• Canning of edible oyster meat

      Balachandran, K.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Prabhu, P.V. (1984)
      Results of experiments carried out on canning edible oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) meat from farmed as well as wild specimens are discussed. The canning yield of meat was 15% higher from farmed oysters compared to wild specimens. The meat from wild oysters was highly slimy and therefore required an additional pre-treatment of washing in brine containing acetic acid to prevent formation of lumps of meat in the can causing problems for proper heat penetration while processing.
    • Canning of Lactarius

      Kunjipalu, K.K.; Mathai, P.G. (1976)
      Though not a sizable fishery on national level, landings of lactarius (Lactarius lactarius) is considerable in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Apart from a note (Anon, 1965) no published work is available on its preservation by canning. Fish processed by this method on storage loses its flavour and the lustrous skin is peeled off. The present note describes a method in which these factors also are taken care of.
    • Canning of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps): natural pack

      Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.; Madhavan, P.; Balachandran, K.K.; Prabhu, P.V. (1974)
      A simple and economic process for canning of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) in its own juice having very good organoleptic characteristics has been developed. The process consists in dipping eviscerated, scaled and cleaned fish in brine containing potash alum and citric acid, packing in cans, exhausting and seaming without addition of any filling medium and heatprocessing.
    • Canning of smoked dhoma (Sciaenid sp.)

      Varma, P.R.G.; Venkataraman, R. (1978)
      A process for the preparation of a wholesome smoked and canned product from dhoma (Sciaenid sp.) is discussed. The dressed dhoma is cold blanched in 15% brine containing 0.5% potash alum and 0.2% citric acid and smoked for 120 minutes at 45 ± 5°C. The smoked fish after filling in cans is precooked at 0.35 kg/sq.cm steam pressure for 50 minutes in inverted position, filled with hot refined groundnut oil, sealed and processed for 60 minutes at 0.7 kg/sq.cm steam pressure.
    • Canning of smoked eel

      Kandoran, M.K.; Solanki, K.K.; Venkataraman, R. (1971)
      On an average about 5000metric tons of marine eels are landed every year in India. Even though it is a quality fish with high protein content as any other popular species, many fish eaters decline to prefer it to other low quality fish. One way to utilise this fish is to convert it into various products like smoked and canned eel fillets. As this product is likely to secure a foreign market also, investigations were carried out with a view to suggesting a proper method for its preparation. The data collected on this line are presented here, applying which an excellent smoked and canned product from eel can be turned out.
    • Canning of smoked sardine

      Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.; Balachandran, K.K.; Madhavan, P. (1977)
      A process for canning smoked oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) is described. Cold blanching of dressed fish in brine, smoking followed by drying in hot air or cooking in steam to reduce the moisture content to the required level and subsequent canning yields product with good organoleptic properties. Coconut husk is used as source of smoke.
    • Canning of squid

      Varma, P.R.G.; Joseph, J. (1980)
      A simple method for canning squid (Loligo sp.) is discussed. Hot blanching the dressed meat in 7% brine containing 0.2% citric acid for 5 min, packing and subsequent filling with 2% brine containing 0.2% citric acid and processing at 1.0 kg/cm² steam for 20 mm gave an excellent canned product with good shelf-life.
    • Canning of tuna in oil

      Madhavan, P.; Balachandran, K.K. (1971)
      This paper provides the experimental details of canning of tuna in oil. The species utilized in the experiments were the skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna (Neothunnus macropterus) and bigeye tuna Parathunnus obesus mebachi) ranging it weight from 2.5-82 kg. The method worked out is applicable to all species of different size grades.
    • Carbonyls from some commercially important fishes and shell fishes of tropical waters

      Ammu, K.; Nair, P.G.V.; Devadasan, K. (1986)
      Results of a preliminary study of the hexane extractable carbonyls from three fish and one shell fish are reported. Volatile carbonyls that can be isolated from oil sardine by distillation at different temperatures in air or nitrogen atmosphere were also studied. Carbonyls were converted to their 2:4 dinitro phenyl hydrozones. These were fractionated by column chromatography and the different fractions were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. The data show wide variations in the content of different carbonyls in different fishes. Carbonyls in distillates from muscle water homogenates of oil sardine showed some differences from the carbonyls extracted with hexane from the same fish. More data is necessary to correlate the carbonyls with the characteristic flavour of each fish.
    • Cat fish egg pickle

      Agarwal, A. (1986)
      Cat fish constitutes one of the important fisheries in India. Attempts were made for the better utilization of eggs. This paper describes trials made a favourable product such as pickle.
    • Catch efficiency and selective action of coloured gill nets

      George, N.A.; Khan, A.A.; Pandey, O.P. (1975)
      Information on the catch efficiency and selective action of coloured gill nets in relation to the reservoir fishes of India are lacking. Authors, in the present studies have attempted to evaluate the comparative catch efficiency of gill nets of four shades viz. yellow, orange, green and blue over the colourless ones, by conducting fishing experiments, in the Govindsagar reservoir. Attempts have also been made to study the preference shown to colours by the four major species of fishes of the reservoir.
    • Cathodic protection of aluminium sheathed wooden fishing boats with ternary aluminium anodes

      Gopalakrishna Pillai, A.G.; Ravindran, K.; Balasubramanyan, R. (1980)
      Results of laboratory and field trials on cathodic protection of aluminium sheathing in fishing boats by ternary aluminium anodes are presented. The high negative potential of 1.06 V with respect to saturated calomel electrode, its appreciably low anodic polarization and high current output are favourable factors for using the ternary aluminium anodes. The low rate of consumption of the anode material under service trials attests its economic viability.
    • Cathodic protection of the hulls of fishing trawlers in India

      Ravindran, K.; Balasubramanyan, R. (1974)
      Nearly 10,000 mechanised fishing trawlers mostly built of wood and about 100 trawlers built of steel besides a few fiberglass reinforced plastic and a couple of ferro-cement boats constitute the modern fishing fleet of India at present. Metallic corrosion in sea water is a very well-known phenomenon in all ships and various other marine structures; the exact financial loss and the material breakdowns have never been fully realized among the trawler owners in India. The Central Institute of Fisheries Technology at Cochin has been studying these problems for some years and has been able to assess the significance of underwater corrosion particularly of the hull below water line in the trawlers and suitable remedial measures have been suggested in this paper.
    • Change in quality of different variety of fish during long distance transportation

      Rao, C.C.P.; Unnithan, G.R. (1986)
      A study was conducted to investigate the quality of iced fish of different species during long distance transportation. Total bacterial counts showed different species to show different quality deterioration under similar handling conditions.
    • Changes in the muscle of three Indian major carps during frozen storage

      Chakrabarti, R. (1984)
      Chunks of Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla wrapped in polythene film were stored at -8 to -10°C in the freezer cabinet of the refrigerator. It was found that L. rohita and C. mrigala were acceptable up to 33 days and C. catch up to 35 days. Total volatile base nitrogen, free fatty acids and degree of sponginess of the samplesshowed increasing trend during frozen storage.
    • Chemical changes in skin mucin as an index of early stages of spoilage in fish

      Suryanarayana Rao, S.V.; Lee, S.J. (1977)
      Results of a preliminary investigation on the overall chemical nature of fish skin mucin in lung fish, Clarias batrachus, with special reference to water soluble low molecular weight compounds, are presented. Changes observed during room temperature spoilage have been studied with a view to present a new approach towards the assessment of freshness in fish inspection. pH of the mucin was distinctly alkaline (8.2) and remained unchanged during spoilage. Much of the nitrogen was found to be present in the glycoprotein fraction. Free amino acids and purine bases were present in appreciable quantities in the aqueous extracts which registered a significant increase after 10 hrs. Post-mortem increase in total solids was accompanied by a slight rise in protein nitrogen which may indicate tissue breakdown. Increase in TVN was also observed to occur earlier in the outside mucin as compared to theinside muscle. Presence of free sugars or sialic acid could not be confirmed nor was there any indication of cholesterol and lipoid material as stated in earlier literature.
    • Chemical composition of Bombay ducks (Harpodon nehereus) and changes occurring in the nutritive value of dried Bombay ducks on storage

      Nazir, D.J.; Magar, N.G. (1965)
      Fresh Bombay ducks and Bombay ducks dried (a) without any pre-treatment or (b) after brining with NaCl solutions of 15% and 7.5% concentrations for 18 hours were analyzed for moisture, ash, minerals, vitamins, fat, free fatty acids, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, total protein, total amino nitrogen, soluble proteins and trimethylamine contents. All the dried samples were stored in (a) tightly closed tin containers or (b) polythene bags and analyzed for the above mentioned constituents every 1½ months. It was observed that brining did not exercise any marked influence on keeping properties. Organoleptic observations showed that fish stored in tin containers kept better and longer than those stored in polythene bags.
    • Chemical composition of Sepia orientalis and Loligo vulgaris

      Pandit, A.R.; Magar, N.G. (1972)
      The chemical constituents of Sepia orientalis and Loligo vulgaris weighing between 200-300g have been studied. It has been found that these species could be classed as high protein and low fat food and that these are good sources of calcium, phosphorus, iron and moderate amounts of B-group vitamins.
    • Chemical control of psychrophilic bacterial spoilage of fish 1. Isolation and identification of psychrophilic bacteria from marine fish

      Anand, C.P.; Rudra Setty, T.M. (1977)
      Making use of the streak plate technique and low temperature incubation, 28 cultures belonging to six genera namely, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Vibrio and Alcaligenes were isolated from different varieties of marine fish. The growth studies indicated that all of them were able to grow between -5 and +5°C within a week's time and none of them showed growth at 37°C. The optimum temperature of growth for all these cultures was in the range 25-28°C. Among these only one, i.e., a Vibrio sp., was found to be an obligate psychrophile.
    • Chitosan as a water clarifying agent

      Prabhu, P.V.; Radhakrishnan, A.G.; Gopalakrishna Iyer, T.S. (1976)
      Chitosan may be used to reduce the bacterial load of water. Material prepared according to the method of Radhakrishnan & Prahu described in Res. & Ind., 16(4), pp. 265, used in 1% solution in 1% acetic acid was added at 10 ppm level to contaminated water and allowed to stand for 45 min. Cultures of E. coli, Staphylococci and a mixture of the 2 were inoculated into ordinary and muddy water. Bacterial load was determined, and it is shown that chitosan has excellent qualities as a coagulant/water clarifying agent, especially for muddy waters or those contaminated with suspended matter or bacteria.