Recent Submissions

  • Socio-economic implications of the fish export trade on the fishers and fisheries of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    Namisi, P.W. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 2000)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the implications of the fish export trade on the fishers and the fisheries resources of Lake Victoria, Uganda with respect to sustainability. Eight fish processing factories and ninety fishers were qualitatively investigated. Socio-economic characteristics of fishers and the economic characteristics of fish factories formed a basis for the analysis. Results of the research indicate that there is a relationship between the growth in fish export trade, particularly the growth in industrial fish processing (for export) and declining fisheries resources of the lake. However, whether or not that impact is positive or negative, and to what extent there is an impact, is highly dependent upon the underlying socio-economic considerations of the fishers to the process. The fish-ban imposed by the European Union countries was particularly decried by fishers and factory owners as the main cause for the present poverty among the fishers. Fundamentally, several conflicting issues: ecological, physical and economic activities are a threat to the sustainability of the Lake Victoria fisheries, and for all that depend on and interact with the lake. There is urgent need to address the immediate issue of the growing riparian population and the global fish trade, to educate and train all the relevant actors in appropriate fisheries management techniques. Attitudes of fishers towards the fish factory developments are positive and this is a way forward for co-management for the sustainability of the fisheries resource.
  • Marketing study

    Gonga, J.; Kyangwa, M.; Nyamwenge, C.; Nyapendi, A.; Odongkara, K.O.; Abila, R.; Lwenya, C.; Omwega, R.; Omwenga, F.; Osewe, S.; et al. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    The findings are presented of a marketing survey conducted in the lake Victoria region. The research concentrated on consumers, trader /processors serving local markets, industrial processors serving mainly international markets, and fishers. The market for fish from Lake Victoria is traced from the consumer to the producer, including as many components of the chain as possible. The components are dealt with in individual sections which comprise a profile of a typical consumer/trader-processor/industrial processor /fisher, a list of survey sites, a map showing locations, a note on potential biases within the individual survey, a list of hypotheses or study topics for all surveys except for that of industrial processors, detailed analyses and also the pertinent questionnaire.
  • The regulators and the regulated: fisheries management, options and dynamics in Kenya's Lake Victoria fishery

    Geheb, K. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1997)
    The study divides the history of the fishery into five 'regulatory periods': the pre-colonial fishery (pre-1901), the colonial fishery (1901-1963), the post indipendence fishery (1963-1980), the Nile perch 'boom' years (1980-1989), and finally the fishery in the 1990's. Within each of these periods, the nature of and the relationship between, formal and informal regulations differs and changes with time. In the pre-colonial period, the outcome of formal and informal regulations largely sustained the fishery in a productive and species diverse state. However, at no time since then have formal regulations worked, with the result that the nature of production from the fishery changes over time and is dependent on a number of factors, amongst which the most important are effort level increases, technological introductions, species introductions, changes in regional and national job markets, the change from community-based controls to state-based controls within the fishery, and finally, considerable changes to the fish markets.
  • Stock assessment of Lates niloticus (L.), Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin) using fisheries-dependent data from Tanzania waters of Lake Victoria

    Nsinda, P.E. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    Three commercially important fish species, Lates niloticus (L.), Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin) and Oreochromis niloticus (L.) that are fished by artisanal fishermen of Lake Victoria, Tanzania part, were studied in Kagera, Mwanza and Mara beaches from October 1997 to July 1999. Catches, effort, exploitation and stock structure were investigated. Beaches for sampling were selected based on importance for landing the above named fish species. The number of boats found on beach that day, the number that lay idle and their means of propulsion were recorded. As many boats as possible were sampled for gear type and gear size. The catches were sorted into species and measured. Variation in the species and size composition of landings was observed between regions, between months and between gears used. The implications of the findings to management are discussed.
  • Report of the PRA carried out at Nkombe Beach, Uganda, September 2-10, 2000

    SEDAWOG (The socio-economic data working group of the LVFRP) (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 2000)
    This document contains the findings of the fourth Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) carried out under the LVFRP. Its principal objectives were to develop base-line information on a Ugandan beach for the 3-beaches survey of the LVFRP.
  • Report of the PRA carried out at Mwasonge Beach, Tanzania, October 23rd - November 3rd, 2000

    SEDAWOG (The socio-economic data working group of the LVFRP) (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 2000)
    This paper comprises part of the so-called "3-beaches Survey" of the LVFRP. In Tanzania, this study has developed to examine two landing sites (Mwasonge and Ihale), and to chart the progress of the newly established Beach Management Units (BMU) at each beach, comparing one BMU against the other. The over-arching objective of this survey was to develop an understanding of the context in which Mwasonge's fishery exists. The study does so by examining the community's history, culture and beliefs, various other socio-cultural factors, their resources, society and economy, wealth and the community's perceptions of wealth. Importantly, the survey examines the community's institutions and its perceptions of fishing rules and changes within the fishery. All of these facets of community life are examined with the use of participatory Rural Appraisal tools, and the images that the study generated are reproduced herein.
  • Report of the PRA carried out at Obenge Beach, Kenya, June 23-26, 2000

    SEDAWOG (The socio-economic data working group of the LVFRP) (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 2000)
    This document contains the findings of the third Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) carried out on Obenge Beach in Kenya, from the 23rd to the 26th of June 2000, under the LVFRP. Its principal objectives were to develop base-line information on a Kenyan beach for the 3-beaches survey of the LVFRP.
  • Report of the PRA carried out at Lwalalo Beach, Uganda, June 5-14, 2000

    SEDAWOG (The socio-economic data working group of the LVFRP) (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 2000)
    This document contains the findings of the second Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) carried out under the LVFRP. Its principal objectives were to develop base-line information on a Ugandan beach for the 3-beaches survey of the LVFRP.
  • Report of the PRA carried out at Ihale Beach, Tanzania, April 11-14, 2000

    SEDAWOG (The socio-economic data working group of the LVFRP) (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 2000)
    Ihale is a large landing site lying approximately 65 km. from Mwanza along the main Mwanza-Musoma highway. Ihale Beach was selected as a potential candidate for the 3-beaches study because of its proximity to Mwanza, and hence suitability for frequent monitoring; and because it is served by a road accessible during the rainy seasons. As with the first training Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) on Kiumba Beach on Kenya's Rusinga Island, the objectives with this PRA were as follows: (a) To identify and understand Ihale's community-based organizations and institutions which have a role in the lake's fishery. (b) To consider the key issues which arise from this study for the involvement of communities and community-based organizations and/or institutions such as those at Ihale Beach, in the co-management of Lake Victoria's fishery.
  • Introduction to LVFRP Technical Document 9

    Geheb, K. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 2000)
    As stated in the title, this is an introduction to all the reports contained in this technical document and related to the various workshops on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) held in all the riparian countries around Lake Victoria within the LVFRP.
  • Reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria

    Ojuok, J.E. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    The reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria was studied from June 1998 to May 1999. Length at maturity ranged from 28-30 cm TL for females and from 32-34 cm TL for males. Males were more abundant in all length classes longer than 36 cm TL. Relative condition factor was above unity, except in August, October and May for males, and October for females. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) was low during the post spawning period (July to October) and high during the protracted breeding period (December-June).
  • Growth parameters for Lates niloticus (L.), Bagrus docmak (Forsskal), Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) and Synodontis species derived from tag returns

    Asila, A.A.; Okemwa, E. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    In a tagging experiment carried out in the Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria, an annual growth increment of 29 cm yr was obtained for Lates niloticus (L.). Growth parameters obtained using the von Bertalanffy model on the growth curve fitted by eye were L (inf.) = 122 cm yr and k = 0.26 yr. Data for other species tagged were inadequate to obtain meaningful results.
  • Species composition and relative abundance of zooplanktivorous haplochromines in the northern portion of Lake Victoria (Uganda)

    Namulemo, G. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    Recent surveys have indicated an increase in haplochromine biomass recorded from the bottom trawl and in the beam trawl. The haplochromines recovering in the offshore waters belong to three species in the zooplanktivorous trophic group: Yssichromis laparogramma (Greenwood and Gee), Yssichromis fusiformis (Greenwood and Gee) and Astatotilapia lacrimosa (Boulenger). In this paper, the species composition and relative abundance of the zooplanktivorous haplochromines recorded from the bottom and frame trawl surveys in the various parts of the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria are discussed.
  • Distribution of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria

    Akumu, J.K.O. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    The Lake Victoria fish fauna was dominated by cichlids before the establishment of the exotic species Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Latus niloticus (L.). With the alterations in the ecology of Lake Victoria, changes may be expected to occur in the population dynamics of the fish species. In two zones of Lake Victoria, the size structure, distribution and abundance, condition factors, length-weight relationship and sex ratios of O. niloticus were determined. Larger fish were found in zone II than in zone III, where very few larger fish were recorded. More O. niloticus were caught in zone III, especially in Itome Bay, than in zone II but catch by weight was greater in zone II. More males than females were encountered in both zones. Oreochromis niloticus had similar condition factors in both zones.
  • Changes in feeding biology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), after invasion of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    Njiru, M. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    Oreochrimis niloticus (L.) was introduced to Lake victoria in the 1950s. It remained relatively uncommon in catches until 1965, when the numbers began to increase dramatically. It is now the third most important commercial fish species after the Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin). Oreochromis niloticus is considered a herbivore, feeding mostly on algae and plant material. The diet now appears to be more diversified , with insects, fish, algae and plant materials all being important food items. Fish smaller than 5 cm TL have a diverse diet but there is a decline in the importance of zooplankton, the preferred food item of small fish, as fish get larger. The shift in diet could be due to changes which have occurred in the lake. Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, which harbours numerous insects in its root balls, now has extensively coverage over the lake. The native fish species which preyed on these insects (e.g. haplochromines) have largely been eliminated and O. niloticus could be filling niches previously occupied by these cichlids and non cichlid fishes. The change in diet could also be related to food availability and abundance where the fish is feeding on the most readily available food items.
  • Reproductive biology of Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin) in the northern waters of Lake Victoria

    Wandera, S.B. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    Size at first maturity, breeding periods and condition factor were determined for the small pelagic cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin) in the Jinja waters of Lake Victoria in 1996-1997. Females showed a reduced size at maturity compared to ten years earlier when exploitation of the species was minimal. The males, however, have changed little. Although the species breeds throughout the year, two breeding peaks were observed during the drier months of August and December-January. Minimal breeding was observed in the rainy months of April-May and October-November. Fish from the open water station at Bugaia showed a higher proportion of breeding individuals than those from inshore areas. The mean monthly condition factor of fish from Napoleon Gulf confirmed breeding peaks obtained from examination of gonad development.
  • Zooplankton - fish interaction in the littoral zone of Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria

    Owili, M. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    The zooplankton community of the littoral zone of Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, was studied between June 1998 and June 1999 to identify and quantify various zooplankton groups, and investigate the interactions that occur between them and the littoral fish through the food chain. Zooplankton samples were collected from five stations using a 83 micro-m mesh size plankton net hauled vertically through the water column. Fish samples were obtained by beach seine, except at Gingra (May 1999), where trawl samples were used. Gut/stomach analysis was carried out on the three major commercial species, Lates niloticus (L.), Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin).
  • The role of Caridina nilotica (Roux) in the Lake Victoria fisheries with reference to Lates niloticus (L.)

    Budeba, Y.L. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    Caridina nilotica (Roux) (Decapoda: Atyidae) was investigated over a period of four months in three zones of Lake Victoria. Abundances were estimated by vertical net sampling. The importance of C. nilotica in the diet of the three commercial fish species was investigated. Caridina nilotica is a primary food for Lates niloticus (L.), Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin). A quantitative study of C. nilotica in the fishing area indicated high biomass which can support the Lake Victoria fisheries.
  • Invertebrate communities in northern Lake Victoria, with reference to their potential for fishery production

    Ndawula, L.M.; Kiggundu, V.; Ochieng, H. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    The zooplankton and macrobenthic communities of Lake Victoria were sampled by lift net and Ponar grab, respectively. The zooplankton comprised copepods and cladocerans, rotifers and aquatic insect larvae. Most taxa exhibited wide distribution in the lake, with the exception of rotifers which were rare in deep offshore waters. The main components in the macro-benthos were chaoborid and chironomid larvae and molluscs. Caridina nilotica (Roux) and other groups were rare in the samples. Zooplankton density ranged from 100000 or more to 4 million ind. m2 and increased from the shallow inshore to deep offshore waters. Numerical dominance of cyclopoids and nauplius larvae was a common feature at all stations sampled. Most macrobenthic taxa were also widely distributed, although chaoborid and chironomid larvae were rare in the samples. Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin) and larval Lates niloticus (L.) ate mainly cyclopoid copepods, while cichlids showed a strong preference for adult insects. High ecological stability of the cyclopoids, and the zooplankton community in general, despite radical ecosystem changes in recent years, coupled with what appears to be high predation pressure, offers good prospects for the pelagic fishery in the lake.
  • Catch trends from Lake Victoria - Tanzanian waters

    Mkumbo, O.C.; Cowx, I.G. (Lake Victoria Fisheries Research ProjectJinja, Uganda, 1999)
    Catch trends from Fisheries Department reports from the last eleven years (1985-1995) were analyzed. These showed a shift in the fishery from a cichlid-based system to one dominated by Nile perch and tilapias. In recent years, catches have declined from a peak in the early 1990s. Catch per unit effort appears to have remained stable except for a drop in 1995, however, this is considered dubious because the effort showed a doubling in that year. Limitations of the fisheries data collection system for the Tanzanian sector of Lake Victoria are highlighted and discussed.

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