• Gel time studies in activation of polyester resins

      Balasubramanyan, R. (1971)
      Gelling times of polyester resins with varying quantities of catalyst and accelerator were studied and the results reported in this communication.
    • General principles of the design of trawl net

      Nair, R.S. (1969)
      The classification and the principles of design and construction of trawls in general are described. The method of calculating the length of rope required at each part for mounting the net and the requirements of floats and sinkers are given. The cutting rates to tailor machine made webbing are also indicated.
    • Gross energy requirement in fishing operations

      Boopendranath, M.R.; Shahul Hameed, M. (2013)
      Energy is a key input into the fish harvesting process. Efficient use of energy helps in reducing operational costs and environmental impact, whileincreasing profits. Energy optimisation is an important aspect of responsible fishing as enunciated in the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.Gross Energy Requirement (GER) is the sum of all non-renewable energy resources consumed in making available a product or service and is expressed in energy units per physical unit of product or service delivered. GER is a measure of intensity of non-renewable resource use and it reflects the amount of depletion of earth’s inherited store of non-renewable energy in order to create and make available a product or service. In this study, GER infish harvesting up to the point of landing is estimated in selected fish harvesting systems in the small-mechanised sectors of Indian fisheries andcompared with reported results from selected non mechanised and motorised fishing systems to reflect the situation during 1997-1998. Among the fishharvesting systems studied, GER t fish-1 ranged from 5.54 and 5.91 GJ, respectively, for wooden and steel purse seiners powered by 156 hp engines; 6.40 GJ for wooden purse seiner with 235 hp engine; 25.18 GJ for mechanised gillnet/line fishing vessel with 89 hp engines; to 31.40 and 36.97 GJ, respectively, for wooden and steel trawlers powered by 99-106 hp engines.
    • Height-depth (breadth) relationship of shells in the backwater oyster Crassostrea madrasensin (Preston) of the Cochin harbour

      Unnikrishnan Nair, N.; Balakrishnan Nair, N. (1985)
      A study of the height-depth relation in the Indian backwater oyster Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) was carried out. The plot of height against depth showed an exponential trend and a relationship of the form H = ADB. Plot of height against depth also showed larger deviations in height for oysters with greater depth. Analysis showed that variations in height do not result in corresponding variations in depth, particularly in oysters with increased height.
    • Height-length relation of shells in the Indian backwater oyster Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) of the Cochin harbour

      Unnikrishnan Nair, N.; Balakrishnan Nair, N. (1986)
      Height-length relationship in Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) showed an exponential trend and relation in the form, H=ALᴮ. Deviations of actual values from the mean values consequent to the increase in size were noticed. Height and length approximated in oysters of less than 3.5cm in height resulting in orbicular shape. In oyster of shell height 3.5cm to 8cm, increase in height is faster leading to an oval shape. Above 8cm in height, the oysters become further elongated. Height-length relation is non-linear with an index (B value) of 1.1156. A linear relationship also holds good as the B value is not very much different from unity (H=-2.5424+2.0036L).
    • High temperature processing of fish sausage 1. - An improved technique

      Raj, M.C.V.; Chandrasekhar, T.C. (1986)
      An improved technique for the preparation of fish sausage (Nemipterus japonicus) over the conventional method (90°degree C for 1 h) has been evolved by processing at a temperature of 115.6°degree C (4.5 kg) for 20 min. The overall quality characteristics of fish sausage, particularly its colour, texture and appearance remained unchanged and the product was in good condition up to 9 days at ambient temperature in contrast to the shelf life of 3 days by conventional method. The design of the equipment used for the processing of fish sausage and the method of operation are described. The keeping quality of the product from an organoleptic stand point was also studied
    • High temperature processing of fish sausage 2. - Effect of certain preservatives on the shelf life

      Raj, M.C.V.; Chandrasekhar, T.C. (1986)
      The effects of preservatives like fat coated sorbic acid (FCSA) and glucono-deltalactone (D-lactone), both separately and in combination, on the shelf life of high temperature (115.6°C for 20 min) processed fish sausage, stored at three different temperatures namely, ambient (28±2° C), cooler storage (2±2°C) and refrigerator (10±2° C) were studied. Whereas the control (without preservative), FCSA, D-lactone and FCSA + D-lactone treated samples could be stored for 9, 11 and 13 days respectively at ambient temperature, those stored at lower temperatures were found to be in acceptable condition for 70 and 80 days respectively. Organoleptic evaluation of taste, flavour the products carried out by panelists revealed that FCSA and FCSA + D-lactone treated samples were unacceptable with regard to the taste, flavour and texture. However, the taste flavour and texture of the control and D-lactone treated samples were in acceptable condition.
    • High temperature processing of fish sausage 3. - Studies on some of the storage characteristics

      Raj, M.C.V.; Chandrasekhar, T.C. (1987)
      The proximate composition of the high temperature processed fish sausage was found to be 14.56% protein, 4.65% fat, 69.14% moisture, 2.12% ash and 8.12% carbohydrate. The quality of the product during storage was assessed on the basis of the changes observed in the physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The results of the different tests such as pH, volatile base nitrogen (VBN), trimethyl amine nitrogen (TMA-N) and jelly strength are summarized and discussed. The total bacterial load increased gradually during storage but was not proportional to the initial load.
    • High temperature processing of fish sausage 4. - Heat penetration study

      Raj, M.C.V.; Chandrasekhar, T.C.; Saralaya, K.V. (1987)
      An examination was made of the rate of penetration of heat into fish sausage during processing at 115.6°C. Findings showed processing for 24 minutes to bring about complete destruction of Clostridium botulinum. A processing time of 30 minutes destroys almost all spoilage-causing organisms, thus prolonging the shelf life of the products.
    • Hydraulics for small fishing trawlers

      Mukherjee, D.B. (1976)
      Fishing vessels where electric power supply from alternator is available to operate various auxiliaries located anywhere in the vessel, the small crafts, which constitute over 95% of the total fishing crafts operating in India, are entirely dependent on one source of power, i. e. the main diesel engine. To utilize this source of motive power to operate the winches and other auxiliaries, mechanical drive involving shafts, bearings and pulleys, is inconvenient. This paper presents basic advantages of hydraulic system over mechanical drive.
    • Hydrobiological features of the Kerala backwaters during premonsoon and monsoon months

      Devassy, V.P.; Gopinathan, C.K. (1970)
      The hydrobiological features like temperature, salinity,phytoplankton, zooplankton and bottom fauna at twelve stations in the Vembanad lake during pre-monsoon and monsoon months were studied and the results communicated in this paper.
    • Hydrobiological studies of an irrigation tank with reference to the culture of large murrel, Channa marulius (Hamilton) and striped murrel Channa striatus (Bloch)

      George, J.P.; Venugopal, G.; Venkateshvaran, K.; Hingorani, H.G. (1986)
      The importance of selection of species for culture according to the ecological niches and fish food organisms is highlighted with respect to the Fox Sagar, an irrigation take. The tank was infested with submerged vegetation as well as minnows and weed fishes, which rendered the tank unsuitable for the culture of Indian major carps. The tank was stocked with 8000 fingerlings of Channa marulius and C. striatus during 1981 by the local fisherman co-operative society. Only partial harvest was possible during 1982 because of high water level. The final harvest was in April-May, 1983. The yield obtained was 3640 kg during the culture period of about 20 months.
    • Hydrographic winch

      Vijayan Unni, K. (1965)
      A winch suitable for lowering and hauling up of costly hydrographic apparatus like Bathy-thermograph, Reversible thermometers, Current flow meters etc., was designed, fabricated and tested at Off Shore Fishing Station, Cochin. The first model of this winch is in use on board the motor vessel Pratap, a Tuna Long linger.
    • Hydrography of fishing grounds of Arabian sea off Mangalore

      Maliel, M.M.; Salian, P.K.; Menon, N.R.; Shetty, H.P.C. (1980)
      Hydrographical parameters, namely temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and density of the fishing grounds off Mangalore extending over an area of ca 850 km² have been studied during March 1976 - March 1977. Twelve stations along three transects up to 50 m isobaths were located for sampling. The vertical distribution of temperature show three distinct phases, namely, a period of conspicuous variation, a short intermediary phase and a period of thermal stability. The dissolved oxygen of the bottom waters was drastically low during September. Salinity fluctuations were not considerable between months and depths. Dense waters existed over the shelf region, especially along the bottom during september and to a certain extent in october also. The distribution patterns of temperature, dissolved oxygen and density clearly indicate the movement of cold, dense, oxygen-poor- bottom waters from greater depths to the upper reaches of the shelf during September.
    • Hydrography of the Cochin harbour

      Gopalakrishna Pillai, A.G.; Ravindran, K. (1988)
      The hydrography of the Cochin harbour is studied with reference to air temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH. The analysis of the data shows unique hydrographical characteristics which are influenced by the monsoon rains. The uniqueness lies mainly in the fluctuations of salinity which registers as low as 0.6‰ during monsoon period to near sea conditions (29.4‰) during the summer period. The dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH also showed fluctuations corresponding to seasons.
    • Ice storage characteristics of fresh and brined shark fillets

      Solanki, K.K.; Venkataraman, R. (1978)
      Ice storage characteristics of fresh and brined fillets from fresh shark (Carcharias melanopterus) were studied in and out of contact with ice for more than two weeks. Changes occurring in biochemical constituents, physical qualities and bacterial counts of the fillets are reported. Shelf life of brined fillets out of contact with ice was considerably longer than that of control samples tinder similar conditions. Icing of shark fillets is suggested as a method for the removal of urea on a commercial scale.
    • Ice storage characteristics of perch with special reference to its suitability for canning

      Solanki, K.K.; Radhakrishnan, A.G.; Joseph, J.; Venkataraman, R. (1977)
      Perch (Pagrus spinifer), one of the most abundantly available fishes of Gujarat coast, was subjected to a detailed study for assessing its storage life in ice and amenability of the iced fish for canning. Changes in the salt soluble nitrogenous material and myosin content of the iced fish showed good correlation with the changes in the organoleptic and physical qualities. The fish was found to have a storage life of 9 days in ice and samples stored up to 7 days were suitable for canning.
    • Ice storage studies of Kati (Pellona sp.)

      Garg, D.K.; Stephen, J. (1982)
      Studies were carried out on the effect of ice storage on the composition of kati (Pellona sp.). On the basis of biochemical, bacteriological and organoleptic valuations, it was observed that kati can be stored in ice for a period of 9 days without appreciable loss in overall quality.
    • Iced and frozen storage characteristics of cultured Chanos chanos (Forskal)

      Joseph, J.; Perigreen, P.A.; Chinnamma, G.; Govindan, T.K. (1980)
      Freshly harvested milk fish (Chanos chanos) were stored in crushed ice and their storage life estimated by following biochemical, bacteriological and organoleptic changes occurring during storage. Samples of the fish were withdrawn at various intervals of storage, quick frozen, glazed and held in frozen storage at-l8°C. Shelf-life in frozen storage was determined in relation to period of ice storage prior to freezing by determining biochemical and organoleptic characteristics up to 30 weeks.
    • Iced and frozen storage of squid (Loligo sp)

      Joseph, J.; Varma, P.R.G.; Venkataraman, R. (1977)
      The iced and frozen storage characteristics of squid (Loligo sp.) are discussed. Squid can be kept in ice in an acceptable condition for a maximum period of 2 days. Frozen squid can be stored for a maximum period of 15 weeks at -l8°C, which can be extended up to 19 weeks by suitable treatment.