about 24 inches per irrigation application (High treatment).
  • 2017 OFR demonstration site monitoring and analyses: Effects on soil hydrology and salinity, and potential implications on soil oxygen

    Bachand, S.M.; Hossner, R.; Bachand, P.A.M. (Sustainable ConservationSan Francisco, CA, 2019-01-28)
    On-farm recharge (OFR) is a practice that uses surface water to alleviate demand on and replenish groundwater supplies. It can take on two forms: in lieu recharge and direct recharge. In lieu recharge utilizes surface water supplies instead of groundwater to irrigate crops. Direct recharge applies water beyond the needs of the crop and replenishes the groundwater supply. ...The present study examined OFR with grapes, walnuts, and pistachios at six sites in the San Joaquin Valley, plus one additional site from a previous study, also in the San Joaquin Valley. Each site was comprised of a recharge plot that received direct recharge paired with a control plot with the same crop and soil characteristics, but meant to receive in lieu recharge (via the flood system) or drip application with groundwater. At the end of the 2017 recharge demonstration, however, three control plots had also received direct recharge from water applications that exceeded the crop’s water demand. At another site, both control and test plots had only received in lieu recharge due to limited surface water amounts or the host growers’ more conservative volume of water application. ...The present study only covers one season of recharge. Long-term effects of recharge are not described by the present study and will require further monitoring. Further study is needed of the dynamics of soil oxygen during and after recharge events. Similarly, the fate of the water after it infiltrates past the root zone is not always known and the rate at which recharged water will reach an aquifer is seldom known for deep aquifers. A method to predict the fate of water quickly and broadly would be quite helpful in developing an on-farm recharge strategy. The present study does not look at the effects of recharge on soil biological processes, such as microbial respiration and plant oxygen demand. Further study of the recharge tolerance of specific species and rootstocks, as well as the impact on plant disease, is crucial.
  • Sierra Valley, CA – A white paper on the opportunities and challenges for management of groundwater under SGMA

    Bachand, P.A.M.; Burt, K.S.; Carlton, S.; Bachand, S.M. (Bachand & AssociatesDavis, CA, 2020-03-10)
    This paper discusses groundwater sustainability in California’s Sierra Valley based upon review of various hydrologic and geologic data sets and publications and presents our findings in the context of the 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA). The discussion related to SGMA is based upon our current understanding of the legislation. As this legislation is implemented, its interpretation may evolve. The paper provides potential next steps and mitigation strategies as Sierra Valley works to move toward sustainable groundwater management.
  • Groundwater relationships to pumping, precipitation and geology in high-elevation basin, Sierra Valley, CA

    Bachand, P.A.M.; Burt, K.S.; Carlton, S.; Bachand, S.M. (Bachand & AssociatesDavis, CA, 2020-03-10)
    Sierra Valley, located in the northern Sierra Nevada, California, serves as the Middle Fork Feather River headwaters and provides surface water to Oroville Dam of the California State Water Project (SWP). Under California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA), the Sierra Valley sub-basin has been designated a medium-priority basin, due to chronic groundwater declines and the valley’s high ecological value as the largest freshwater marsh and meadow system in the Sierra Nevada. The Sierra Valley Groundwater Management District (SVGMD) serves as the Groundwater Sustainability Agency (GSA) for the Sierra Valley sub-basin. As such, SVGMD is tasked through SMGA with achieving sustainable groundwater management over an approximate 20-y timeframe. The first step is the development of a Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) (to be completed by January 2022) that 1) hydrologically assesses the basin, 2) identifies methods and protocols to track groundwater trends, and 3) develops an initial suite of actions to move the basin towards groundwater sustainability. ... Our investigation builds on previous watershed studies and further establishes the Sierra Valley watershed as a highly complex hydrologic system. These complexities include: large variation in precipitation phase and quantity throughout the watershed; geologic features that restrict both vertical and lateral groundwater flow; many water inflow pathways, both surface and sub-surface, that are logistically impossible to quantify by conventional monitoring means. Prior attempts at developing accurate water budgets and numerical models of the watershed have been hindered by the uncertainty these factors present. Thus, though a hydrologic budget is required by SGMA for the development of the GSP, numerical models will be of limited utility as either tools to derive hydrologic budgets or to help determine the efficacy management actions to achieve sustainable groundwater conditions. In developing strategies to address undesirable groundwater conditions, we recommend an adaptive management approach paired with targeted and defensible data collection with standardized data collection, management and quality control procedures.
  • Hydrographic, biological, and nutrient characteristics of the water column on the Louisiana shelf during 1988

    Rabalais, Nancy N.; Turner, R. Eugene; Wiseman, William J., Jr.; Boesch, Donald F. (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1989-03)
    Since 1985, several research cruises were conducted by our research team to assess the spatial and temporal extent, intensity, and potential causes of oxygen depletion in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hypoxic bottom waters were studied along two transects in and near the Mississippi River Delta Bight in 1985 and 1986. In addition, shelf-wide cruises were conducted from the Mississippi River to the Texas border during July of 1985, 1986, and 1987. These cruises have provided us with exhaustive information concerning the temporal and spatial variability associated with the phenomenon of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf. It was not our intent to continue assessment-type cruises during 1988. Opportunities existed, however, in conjunction with other research cruises and the LUMCON summer program to re-occupy stations along Transect C off Cat Island Pass near Cocodrie. In addition, the drought conditions in the upper Mississippi River basin during the spring and summer of 1988 resulted in a significant reduction in the flow rate of the Mississippi River. We were therefore compelled to conduct a shelf-wide cruise during mid-summer of 1988 to document the hydrographic conditions of the Louisiana shelf under low flow conditions of the Mississippi River and to assess the effects of this low flow on the phenomenon of hypoxia.The cruises along Transect C were conducted on board the R/V Pelican as part of a research effort named LaSER for data in April and as part of the LUMCON summer program for the remainder. The shelf-wide cruise was conducted on board the R/V Acadiana from August 12 through August 16, 1988.
  • LaSER oceanography: Data report number 2, R/V Pelican cruise, April 16-24, 1988, CTD, hydrographic, and light data

    Murrell, Michael C.; Dagg, Michael J. (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1988-09)
    The LaSER oceanography program is a five year multi-institutional and multi-investigator program titled "Oceanographic Processes on Continental Shelves Influenced by Large Rivers." Funding for this program began in January, 1987.The scientific goals of this program are: a) investigations on a large spatial scale, from the Mississippi River delta to some far field (down-plume) location, to examine biological responses to riverine inputs of dissolved nutrients, suspended sediments, and fresh water; b) investigations on small spatial scales, both horizontally and vertically, in a cross plume direction to examine the role of oceanographic fronts, convergences, and discontinuities in biological production; and c) investigations on small temporal scales, particularly to examine the biological responses to the passage of winter storms.This report summarizes the CTD, hydrographic, and light data from the second LaSER oceanography cruise.
  • Hydrographic, biological, and nutrient characteristics of the water column on the Louisiana shelf, July, 1987

    Rabalais, Nancy N.; Turner, R. Eugene; Wiseman, William J., Jr.; Boesch, Donald F. (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1989-03)
    Beginning in 1985, several research cruises were conducted by our research team to assess the spatial and temporal extent, intensity, and potential causes of oxygen depletion in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hypoxic bottom waters were studied along two transects in and near the Mississippi River Delta Bight in 1985 and 1986. In addition, shelf-wide cruises were conducted from the Mississippi River to the Texas border during July of both years. The intent of these cruises was to provide comparative information on the temporal variability of oxygen-depleted bottom waters on the Louisiana shelf.The bi-weekly cruises along the southeastern Louisiana shelf were discontinued in 1987. A shelf-wide cruise, however, was conducted in July, 1987 to continue the studies of temporal variability on the Louisiana shelf. The cruise was conducted on the R/V Pelican from July 1 through July 5.
  • LaSER oceanography: Data report number 1, R/V Pelican cruise, July 21-August 1, 1987, CTD and hydrographic data

    Murrell, Michael C.; Dagg, Michael J. (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1987-12)
    The LaSER oceanography program is a five year multi-institutional and multi-investigator program titled "Oceanographic Processes on Continental Shelves Influenced by Large Rivers." Funding for this program began in January, 1987.The scientific goals of this program are: a) investigations on a large spatial scale, from the Mississippi River delta to some far field (down-plume) location, to examine biological responses to riverine inputs of dissolved nutrients, suspended sediments, and fresh water; b) investigations on small spatial scales, both horizontally and vertically, in a cross plume direction to examine the role of oceanographic fronts, convergences, and discontinuities in biological production; and c) investigations on small temporal scales, particularly to examine the biological responses to the passage of winter storms.This report summarizes the CTD and hydrographic (bottle) data from the first LaSER oceanography cruise.
  • Hydrographic, biological, and nutrient characteristics of the water column on the Louisiana shelf, July, 1986

    Rabalais, Nancy N.; Turner, R. Eugene; Wiseman, William J., Jr.; Boesch, Donald F. (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1989-03)
    In June 1985, a focused study was initiated to assess the spatial and temporal extent, intensity, and potential causes of oxygen depletion in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hypoxic bottom waters were studied along two transects (one off Cat Island Pass near Cocodrie and one off Belle Pass near Port Fourchon). These cruises were continued in 1986 but on a single transect (see LUMCON Data Report No. 6). In addition, a shelf-wide cruise was conducted from the Mississippi River to the Texas border during July, 1986. Stations occupied during this cruise were similar to those sampled during shelf-wide cruises in 1985. The intent of these cruises was to provide comparative information on the temporal variability of oxygen-depleted bottom waters on the Louisiana shelf.The first part of the cruise was conducted on the R/V Acadiana between July 7 and July 10. Rough seas prevented continuation on the smaller ship. The remaining stations were sampled from on board the R/V Pelican between July 16 and July 17. While not synoptic in coverage, a few mid-depth stations were reoccupied during the second leg and hydrographic conditions were similar on the two dates.
  • Hydrographic, biological, and nutrient characteristics of the water column on the southeastern Louisiana coast, January, 1986 to November, 1986

    Rabalais, Nancy N.; Turner, R. Eugene; Wiseman, William J., Jr.; Boesch, Donald F. (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1989-03)
    In June 1985, a focused study was initiated to assess the spatial and temporal extent, intensity, and potential causes of oxygen depletion in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hypoxic bottom waters were studied along two transects (one off Cat Island Pass near Cocodrie and one off Belle Pass near Port Fourchon). The number of transects was reduced to one in 1986 (Transect C off Cat Island Pass) and the number of sample periods increased. Sixteen cruises were conducted aboard the R/V Acadiana or the R/V Pelican between late January and mid-November, 1986. Sampling was most intense (bi-weekly) from mid-April through late September. A reduced sampling scheme (four stations) was followed for the first two cruises. In addition a shelf-wide cruise was conducted from the Mississippi River to the Texas border during July, 1986.
  • Hydrographic, biological, and nutrient characteristics of the water column on the Louisiana shelf, July and September, 1985

    Rabalais, Nancy N.; Turner, R. Eugene; Wiseman, William J., Jr.; Boesch, Donald F. (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1986-07)
    In June 1985, a focused study was initiated to assess the spatial and temporal extent, intensity, and potential causes of oxygen depletion in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Two shelf-wide, quasi-synoptic cruises were conducted from the Mississippi River to the Texas border during mid-July and early September, 1985. Cruises were conducted aboard the R/V Pelican on 15-20 July and 10-13 September. Stations were occupied along ten transects in 5 to 80 m water depth. Stations for Pelican Cruise I extended farther offshore and farther to the west than those for Pelican Cruise II. In addition to these shelf-wide cruises, hypoxic bottom waters were studied more frequently along two transects in the Mississippi River Delta Bight area.
  • Temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, and nutrient concentrations in Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana from October 1982 to October 1983

    Dagg, Michael (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1984)
    Coastal and inshore continental shelf waters of Louisiana are influenced by marsh run-off, the Mississippi River, and the open Gulf of Mexico. The interactions between freshwater run-off and oceanographic processes, coupled with meteorological conditions that vary widely over short periods as well as seasonally, result in a complex hydrography and therefore in a complex biological system. As the preliminary portion of a long-term program designed to analyze and understand these processes, a survey of basic hydrographic, chemical, and biological parameters was made at monthly intervals over a 1 year period from October 1982 to October 1983. Nine stations were occupied, transecting Terrebonne Bay and extending into the Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this report is to present the data from this survey.
  • Updated statewide abundance estimates for the Florida manatee

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Edwards, Holly H.; Martin, Julien; Schueller, Paul (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research InstituteSt. Petersburg, FL, 2018)
    Knowing how many manatees live in Florida is critical for conservation and management of this threatened species. Martin and others flew aerial surveys in 2011–2012 and estimated abundance in those years using advanced techniques that incorporated multiple data sources. We flew additional aerial surveys in 2015–2016 to count manatees and again applied advanced statistical techniques to estimate their abundance. We also made several methodological advances over the earlier work, including accounting for how sea state (water surface conditions) and synchronous surfacing behavior affect the availability of manatees to be detected and incorporating all parts of Florida in the area of inference. We estimate that the number of manatees in Florida in 2015–2016 was 8,810 (95% Bayesian credible interval 7,520–10,280), of which 4,810 (3,820–6,010) were on the west coast of Florida and 4,000 (3,240–4,910) were on the east coast. These estimates and associated uncertainty, in addition to being of immediate value to wildlife managers, are essential new data for incorporation into integrated population models and population viability analyses.
  • Oyster Integrated Mapping and Monitoring Program report for the State of Florida

    Radabaugh, Kara R.; Geiger, Stephen P.; Moyer, Ryan P. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research InstituteSt. Petersburg, FL, 2019)
    Oysters provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to coastal communities in Florida. They improve water quality and clarity as they filter feed, lessen shoreline erosion, and provide a habitat or food source for a wide variety of birds, fish, and invertebrates. Oysters are commercially valuable as a harvested food source, and historically their shell has been mined extensively for construction material. The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is the only reef-building oyster in Florida and forms both subtidal and intertidal reefs. Numerous other species of non-reef-building oysters are less frequent. This report focuses primarily on the eastern oyster, because it is the most abundant oyster in Florida and because it is important as both a keystone species and an ecosystem engineer.
  • Hydrographic, biological, and nutrient characteristics of the water column in the Mississippi River Delta Bight, June, 1985 to December, 1985

    Rabalais, Nancy N.; Turner, R. Eugene; Wiseman, William J., Jr.; Boesch, Donald F. (Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvin, LA, 1986-07)
    In June 1985, a focused study was initiated to assess the spatial and temporal extent, intensity, and potential causes of oxygen depletion in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hypoxic bottom waters were studied along two transects (one off Cat Island Pass near Cocodrie and one off Belle Pass off Port Fourchon) in the Mississippi River Delta Bight area. Eight 2-day cruises were conducted aboard the R/V R.J. Russell or the R/V Pelican along these two transects between mid-June and mid-October. Sampling was most intense (bi-weekly) from mid-June through early September. A reduced sampling scheme (4 stations along the Cat Island Pass transect) was continued through the end of the year. In addition, two shelf-wide cruises were conducted from the Mississippi River to the Texas border during July and September.
  • Coastal Habitat Integrated Mapping and Monitoring Program report for the State of Florida

    Radabaugh, Kara R.; Powell, Christina E.; Moyer, Ryan P. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research InstituteSt. Petersburg, FL, 2017)
    Mangrove swamps and salt marshes provide valuable ecological services to coastal ecosystems in Florida. Coastal wetlands are an important nursery for many ecologically and commercially important fish and invertebrates. The vegetation stabilizes shorelines, protecting the coast from wave energy, storm surge, and erosion. Coastal wetlands are also able to filter surface water runoff, removing excess nutrients and many pollutants. Peat deposits sequester large amounts of carbon, making coastal wetlands a key sink in global carbon cycles.Mangroves and salt marshes, however, are vulnerable to both direct and indirect threats from human development. Current threats include continued habitat loss, hydrologic alteration of surface and groundwater, sea-level rise, and invasive vegetation. ... Coastal wetland monitoring programs are often short-lived and vary widely in methodology. Monitoring most commonly occurs on protected public lands or at wetland mitigation or restoration sites. These monitoring projects are rarely long-term due to a lack of funding; restoration sites are generally monitored for only a few years. Although long-term funding is difficult to secure, monitoring over long time scales is increasingly important due to regional uncertainties as to how coastal wetland vegetation and substrate accretion will respond to sea-level rise, altered freshwater hydrology, and other disturbances. While periodic land cover mapping programs can capture large-scale changes in habitat extent, smaller-scale species shifts among mangrove and salt marsh vegetation are best captured by on-the-ground monitoring.The chapters in this report summarize recent mapping and monitoring programs in each region of Florida. Content of each chapter includes a general introduction to the region, location-specific threats to salt marshes and mangroves, a summary of selected mapping and monitoring programs, and recommendations for protection, management, and monitoring. Land cover maps in this report generally use data from the most recent water management district land use/land cover (LULC) maps.
  • Development of microsatellite markers for Permit (Trachinotus falcatus), cross-amplification in Florida Pompano (T. carolinus) and Palometa (T. goodei), and species delineation using microsatellite markers

    Seyoum, Seifu; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Guindon, Kathryn Y.; Gardinal, Christopher M.; Denison, Steve H.; Tringali, Michael D. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research InstituteSt. Petersburg, FL, 2016)
    Three of the 20 species in the genus Trachinotus, in the jack family, Carangidae, are found in Florida waters. These are Florida Pompano (T. carolinus), Permit (T. falcatus), and Palometa (T. goodei). Florida Pompano is a coastal pelagic species found in estuarine and marine waters; it spawns in multiple batches in offshore waters. Permit is the largest and longest lived of the three species and also spawns offshore in multiple batches, near reefs. As adults, Permit can be found nearshore and offshore and are often associated with reefs, but as juveniles they are common estuarine inhabitants. Palometa is a marine species, similar in size to Florida Pompano, and has the widest latitudinal distribution of the three species. Palometa spawn in offshore waters throughout the year with two peaks of activity. All three species support commercial or recreational fisheries on both the Gulf of Mexico coast and Atlantic coast of Florida. Very little has been done to evaluate movement patterns of Trachinotus species. Based on a few tagging studies, it appears that Pompano do not travel far from coastal waters. The only preliminary investigation of genetic stock structure for the Florida Pompano population from Tampa Bay, FL, and Puerto Rico was based on microsatellite markers developed for the Pompano. The report’s key conclusion was that Pompano from Puerto Rico and from Florida belong to two highly distinct genetic stocks. This study was conducted to re-examine, using different microsatellite markers, the genetic status of Pompano stocks in Florida and Puerto Rico. The objectives of this study, therefore, were the following: 1) to develop microsatellite markers for Permit; 2) to cross-amplify the markers in Pompano and Palometa; and 3) to use these markers to confirm the status of Puerto Rico Pompano as a novel genetic stock using the methods of Bayesian population assignment, phylogenetic clustering, and factorial correspondence analysis. ... Three methods were used to investigate the relationship among the taxa using the microsatellite genotype data obtained from the samples. The results from the three analytical methods, based on Bayesian population assignment tests, phylogenetic clustering, and factorial correspondence analysis of genetic relationships among the four Trachinotus samples, showed that Florida and Puerto Rico Pompano samples belong to two highly distinct gene pools. But other multiple molecular tools, particularly nuclear-DNA sequences from many introns, and nonmolecular tools, such as morphological and meristic data, should be used together to determine species-level categorical designation for the Puerto Rico Pompano.
  • Aerial surveys of manatee distribution in Florida, 1984–2004

    Edwards, Holly H.; Ackerman, Bruce B. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research InstituteSt. Petersburg, FL, 2016)
    This Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission–Fish and Wildlife Research Institute (FWC-FWRI) Technical Report describes and summarizes the FWC-FWRI aerial-survey projects conducted from 1984 to 2004 to document manatee distribution in Florida and it provides details of the methods used in the studies. Surveys reported here were conducted by FWC or in conjunction with other agencies. This report is intended for use by local, state, and federal agencies and others involved in assessing the impacts of human activities on manatees and their habitat. It provides basic summaries of these surveys, their methods, the resulting data, and includes maps showing where manatees were sighted. Aerial survey data (manatee sightings and flight routes) from this technical report are available in a Geographic Information System (GIS) computer mapping format (shapefiles) on the FWC–FMRI Atlas of Marine Resources CD–ROM or on the FWC website. The analyses reported do not address in detail the environmental and habitat factors that may influence aerial surveys. The data and analyses described in this report provide a starting point for researchers who want to further investigate the seasonal distribution and habitat use of manatees in Florida. Other available data sets pertaining to manatee management and protection are also described. The information presented in this document is current to 2004 and does not include projects or surveys conducted after 2004.

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