• Fishes of Ceylon: a catalogue, key and bibliography

      Mendis, A.S. (1954)
      A knowledge of the specific composition of Ceylon fish fauna is essential to any programme of development of commercial fisheries, or the study of Ceylon's ichthyology and the need for cataloguing it has been keenly felt for many years. The need for cataloguing the whole of Ceylon's flora and fauna was stressed by the Natural Science Section of the Ceylon Association for the Advancement of Science during its 1952 annual sessions and it was then that the writer agreed to help satisfy this need by compiling an up-to-date check list of species of two families of fishes, the Clupeidae and the Carangidae, which are important in the beach seine fishery which he was studying at that time. In the course of this work it was decided to expand the check-list to make it comprehensive of all species of fish that have been recorded from Ceylon to date and to supply keys for their identification. This has involved a screening of the pioneer works of Bennet (1834) and Day (1878-1889) and the many subsequent references to Ceylon fish scattered through various scientific journals and other publications, some of them long out and now almost unobtainable.
    • Commercial utilization of dolphins (porpoises) in Ceylon

      Lantz, A.W.; Gunasekera, C. (1955)
      Two species of mammal dolphin are found in waters adjacent to Ceylon, namely the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the bottled-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truricatus). Both these species are predators and cause damage to finishing nets by attacking fish trapped in them. This menace to nets is particularly pronounced when fish populations in a particular area become somewhat depleted. Dolphin can be successfully captured from a motor boat by use of a simple hand harpoon with a detachable dart and bladder buoy. Fresh dolphin meat when placed on the market sold readily despite some local prejudice against the naturally dark colored meat. The flesh of the dolphin is nutritious and can be used successfully in both western and eastern types of cookery.
    • Ceylon's beach seine fishery

      Canagaratnam, P.; Medcof, J.C. (1955)
      Setting a net in the water and hauling it up onto the beach manually by its two ends is one of the oldest methods of catching fish and it is still employed in several parts of the world: Ceylon is one of these. Here there are several hundreds of beach seines operated by several thousands of fishermen and they contribute 35-40% of Ceylon's total annual fish catch. This means that beach seining been and still is Ceylon's most important single method of fishing. In recent years the beach seine fishery has encountered difficulties which threaten its existence and the seiners have appealed repeatedly to the Department of Fisheries to undertake remedial action. There have been many and conflicting representations as to what this action should be, and the Department is seeking for a wise course through the confusion. As part of its search it asked its Research Division in April 1953, to undertake a study of the seine fishery to describe it, study the nature of its problems and to present any recommendations that seemed appropriate and consistent with the welfare of the fishing industry as a whole. The following is a report on the preliminary phases of that study.
    • General features and productivity of the Wadge Bank trawl fishery

      Sivalingam, S.; Medcof, J.C. (1957)
      For several years one of the world's few successful tropical trawl fisheries has been carried on off the southern tip of India. Much of it has been under the auspices of the Government of Ceylon. Records covering the entire history of the fishery are remarkably complete and those of the last ten years are unusually detailed. The purpose of this paper is to summarize these records and relate them to information from other sources in such a way as to illustrate the principal features of the fishery and permit comparisons with other fisheries. This should provide a sound basis for clear thinking about the industry's present problems and prospects. This is important because the fishery is expanding.
    • A guide to the fisheries of Ceylon

      Fisheries Research Station, Ceylon (1958)
      This bulletin has been written primarily to serve as a handbook to the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council at its sessions in Colombo during December 1958. It presents an outline of the fishing industry as found in Ceylon today, in non-technical language so that it may also be understood by laymen. The large gaps in our knowledge are brought out in the section on "resources"; the section on "administration" gives an indication of progress made towards solving the problems of the industry, while sections on "fishing methods" and "utilization of catch" will help us to appreciate the handicaps and difficulties of those concerned with the industry. The Government Administration of the fisheries of Ceylon is being assisted to a considerable extent by the generous gifts of machinery and equipment as well as the loan of skilled technical personnel made by other countries through the FAO and the Colombo Plan. The progress made so far has helped to place the industry in a favorable position for further improvements.
    • Mechanization of fishing craft and the use of improved fishing gear

      de Zylva, E.R.A (1958)
      Since the year 1925, attention has been focused periodically on the stagnation in the local fishing industry, and those who have studied the subject have been unanimous about the need to introduce modern fishing craft which are capable of working more fishing gear. This report outlines the stages through which the evolution of more effective fishing operations has progressed, both in the gradually increasing use of mechanical propulsion for boats and in the adoption of more modern gear and techniques by local fishermen. No reference is made in this report to the operation of deep-sea trawlers (Sivalingam, 1956) a phase of development which has hitherto not influenced the local fishing industry to any appreciable extent.
    • Lobster fishing in Ceylon

      De Bruin, G.H.P. (1960)
      The presence of spiny lobsters in the reefs lying off the coasts of Ceylon is known to local fishermen and skin divers. However, a well-established fishery for these lobsters does not exist as fishermen engaged occasionally in this activity catch only a few lobsters during the course of a day's fishing. Considering the present state of development of lobster fishing in Ceylon, it is not possible to state whether lobsters are found in sufficient numbers in the seas off Ceylon. This knowledge is very important before the introduction of new methods of fishing can be made. Experiments were therefore conducted to determine the most efficient type of trap that could be used to appraise the resources present in the coral reefs and other rocky areas. Designs of traps, similar to those used in Scotland, England, Wales and Canada, were made locally. These were tested for efficiency in areas known to be inhabited by spiny lobsters.
    • Contribution to the study of the marine algae of Ceylon

      Durairatnam, M. (1961)
      Description of Ceylon marine algae are scattered through a range of scientific publications which are not readily available to students and research workers in Ceylon. There are few detailed studies in Algal taxonomy and the general distribution of algae in Ceylon has not been studied thoroughly. Some work has been done by foreign phycologist each of whom was in the island for a few months only and experienced difficulty collecting specimens from different parts of Ceylon.
    • The 1958 pearl oyster fishery, Gulf of Mannar

      Sivalingam, S. (1961)
      The continental shelf between the three and twelve fathom lines, off the Ceylon coast in the Gulf of Mannar is popularly known as the Pearl Banks. Though the area of this plateau is extensive the pearl oysters are concentrated on restricted areas known as "paars". The more productive of these are the Cheval Group of paars and the Moderagam Paar. The Peria Paar and Twynam's Paar though covering larger areas are not dependable as oyster beds. The True Vankalai, Peria Paar Karai and Muthuvarathu Paars are small in extent, but have yielded oysters on a commercial scale. Although the Ceylon Pearl Banks has been commercially fished for centuries, the first scientific investigation of its pearl oysters on an intensive scale was started by Herdman in 1902 (1902-06) and later continued by Hornell (1905-41), Shipley (1904-06), Pearson (1911-33), Jameson (1912-13), Southwell (1910-14) and Malpas (1922-39).
    • A guide to the freshwater fauna of Ceylon

      Mendis, A.S.; Fernando, C.H.; Kariyawasam, G.D. (1962)
      Freshwater animals are of importance in the economy of most countries. In recent years the scientific cultivation of freshwater fish for food has been spreading throughout South-East Asia and the Far-East. New and useful species of fish have been introduced into many countries including Ceylon where the older system of trapping any variety of fish that is available is being replaced by scientifically planned management with a view to increasing the production of good quality fish. Considerable quantities of food mainly in the form of fish are being taken from our freshwaters, providing a cheap source of much needed protein in the diet of the villager. More recently large quantities of freshwater fish are being consumed by the urban population.
    • Some marine algae from Ceylon - 1

      Durairatnam, M. (1962)
      Since his last publication "Contribution to the Study of the Marine Algae of Ceylon"(1961), the author has made several collections which contain interesting material which he has not hitherto described. This and any other material which he come across in future surveys will be described in a series of papers of which this is the first. The present paper includes the description of fourteen species of which three are new to science. These are deposited in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Peradeniya, Ceylon.
    • Spiny lobsters of Ceylon

      De Bruin, G.H.P. (1962)
      Spiny lobsters of the family Palinuridae are known to exist in parts of Asia such as India, Japan, Indonesia and Malaya. In Ceylon spiny lobsters are caught chiefly by a primitive type of gear designed to catch these species and incidentally by nets set to catch fish. The limitations of these types of gear and the results of experimental fishing in Ceylon with different designs of lobster traps have been discussed earlier. As a result of these experiments a very effective trap for capturing spiny lobsters was developed and it was shown that spiny lobsters were present in large quantities (De Bruin 1960). This created great interest among skin-divers who found lobster fishing very remunerative.
    • Bibliography on pearl oysters

      Sivalingam, S. (1962)
      The preparation of this preliminary list was undertaken to meet the needs of the present investigation of the Pearl Banks, Gulf of Mannar. The recent repopulation of the Pearl Banks has revived interest in Ceylon's pearls and pearl fisheries. Successful fisheries have been held recently and surveys of the Pearl Banks are carried out regularly. The bibliography deals with all aspects of the biology of the pearl oyster, as well as the pearl fisheries. But its scope is limited by the library facilities available at the Fisheries Research Station, the Colombo Museum Library, the University of Ceylon Library and the Library of the Ceylon Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research. Annotation is not possible at this stage, for allpublications are not available for reference.
    • Aquatic coleoptera and hemiptera taken at light in some Asian countries with a note on Sphaerodema (Hemiptera-Belostomatidae)

      Fernando, C.H. (1963)
      Aquatic insects are relatively common at artificial lights and are often taken in light traps operated for catching other insects. They are however seldom recorded. These records are however of importance in understanding their distribution and abundance. Aquatic Coleoptera and Hemiptera are of importance in fisheries because some of them are predators on small fish whilst others serve as food for fishes of all sizes. Some like the Corixidae are of special interest because they can utilize the bottom ooze which is abundant especially in small habitats. Fernando (1961a) gave a comprehensive bibliography of records at light. In the present paper a number of records are given from various parts of Asia, where in the past records were very few. They are based on collections made by the author and also on material in the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. Amongst specimens sent for study by the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, were a few specimens which had been recorded at light.
    • New species of Monogenoidea from fishes of Ceylon

      Gussev, A.V. (1963)
      During the stay of the vessel "Ob" (Soviet Antarctic Expedition) at Colombo, May, 1957, the author received from Dr. C. H. Fernando some specimens of different species of fishes from Ceylon, preserved in formalin, as a present for the Zoological Institute (Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R.) New species of Monogenoidea have been found when examining the gills of the fishes received and the present paper deals with their description. The material was preserved in strong formalin which highly condensed the tissues of the parasites. Therefore the details of the anatomical structure in most of the specimens could not be recognized even by means of phase-contrasting equipment. So the description is confined almost exclusively to the chitinoid armature of the haptor and copulatory organ. The terms and the measurements used in this paper are the same as those used previously (Gussev, 1955).
    • Further studies on the water bugs of the genus Anisops (Hemiptera:Notonectidae) in Ceylon

      Fernando, C.H.; Leong, C.Y. (1963)
      In the present paper a short account is given of the biology of Anisops in Ceylon, their distribution and descriptions of Anisops ali and A. occipitalis. All the other Ceylonese species are described by Leong and Fernando (1962 . Brooks (1951) has given detailed descriptions of all the Ceylonese species except Anisops ali. A revised key to the Ceylonese Anisops is given and includes for the first time A. ali whose male has so far not been described and therefore omitted from the keys of Brooks (1951) and Leong and Fernando (1962).
    • Marine bacteria as indicators of upwelling in the Sea

      De Silva, N.N. (1963)
      The “oxidase reaction” (using p-amino-dimethyl-aniline oxalate as the reagent) has been used to distinguish oxidase-negative from oxidase-positive bacteria from the sea, when grown on membrane filters. By this means, it has been shown (a) that under conditions of stable stratification of the sea as in the tropics, a relationship exists between the percentage incidence of oxidase negative bacteria in the flora and the depth of the water; (b) that the maximum value for this percentage incidence (100) is reached at or immediately below the upper limit of the oxygen minimum layer; (c) that this percentage value (expressed as Oxⁿvalues) may be used to demonstrate the movements of water masses during upwelling. Such upwelling as indicated by theoretical findings and by temperature determinations along two transects off the west coast of Ceylon during the north east monsoon, has been confirmed by the distribution of Oxⁿvalues at these transects.
    • Some marine algae from Ceylon - 2. Laurencia lamouroux

      Durairatnam, M. (1963)
      The herbarium material belonging to the genus Laurencia kept at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Peradeniya together with my collections of material belonging to this genus from various parts of Ceylon have been examined. Most of the material belonging to the genus Laurencia had been incorrectly identified and their true identity has been determined. A key to the Ceylon species of Laurencia is given.
    • Survival of Staphylococci on frozen fish

      De Silva, N.N. (1963)
      Using Staphylococcus aureus as the test culture it has been shown that cell injury occurs in two phases during freezing and storage at temperatures below freezing. Certain constituents of fish muscle appear to protect the cells during both phases of injury. The survival of bacteria on fish muscle is not influenced by the rate at which the fish muscle was frozen prior to inoculation. There was no significant difference between growth of bacteria on quick frozen and slow frozen fish muscle after thawing. However there appeared to be a slight tendency for the lag phase of growth to be extended on thawed quick frozen fish muscle when compared with thawed slow frozen muscle.
    • Partial survey and critique of Ceylon's marine fisheries, 1953-55

      Medcof, J.C. (1963)
      This is a resume of a 1953-1955 study of Ceylon's fishing gears, fisheries and records of experimental and commercial fishing operations. Representative catches of edible fish per unit of effort for several of the gears studied are summarized in the table. They are low compared with many countries, indicating low abundance of fish.