• Deepwater prawns and lobsters off the Kerala coast

      Kurian, C.V. (1965)
      Majority of the prawn catch of the Kerala coast comes from the inshore regions within the 10 fathom line. A bottom deposit formed of fine mud rich in humus is found to be the ideal condition for the penaeid prawns. Similarly the lobster is observed in large numbers at localised areas very near the coast in the crevices of rocks. Though it has been observed that prawns and lobsters exist in deep water as well under different conditions, our knowledge about these forms along the Indian coasts is very scanty, being restricted to the works of Spence Bate, Alcock, De Man and Ramadan. Recently, during the cruises of the University Research Vessel Conch off the Kerala Coast (1958-1963) two species of deep water prawns and one species of lobster were collected from depths 100 - 180 fathoms. Of these, Penaeopsis philippi is found in large numbers occupying an almost continuous bed extending from Anjengo to Mangalore, while P. rectacutus has a restricted appearance between Cochin and Calicut. However, some sort of year to year variation has also been observed regarding the abundance of the species at various stations. Peurulus sewelli has a more restricted distribution, the maximum number being found between Puvar and Cochin. Attempt has been made to correlate the occurrence of the species with the hydrological conditions at the bottom and the nature of the substratum. It is observed that Peurulus sewelli occupies a more or less hard bed formed of sand with shell fragments or stones and small percentage of silt, the bottom temperature at the stations varying from 11°C to l4°C. P. sewelli is a more or less permanent inhabitant of the edge of the continental shell off the Kerala Coast worthy of attention for detailed investigation with a view to explore the possibilities of commercial exploitation.
    • Dehydration of prawns in tunnel dryers

      Balachandran, K.K.; Bose, A.N. (1965)
      This paper deals with the dehydration of prawns in a tunnel dryer. Conditions required to produce an end-product of desired colour, shape and texture as well as good reconstitution and organoleptic properties which are not obtained in the normal hot air drying, have been worked out. An initial temperature and relative humidity of 90°C. and 85%-90% respectively and an air velocity not more than 1 metre/second are the essential conditions required. Both temperature and relative humidity are to be reduced to 70°C and 40% respectively after about an hour's operation, till the drying is complete. Flavour of the reconstituted product is close to that of the fresh cooked prawns and the texture is judged to be soft. Drying time required to reduce the moisture content of fresh prawns to 15% level is about 7 hours compared to 6-7 hours in normal hot air drying and more than 36 hours in sun-drying.
    • Delayed freezing on the quality and shelf-life of Kalawa (Epinephelus spp.)

      Joseph, A.C.; Surendran, P.K.; Perigreen, P.A. (1989)
      Kalawa (Epinephelus spp.) caught on board FORV Sagar Sampada was frozen in the absolutely fresh condition as well as after keeping for 5 and 10h at ambient temperature. Evaluation of changes in the quality of these samples during storage at -20°C indicated appreciable difference between the fresh frozen and delayed frozen fish during the initial stages of storage. Fresh frozen and 5h delayed froze fish samples had a shelf-life of more than 62 weeks, whereas the 10h delayed frozen fish had a shelf-life of about 48 weeks.
    • Denaturation of Labeo rohita (Rohu) actomyosin on frozen storage: preventive effect of carbohydrates

      Rao, S.B. (1983)
      The preventive effect of sucrose and glucose on the denaturation of frozen rohu actomyosin at -20°C for 7 weeks was examined using an in vitro test model. The rate of denaturation was followed by estimating percentage salt extractability, Ca¹²+ ATPase activity and the clearing response test. Sucrose and glucose showed cryoprotective action for all concentration of actomyosin. Higher actomyosin concentration was preserved better than lower concentration. Post-rigor actomyosin was preserved to a greater extent than pre-rigor actomyosin. Correlation between percentage salt extractability and enzyme activity could not be observed in all samples of frozen actomyosin studied.
    • Denaturation of Labeo rohita (rohu) actomyosin on frozen storage: preventive effect of dicarboxylic acids

      Rao, S.B. (1984)
      The preventive effect of fumarate, maleate, tartrate and oxalate on the denaturation of frozen rohu actomyosin at -20°C in 0.7 M KCl for 7 weeks was examined using an in vitro test model. The rate of denaturation was followed by estimating percentage salt extractability, Ca²+ ATP-ase activity and the clearing response test. Fumarate, maleate and tartrate showed cryoprotective effect for higher concentration of pre-rigor rohu actomyosin of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml. At actomyosin concentration of 6 mg/ml, maleate and tartrate showed some preventive effect whereas fumarate enhanced denaturation. Oxalate showed poor cryoprotective action. Post-rigor rohu actomyosin was preserved frozen without denaturation to a greater extent than pre-rigor actomyosin.
    • Design considerations for trawl winches

      Velu, M. (1972)
      For efficient functioning of a trawl winch it is essential that all component parts should be designed carefully taking into consideration all the relevant factors such as quantum and type of load each component is subjected to, amount of maintenance it will receive during actual operation, type of drive for the winch etc. Based on the practices adopted at the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology certain guidelines are proposed in this paper for designing of trawl winches.
    • Design of a detachable type fish drier

      Pillai, S.A.; Prabhu, P.V.; Balachandran, K.K. (1986)
      The paper describes the design of a detachable type fish drier which has been designed to operate on commercial scale. The drier with a raw material capacity of one tons has been designed after effecting all improvements on the design of the existing tunnel driers available in India. The cost of one drier works out to Rs. 2,16,700/- approximately.
    • Design of a half ton dehydrator for fish

      Swaminath, M. (1964)
      A half-ton capacity artificial dryer has been designed at the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology for drying fish like Mackerel, Sardine, White bait etc. The dryer is a hot air recirculation type. 80 KW thermostatically controlled heating coils are made use of for heating the air. The air is circulated by means of an axial flow pattern fan. Drying takes place at a temperature of 115 degrees F. The structure of the dryer comes to about Rs. 20,000.
    • Design of refrigerated sea water plant for preservation of fish

      Pillai, S.A. (1974)
      To study the feasibility of employing refrigerated sea water on board fishing vessels for the preservation of fish, a pilot model has been designed, the details of which are presented in this paper.
    • Designing of a single pack wash primer for aluminium surfaces in a marine environment

      Gopalakrishna Pillai, A.G. (1971)
      Design aspects and comparative performances of different laboratory formulations of wash primers were studied under laboratory and field conditions with reference to scratch hardness, flexibility, stability, resistance to corrosion and adhesiveness. The different formulations of single pack wash primers tested have shown superiority of the formulation prepared out of “mowital” and that it is comparable in performance to double pack wash primer.
    • Determination of acute mercury toxicity to developing stages of Cyprinus carpio and Cirrhinus mrigala

      Shrivastava, S.; Rao, K.S.; Dhanekar, S.; Pandya, S.S. (1988)
      Toxicity of inorganic mercury to different life history stages of fresh water fishes, Cyprinus carpio and Cirrhinus mrigala were demonstrated by static bioassays. 48 and 94% of egg hatching occurred in controls at 72 and 24h of experimentation in C. carpio and C. mrigala respectively. While fish eggs in water containing mercuric chloride showed delayed development as compared to the control. LC50, LC100 and safe concentrations of hatchling, fry and fingerling were calculated. Hatchling and fry were observed to be more susceptible as compared to fingerlings of C. carpio and C. mrigala.
    • Determination of threshold current densities for different reactions of fishes using a pantostat

      Biswas, K.P. (1971)
      The threshold current densities required for first reaction, galvanotaxis and galvanonarcosis of fish depended upon species, length of the body, conductivity of water, nature of current and frequency of impulses. The threshold values and their ratios decreased with increase in length of fish. With rise in conductivity of water in the ratio of 1:4:13, these values increased in the ratio 1: 2:5. Impulse D. C was superior to continuous D. C and the threshold values of current densities for different reactions of fish decreased with rise in impulse frequency reaching minimum at an impulse frequency of 48/sec. Among Salmo irideus, ldus melanotus and Cyprinus carpio, the first one was affected earlier and required minimum current densities to exhibit the reactions, while the last one showed similar reactions only at higher current densities.
    • Determination of ubiquinone and tocopherol in heart, liver and muscle tissues of fresh water fish, Rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton)

      Pawar, S.S.; Mager, N.G. (1965)
      The liver, heart and muscle tissues of Rohu, (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) were examined for their ubiquinone (UQ) and tocopherol contents. These three tissues contained respectively 11.60, 3.94 and 0.19 mg of ubiquinone and 10.16, 5.32 and 3.58 mg of tocopherol per 100 g. The 4% (V/V) of diethyl ether (EE) in light petroleum ether (PE) fractions of all three tissues on paper chromatographic separation gave spots having the same Rf value as standard ubiquinone-50 (UQ 10). Both the 4% and 6% (V/V) diethyl ether in light petroleum ether fraction of liver, heart and muscle tissues gave a single spot with the same Rf value as α – tocopherol.
    • Development and storage characteristics of dehydrated salt mince from low priced fish

      Ravindranathan Nair, P.; Gopakumar, K. (1986)
      The study showed that less initial moisture with high salt content will be the best condition for enhanced storage life of dehydrated salt mince. Between sample I (10% salt per meat weight) and sample II (15% salt per meat weight) the latter was comparatively better in colour, odour and longer shelf-life. At room temperature the dehydrated salt mince has not showed any increase in total bacterial count. It is also found that the storage life of the salt mince can be enhanced to a significant extent by lowering the moisture content to below 10% and increasing the salt content to above 30%. Peroxide value, free fatty acid value, total volatile nitrogen and trimethylamine registered gradual increase during storage at room temperature for all the three samples. Among the three samples, the sample treated with 0.1% citric acid and 0.125% butylated hydroxy anisole was comparatively better in appearance and showed less rancidity as indicated by TBA values, up to a period of 15 weeks and thereafter all the three samples were almost similar in storage characteristics. Hence, the treatment with citric acid and B.H.A. has apparently not much significance in improving shelf-life and quality of salted dehydrated fish mince.
    • Development of a fishing log for use in trawlers

      Sivadas, T.K.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayabharathi, K. (1989)
      The paper describes the technical and operational features of a composite equipment for simultaneous measurement of five important parameters, warp load, boat speed, water temperature, water salinity and air temperature pertaining to the craft, gear and the environment. The equipment is designed for continuous measurement in small and medium crafts easily without disturbance to routine fishing operations. The system operated on 9V supply, is suitable for portable operations from one vessel to another. The compact electronic meter kept in the wheel-house displays the data one by one in engineering units.
    • Development of a process for canning fresh water fish rohu (Labeo rohita)

      Balachandran, K.K.; Vijayan, P.K. (1988)
      Results of experiments conducted to work out a process for canning fresh water fish rohu (Labeo rohita) from culture sources are presented. In order to impart a proper firm texture to the meat cold blanching the skinless boneless meat in 15% brine containing 0.25% calcium chloride was found necessary. Increasing the concentration of calcium chloride beyond 0.25% resulted in impairing the quality of meat, the texture becoming more fibrous and the flavour being adversely affected. Other firming agents tried did not yield any beneficial effect. The meat so blanched yielded a good product when canned in natural style.
    • Development of a torque meter for fishing vessels

      Pillai, S.A.; Tampi, S.T. (1984)
      The paper describes the development of an electronic instrument to measure the torque developed on the propeller shaft of fishing vessels at various speeds of the propeller. By measuring the torque, it is possible to determine the actual power transmitted from the engine gear-box unit to the propeller so that propeller efficiency can be evaluated and the optimum size of the propeller for a specific engine and vessel can be determined.
    • Development of an efficient trap for lobster fishing

      Mohan Rajan, K.V.; Meenakumari, B.; Kesavan Nair, A.K. (1988)
      A modified trap was developed for fishing spiny lobsters. Experimental fishing was conducted using this trap along with traditional trap (as control) to assess the comparative efficiency. Design details and comparative efficiency of the modified trap is reported in this paper. From the analysis of variance, the difference in average catches between the modified trap and the control is found to be highly significant establishing the high efficiency of new trap.
    • Development of an electric shrimp trawl 1. Reaction of shrimps to low volt direct current

      Sreedharan Namboodiri, K. (1971)
      Preliminary attempts were made to assess the effect of direct current on shrimps and to see whether the shrimp could be guided in large numbers into the fishing net by using a current of appropriate voltage without scattering them away as it happens at present. This communication is the first in the series of studies and primarily deals with laboratory equipment and experimental procedures followed.
    • Development of canned fish curry

      Vijayan, P.K.; Balachandran, K.K. (1986)
      A process for canning sardine in two different curry media is presented. One curry medium yields a product with medium pungency while the second one has a low pungency. Sardine canned in curry medium having medium pungency developed signs of internal corrosion as well as slight bitter taste at the end of 15 months storage at ambient temperature. Similar phenomenon took place in the other product only at the end of 18 months storage. Being a ready to serve product it needs no further preparation for the table.