• Measurement of moisture in dry cured fish by infrared irradiation

      Rao, C.V.N.; Balachandran, K.K.; Govindan, T.K. (1967)
      Heating conditions have been standardised for measurement of moisture in dry cured fish using infrared irradiation source of 150w. Results obtained are comparable to those obtained from standard air oven method (drying to a constant weight at l02°c), the mean deviation being less than two units. The method works equally well for fresh fish muscle.
    • Mercury toxicity in two intertidal tropical marine molluscs

      Ekanath, A.E.; Menon, N.R. (1983)
      Lethal and sub-lethal effects of mercury have been studied in Perna viridis and Modiolus carvalhoi. For P. viridis LC30 is 1.0 p.p.m. at 48 h and 0.23 p.p.m. at 96 h. Recorded LC50 values for M. carvalhoi are 0.5 p.p.m. and 0.19 p.p.m. at 48 h and 96 h respectively. The results document that these two species, although inhabiting the same area in the tidal belt, exhibit clear differences in mercury resistance. It is further shown that the duration of exposure affects mortality rates. In sub-lethal concentration, between 0.01 and 0.10 p.p.m. decrease in pedal-gland activity is conspicuous in P. viridis. At concentrations much below LC50 values (at 96 h), although some animals are alive, pedal-gland activity is totally suspended, supporting the assumption that shell closure ability plays a minor role in byssus thread production. In M. carvalhoi total cessation of pedal gland activity occurred at 0.09 p.p.m. of mercury.
    • Mesh regulation in backwater prawn fishing gear

      George, V.C.; Gopalan Nayar, S.; Krishna Iyer, H. (1974)
      Size grade composition of different species of prawn caught by various back water fishing gear have been enumerated.57 to 75% of P. indicus captured was less than 10 cm in length. M. dobsoni and M. monoceros captured were less than 10 cm in length. A cod end mesh size of 20-25 mm has been recommended for stake nets for the capture of P. indicus of 10 cm length along with other species.
    • Mesh selectivity for spotted seer, Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider)

      Sreekrishna, Y.; Rao, J.S.; Dawson, P.; Mathai, T.J.; Sulochanan, P. (1972)
      An attempt has been made to evolve a suitable mesh size for the commercially significant size group of S. guttatus. To obtain maximum sustainable yield taking biological factors also into consideration, 52 mm mesh bar nets are suggested for exploiting the fishery on both the East coasts of India.
    • Methionine content of some of the important species of Indian fishes

      Gowri, V.; Vasantha, M.S.; Srinivasan, K.S.; Moorjani, M.N. (1972)
      A very little work is reported on the methionine content of Indian fishes. This work was therefore undertaken to determine the methionine content of some of the important varieties of Indian fishes.
    • Methods of sensory evaluation of quality and application of statistical methods in sensory evaluation problems with special reference to fishery products

      Krishna Iyer, H. (1972)
      The quality of raw and processed fishery products depend on several factors like physiological conditions at the time of capture, morphological differences, rigor mortis, species, rate of icing and subsequent storage conditions.Sensory evaluation is still the most reliable method for evaluation of the freshness of raw processed fishery products. Sophisticated methods like Intelectron fish tester, cell fragility technique and chemical and bacteriological methods like estimation of trimethylamine, hypoxanthine, carbonyl compounds, volatile acid and total bacterial count have no doubt been developed for accessing the spoilage in fish products.
    • Microbiological evaluation and keeping quality of fishes reared in livestock sewage fed ponds without artificial feed

      Bachhil, V.N. (1981)
      Livestock sewage has been utilized for fish culture. There is lack of information on microbiological evaluation and keeping quality of these fishes. This paper reveals the incidence, types of micro-organisms and keeping quality of fishes reared in livestock sewage fed ponds without artificial feed. These fishes revealed microbial incidence and keeping quality comparable to other fishes. Initial mesophilic and psychrophilic counts varied from 3.38 to 5.56 and 2.47 to 4.74. On an average, the counts reduced by about 40% after evisceration and washing. Whole as well as washed fishes had refrigerated (8 ± 1°C) life of not more than 4 days. The average psychrophilic and mesophilic counts of ice (0 to 1°C) stored whole fishes up to 10th day varied from 3.66 to 4.81, 4.61 to 5.24 and in eviscerated and washed fishes 2.17 to 3.69 and 2.78 to 4.41. Both remained acceptable till the 10th day. Qualitative study of surface slime and gills revealed presence of Aerobacter (Enterobacter), Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Clostridia, E. coli, Klebsiella, Micrococci, Proteus and Pseudomonas.
    • Modification to the bilge and sea water pumps fitted in 17.5 metre Jingha type trawlers

      Ranjan, A. (1974)
      This paper brings out the difficulties encountered with the Bilge and sea water circulating pumps which are fitted and drawn in series along with a fresh water pump in the 17.5 m fishing trawlers.
    • Modified water spray chumming system for pole and line fishing of tuna

      Sreedharan Namboodiri, K. (1988)
      A water spray chumming system consisting of a 65 x 50 mm centrifugal pump driven by the propulsion engine through a PTO clutch and 'V' pulley power transmission system has been developed for the pole and line fishing of tuna. Water is sprayed through pipe loop system fitted on the edge of the fishing platform of the boat through small holes. The distance of the spray length can be adjusted by controlling the flow of the pump discharge water through a wheel valve.
    • Morphological, biochemical and growth characteristics of Serratia strains isolated from sardine (Sardinella longiceps)

      Nambiar, V.N.; Surendran, P.K.; Mahadeva Iyer, K. (1974)
      Two aerobic, gram-negative asporogenous, red-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterial strains were isolated from oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps). Their morphological, biochemical and growth characteristics are reported. The pigment was identified to be a prodigiosene. The strains were found to resemble Serratia plymuthica. Effect of temperature and certain carbohydrates on pigmentation was also studied. Iron was found to inhibit pigmentation, and mannitol or sorbitol removed such inhibition.
    • Morphometric measurements as an index for estimating yield of meat in shell fishes, 2. Mussel (Perna viridis) and clam (villorita cyprinoides)

      George, C.; Unnithan, G.R.; Gopakumar, K. (1986)
      Observations (76 nos) on height-length and whole weight-meat weight relations of mussels (Perna viridis), both wild and cultured were made. From the length of mussel the height can be worked out by the equations (logarithmic scale), 1. y = 0.360+0.988 x for wild; 2. y = 0.334+1.011 x for cultured, where x is the length (cm) and y is the height (cms). So also to any height the corresponding meat weight can be obtained by the regression equation. log w=-0.8178+1.9769 log H for wild variety (1) log w=-1.3049+2.8385 log H for culture-variety (2) where w is the meat weight (g) and H is the height (cm) of the mussel. Fourteen observations on size weight measurements of dams were made. The yield varied from 8.9 to 13%. The length-height relationship worked out for clams (Villorita sp) is y=0.485+1.005 x for length x and height y.
    • Morphometric measurements as an index for estimating yield of meat of shell fishes, 1. Crab (Scylla serrata) Forskal

      George, C.; Unnithan, G.R.; Gopakumar, K. (1986)
      Sixty one observations on length-breadth and whole weight-meat weight relations of India crab (Scylla serrata) were made. From the length of crab (cm) the whole weight (gm) can be computed by the equation: log W=-0.1708+2.3341 log L. Similarly for any given length (cm) the meat weight (gm) can be found by the relation, log w=-1.5745+3.0148 log L.
    • Ni-resist iron for propellers

      Todd, B. (1968)
      Ni-Resist is the name applied to a group of alloy irons to which a sufficient amount of alloying element (mainly nickel) has been added to produce an austenitic matrix. Because of the alloy content and the austenitic matrix, Ni-Resist irons exhibit much better corrosion resistance and toughness than do ordinary cast irons.
    • Nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azotobacter sp. in aquatic sediment

      Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. (1987)
      Non-symbiotic, free living, nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azotobacter sp. was estimated in sediments of estuarine, marine, backwater and mangrove environments of Portonovo. Number of colony forming units (CFU) of Azotobacter sp. was less (5 to 27 cells/g of dry sediment). CFU of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), actinomycetes and fungi were between 4.1x10 super(6) and 4.5x10 super (7), 0.8x10 super(5) and 4.9x10 super(5), 1.1x10 super(5) and 3.8x10 super(5)/g respectively. Mangrove sediments contained more CFU of the above microbial groups.
    • Note on an abnormal catch of Catla catla in Hirakud reservoir

      Khan, A.A.; Naidu, R.M.; Narayanappa, G. (1974)
      During the 1973 experimental fishing operations in the Hirakud Reservoir, it was found that though 11 species of fish occur in the reservoir only four species (Silondia silondia, Labeo fimbriatus, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla) predominate the catch in the order of abundance.This paper gives details of fishing operations and gears utilised.
    • Note on the size groups of prawns landed by shrimp trawls of four different cod end meshes

      Satyanarayana, A.V.V. (1965)
      A study on the different size groups of prawns caught by four shrimp trawls having different cod-end meshes was made by the author. The results indicate that small sized prawns of mean length 77.15 mm were captured by the net having 23.38 mm cod-end at 5-6 fathoms depth, medium prawns of mean length 105.22 mm was caught in 25.21 mm and 19.88 mm cod-end at 8 fathoms depth and big sized prawns of mean length 117.98 mm were caught in 21.29 mm cod-end. Further the relation of length on breadth of prawn is worked out to be : Bp=0.15 Lp - 1.50 where Bp and Lp are breadth and length respectively.
    • Nucleotide degradation and production of hypoxanthine in some Indian marine and freshwater fishes

      Ramanath, S.; Velankar, N.K. (1977)
      Changes in nucleotides and production of hypoxanthine in rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cihhrina mrigala) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during storage at 2-4°C were examined. Differences were observed between common carp and others. Production of hypoxanthine in pomfret (Stromateus argenteus), cat fish (Arius macronotacanthus), shark (Scoliodon spp.), seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus), ray fish (Dasyatis imbricata) and prawns (Parapenaeopsis stylifera) was examined during storage at 2-4°C and -28°C. At 2-4°C hypoxanthine increased regularly but at -28°C there was no increase during storage over 28 weeks.
    • Nutritional evaluation of an indigenous low cost protein food

      Chungath, J.P.; Gopakumar, K.; Shenoy, A.V.; Thankamma, R. (1980)
      A study of supplementary feeding was conducted on children with a protein food (edible fish powder in the form of 'chutney') for 35 days and the effect assessed periodically. The most noticeable effect was gain in weight and mid arm circumference in children. 35% children showed a weight gain of 1 kg, 27% 0.5 kg, 21% 1.5 kg and 2.5% 2.5 kg. 48% children registered an increase in their mid-arm circumference by 0.5 cm, 16% 1 cm and 2.5% 1.5 cm. 10% children did not gain weight. However, these children had intercurrent infections like measles, whooping cough and asthma.
    • Nutritional evaluation of fish solubles

      Ammu, K.; Stephen, J.; Antony, P.D. (1986)
      This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the biochemical composition and nutritional charactersitics of fish solubles from oil sardines (Sardinella longiceps) and white tailed pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus). The nutritional quality of sardine solubles has been evaluated by feeding trials using albino rats also. The studies have shown that compared to a control group of rats whose diet had casein as the sole source of protein, a group of rats in whose diet dried sardine solubles replaced half of the casein, had a noticeably higher growth rate. This higher growth rate was not prominent in the early stages of growth (4-7 weeks). But, during later stages (7-10 weeks), solubles incorporated diet supported a distinctly higher growth rate. This effect was more pronounced in female rats (17% over the control group) compared to the male rats (4% over the control group). Fish solubles are found to be poor sources of essential amino acids. Thus, the observed increase in growth rate is higher than the rate expected from the amino acid make up. This probably supports the view expressed by workers elsewhere that fish solubles contain some unidentified growth factors.
    • Nutritional evaluation of some freshwater fishes

      Mukundan, M.K.; Radhakrishnan, A.G.; Stephen, J.; Antony, P.D. (1986)
      The proximate composition, amino acid composition and the PER values of Rohu (Labeo rohita), Mrigal (Cirrhina mrigala) and Calbasu (Labeo calbasu) are reported. The proximate composition of all the three fishes was similar. However the amino acid composition varied considerably. Protein quality index of the three fish proteins calculated from the amino acid composition are also reported. The nutritional quality of the 3 types of proteins to meet the growth requirements of infants, children and adult human beings is discussed. The possibility of substantial improvement in nutritional quality of the three fish proteins to suit the requirements of infants and children by marginal supplementation with valine/valine-rich food for rohu and valine and isoleucine/food rich in valine and isoleucine for mrigal and calbasu is also discussed. The results indicate that of the three fishes rohu is the best in protein quality followed by mrigal and calbasu. All of them have a better amino acid make up than casein to meet the amino acid requirement of adults.