• Bacteria in the inshore environment at Karwar and Vengurla

      Gore, P.S. (1974)
      Qualitative and quantitative studies of the bacterial population in two stations, Karwar and Venguria, have been made for a period of eight months, which revealed the pattern of distribution to be almost similar to that from east coast and west coast.
    • Bacterial aspects of quality of phosphate treated frozen prawns

      Mathen, C. (1973)
      Changes in physical, organoleptic and biochemical characteristics of phosphate treated prawns and frog legs during storage have been studied in detail by Mathen and Pillai, (1970). Adoption of the recommended method by the industry in the freezing of prawns made it necessary to assess the influence of such treatment on the bacterial quality. This aspect assumes more importance in view of the proposed compulsory bacterial standards for raw frozen prawns. This note gives an account of the results on the influence of phosphate treatment on bacterial quality of raw frozen shrimp meat.
    • Bacterial flora of EDTA treated oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and prawn (Metapenaeus dobsoni) in ice storage

      Surendran, P.K.; Gopakumar, K. (1982)
      The native flora of fresh oil sardine and mackerel consisted mainly of Pseudomonas spp., Moraxella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and Vibrio spp. During spoilage in ice, nearly 75% of their bacterial flora belonged to Pseudomonas spp. alone. But Na sub(2) EDTA treatment reduced the proportion of Pseudomonas spp. considerably and the major bacterial groups at the time of spoilage were Moraxella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. In the case of fresh prawn, the native flora was constituted by Pseudomonas spp., Moraxella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and Vibrio spp. At the time of spoilage of prawn in ice, Moraxella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. predominated, together constituting 74% of the total population. Na sub(2) EDTA treatment did not alter significantly the spoilage flora of prawns. Moraxella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. accounted for 86% of the spoilage flora in ice storage of Na sub(2) EDTA treated prawns.
    • Bacterial flora of fresh and iced Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and its response to chlortetracycline (CTC) treatment

      Surendran, P.K.; Mahadeva Iyer, K. (1976)
      Quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacterial flora of fresh Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) have been made. The total native flora as well as 5 ppm CTC insensitive flora of the fish showed variations with season. About 90% of the fresh fish flora was sensitive to 5 ppm CTC. The natural flora of the fresh fish consisted of Vibrios, Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Corynebacteria, Micrococci, Bacillus and yeasts. In the CTC insensitive flora, Vibrios predominated followed by yeasts. The selection of bacterial genera during storage of the fish in ice and in 5 ppm CTC incorporated ice has also been investigated. At the time of spoilage, Pseudomonas was found to be the dominant flora of the fish stored in both types of ice.
    • Bacterial flora of marine fish doma (Sciaenoids) (Small spp.) from Bombay coast

      Pawar, S.S.; Magar, N.G. (1966)
      Marine fish doma (Sciaenoids) (Small spp.) from Bombay coast was studied for total bacterial counts on the surface and gut. Large number of Micrococcus species (77.4%) was found whereas few species from Achromobacter, Bacillus, Bacterium, Flavobacter, Pseudomonas and Sarcina were noted.
    • Bacteriological investigations of prawn canneries 1. Incidence of aerobic sporeformers

      Nambiar, V.N.; Iyer, K.M. (1971)
      A detailed bacteriological survey of the prawn canneries of Cochin area was carried out to study the nature and type of micro-organisms present in the factory environs and their role in causing contamination of the canned products. About 26% of the total of 1030 strains isolated was found to be gram positive spore-formers of the Bacillus type, the cooling water being their major source. Similar types of organisms formed the major group often met with in defective canned prawn samples picked up from the factories for examination, thus establishing a correlation between bacterial characteristics and load of cooling water and can contamination.
    • Bacteriological investigations of prawn canneries 2. Incidence of Clostridium perfringens

      Nambiar, V.N.; Iyer, K.M. (1973)
      Prawn processing factories of the three major fish processing centres of the West Coast of India, viz., Cochin, Mangalore and Calicut were surveyed to determine the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in processing areas, and in processed products. Direct plating on Sulphite-polymyxin- sulphadiazine Agar and enrichment techniques were used. Samples of prawn, prawn guts, frozen prawns, canned prawns, water, ice, swab from utensils and soil from the factory premises were examined. Among a total of 461 samples examined, only 32 (6.9%) gave positive results. The incidence of C. perfringens was more in prawn guts (80%), followed by soil (50%), prawn (38%), ice (33.3%), frozen prawns (11%), swab (5.0%) and water (1.1%). No C. perfringens was isolated from canned prawns.
    • Bacteriological quality of fresh water fish from Krishnarajendra Sagar reservoir

      Nair, K.K.S.; Nair, R.B. (1988)
      Findings are presented of a study conducted to determine the bacteriological quality of Labeo rohita and L. calbasu from Krishnarajendra Sagar Reservoir. In general, a low incidence of pathogenic bacteria was observed; it is concluded that the microbiological hazard potential of the freshwater fish is low.
    • Bacteriology of spoilage of canned prawns

      Nambiar, V.N. (1980)
      Spoilage characteristics of different types of bacteria isolated from bacteriologically defective cans and processing factory environs were studied by inoculating pure cultures into sterile prawn meat. The pattern of spoilage, namely, production of off odour, bulging of the cans and disintegration of meat were observed. Data on spoilage under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions are presented. Most of the cultures produced some kind of spoilage, though differences were observed in the extent of spoilage produced by different types of bacteria. Gram positive spore formers were found to be the major spoilers and the extent of spoilage was more with mixed cultures.
    • Behaviour of marine microflora towards antibiotics 1. Sensitivity towards chlortetracycline (CTC)

      Surendran, P.K.; Iyer, K.M. (1971)
      The sensitivity of 61 cultures of bacteria isolated from fish towards chlortetracycline (CTC) at 5 ppm and 20 ppm levels has been determined on two solid media: sea water agar (SWA) and a distilled water based medium consisting of peptone, beef extract, glucose and NaCI (PBGA). The cultures employed consisted of (i) gram-negative rods of marine origin (Achromobacter, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Flavobacterium) and (ii) gram positive organisms (Micrococci and Corynebacterium). Depending on the inhibition zone diameter, the order of CTC sensitivity was found to be Pseudomonas<Vibrio<Achromobacter as determined on PBGA at CTC levels of 5 and 20 ppm. The SWA enhanced the development of resistance in majority of the cultures as compared to PBGA. PBG broth containing CTC at less than 10 ppm exerted a bacteriostatic effect only while that containing 10 ppm or more exerted a bactericidal effect on Achromobacter, Pseudomonas and Micrococci cultures. The significance of these results in fish preservation by CTC is discussed.
    • Belly depth studies for shrimp trawls - Part II

      Mhalathkar, H.N.; Jagadeeshan, G. (1970)
      The paper details further experiments conducted for a reduction in the depth of belly of a 13.69 m (45') four seam shrimp trawl net. The investigations have given conclusive evidence that the optimum depth of belly for this particular trawl design should be 70 meshes.
    • Belly depth studies for shrimp trawls - Part III

      Mhalathkar, H.N.; Jegadeesan, G. (1971)
      Earlier investigations with 13.69 m (45') four seam shrimp trawl indicated the optimum depth of belly to be 70 meshes. Present communication details further experiments on similar lines with a bigger shrimp trawl of size 17.07 m (56') without overhang. The results obtained have not only given corroborating evidence in support of the earlier findings but also helped in arriving at a relationship that for a given stretched width of belly ‘L’ the stretched depth of belly could be either 2L/5 or 40% of ‘L’ with an allowance of ± 2 meshes.
    • Beverage preparation from fish hydrolysate

      Prabhu, P.V.; Radhakrishnan, A.G.; James, M.A. (1975)
      A method for the preparation of energy food incorporating fish hydrolysates, sugar, cocoa, malt extract etc. is described. The product has good consumer appeal. The preparation does not impart any bitter taste of the hydrolysate to the final product irrespective of the type of fish used for preparing the hydrolysate. It freely mixes with hot or cold milk and the resulting drink is adjudged to be very palatable.
    • Biochemical aspects of the spoilage of prawns

      Velankar, N.K. (1965)
      Certain features characterise spoilage of sea foods, as distinct from spoilage of protein foods in general. Among sea foods spoilage differs in the crustaceans, teleosts, or elasmobranchs respectively. High levels of free amino acids concentrations are characteristic of prawns and other crustacean muscle. Changes occurring in these influence pattern of spoilage. Differences also exist in the sea prawns and prawns taken from the backwaters. Melanosis is a characteristic feature of spoilage in prawns. Observations have shown that prawns are very susceptible to spoilage at ordinary temperature, the period of absolute freshness not exceeding 4 hours, while prompt icing extends the period to 3-5 days.
    • Biochemical changes of fish fingers held at frozen storage

      Ravindranathan Nair, P.; Thankamma, R.; Gopakumar, K. (1982)
      The frozen storage characteristics of fish fingers made out of two different species, differing in lipid content for a period of six months are outlined. The study reveals that the lipid content of the fish meat used for making fish fingers influences the storage pattern in terms of the chemical parameters like peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value and free fatty acids. The introduction of monosodium glutamate has improved the flavour of the fish fingers. Further, the application of batter on the fish fingers imparted some protective effect in the case of semi-fatty fish.
    • Biochemical composition of the muscle of some freshwater fishes during the pre-maturity phase

      Khawaja, D.K. (1966)
      Biochemical composition of the muscle of juveniles belonging to 18 different species of freshwater fishes showed that the protein percentage in juveniles was higher than the adults. The fat, on the other hand, was much lower. This suggests that the body fat increases with the onset of maturity. No clear inverse relationship was found between fat and protein in juveniles. Moisture percentage was very high in juveniles. This was probably because of low fat content. In most species the sum of fat and water contents (F + W) was found to be constant. The percentages of ash, calcium and phosphorus were higher in juveniles than those of adults. Dry matter percentage varied inversely with the moisture and in most species carbohydrate was generally low. In juveniles although the calorific value of protein-fraction was high the total calorific value was lower than the adults.
    • Biochemical differences between the red and white meat of tuna and changes in quality during freezing and storage

      Chinnamma, G. (1975)
      The differences between the white and red (dark) meat of tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) in chemical, physical and organoleptic aspects and the rate and pattern of spoilage during freezing and subsequent storage are discussed in this communication. In the indices studied distinct difference is seen between the white and red meat as well as in the head, middle and tail portions of the same fish. The characteristic colour of tuna meat is due to the presence of haemoglobin and myoglobin, the concentrations of which are about 5 times more in red meat than in white meat. The shelf-life of the frozen material varies with the type of the pack, that is, whole fish>chunks>fillets; the fillets being adversely affected during frozen storage.
    • Biochemical investigations on edible molluscs of Kerala 1. A study on the nutritional value of some bivalves

      Suryanarayanan, H.; Alexander, K.M. (1972)
      Data on the biochemical constituents and food values of five commercially important edible bivalves of Kerala, Lamellidens corrianus, Corbicuta striatella, Mytilus edulis, Vellorita cohinensis and Ostrea cucullata have been presented. Physiological significance of the variations has been discussed. Present study reveals the bivalves meat compares favourably with the common food fishes with regard to their caloric value and hence would be an excellent and economic source of nutrition for our people.
    • Biochemical investigations on the edible molluscs of Kerala 2. A study on the nutritional value of some gastropods and cephalopods

      Suryanarayanan, H.; Shylaja Kumari, R.; Alexander, K.M. (1973)
      Data on the biochemical composition and food value of the edible portions of two gastropods, Pila virens and Achatina fulica and two cephalopods, Sepiella inermis and Loigo indica have been presented. These molluscs possess nutritive meat very rich in protein and minerals, which compare favourably with popular food fishes in caloric value. The significance of the variations met with in the biochemical constituents of the different species has been discussed.
    • Biochemical studies on crab Scylla serrata

      George, C.; Gopakumar, K. (1987)
      Studies on the biochemical composition of crab meat from body and claw revealed marked differences in relation to flavour. Protein content is on the higher side in crabs (19.1 to 20.9%) with high percentage of free amino acids and phosphorus and less carbohydrate and fat. The variation in composition due to the presence of eggs in female crabs and the importance of claw liquor and its composition are reported.