• Ni-resist iron for propellers

      Todd, B. (1968)
      Ni-Resist is the name applied to a group of alloy irons to which a sufficient amount of alloying element (mainly nickel) has been added to produce an austenitic matrix. Because of the alloy content and the austenitic matrix, Ni-Resist irons exhibit much better corrosion resistance and toughness than do ordinary cast irons.
    • Nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azotobacter sp. in aquatic sediment

      Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. (1987)
      Non-symbiotic, free living, nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azotobacter sp. was estimated in sediments of estuarine, marine, backwater and mangrove environments of Portonovo. Number of colony forming units (CFU) of Azotobacter sp. was less (5 to 27 cells/g of dry sediment). CFU of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), actinomycetes and fungi were between 4.1x10 super(6) and 4.5x10 super (7), 0.8x10 super(5) and 4.9x10 super(5), 1.1x10 super(5) and 3.8x10 super(5)/g respectively. Mangrove sediments contained more CFU of the above microbial groups.
    • Note on an abnormal catch of Catla catla in Hirakud reservoir

      Khan, A.A.; Naidu, R.M.; Narayanappa, G. (1974)
      During the 1973 experimental fishing operations in the Hirakud Reservoir, it was found that though 11 species of fish occur in the reservoir only four species (Silondia silondia, Labeo fimbriatus, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla) predominate the catch in the order of abundance.This paper gives details of fishing operations and gears utilised.
    • Note on the size groups of prawns landed by shrimp trawls of four different cod end meshes

      Satyanarayana, A.V.V. (1965)
      A study on the different size groups of prawns caught by four shrimp trawls having different cod-end meshes was made by the author. The results indicate that small sized prawns of mean length 77.15 mm were captured by the net having 23.38 mm cod-end at 5-6 fathoms depth, medium prawns of mean length 105.22 mm was caught in 25.21 mm and 19.88 mm cod-end at 8 fathoms depth and big sized prawns of mean length 117.98 mm were caught in 21.29 mm cod-end. Further the relation of length on breadth of prawn is worked out to be : Bp=0.15 Lp - 1.50 where Bp and Lp are breadth and length respectively.
    • Nucleotide degradation and production of hypoxanthine in some Indian marine and freshwater fishes

      Ramanath, S.; Velankar, N.K. (1977)
      Changes in nucleotides and production of hypoxanthine in rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cihhrina mrigala) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during storage at 2-4°C were examined. Differences were observed between common carp and others. Production of hypoxanthine in pomfret (Stromateus argenteus), cat fish (Arius macronotacanthus), shark (Scoliodon spp.), seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus), ray fish (Dasyatis imbricata) and prawns (Parapenaeopsis stylifera) was examined during storage at 2-4°C and -28°C. At 2-4°C hypoxanthine increased regularly but at -28°C there was no increase during storage over 28 weeks.
    • Nutritional evaluation of an indigenous low cost protein food

      Chungath, J.P.; Gopakumar, K.; Shenoy, A.V.; Thankamma, R. (1980)
      A study of supplementary feeding was conducted on children with a protein food (edible fish powder in the form of 'chutney') for 35 days and the effect assessed periodically. The most noticeable effect was gain in weight and mid arm circumference in children. 35% children showed a weight gain of 1 kg, 27% 0.5 kg, 21% 1.5 kg and 2.5% 2.5 kg. 48% children registered an increase in their mid-arm circumference by 0.5 cm, 16% 1 cm and 2.5% 1.5 cm. 10% children did not gain weight. However, these children had intercurrent infections like measles, whooping cough and asthma.
    • Nutritional evaluation of fish solubles

      Ammu, K.; Stephen, J.; Antony, P.D. (1986)
      This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the biochemical composition and nutritional charactersitics of fish solubles from oil sardines (Sardinella longiceps) and white tailed pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus). The nutritional quality of sardine solubles has been evaluated by feeding trials using albino rats also. The studies have shown that compared to a control group of rats whose diet had casein as the sole source of protein, a group of rats in whose diet dried sardine solubles replaced half of the casein, had a noticeably higher growth rate. This higher growth rate was not prominent in the early stages of growth (4-7 weeks). But, during later stages (7-10 weeks), solubles incorporated diet supported a distinctly higher growth rate. This effect was more pronounced in female rats (17% over the control group) compared to the male rats (4% over the control group). Fish solubles are found to be poor sources of essential amino acids. Thus, the observed increase in growth rate is higher than the rate expected from the amino acid make up. This probably supports the view expressed by workers elsewhere that fish solubles contain some unidentified growth factors.
    • Nutritional evaluation of some freshwater fishes

      Mukundan, M.K.; Radhakrishnan, A.G.; Stephen, J.; Antony, P.D. (1986)
      The proximate composition, amino acid composition and the PER values of Rohu (Labeo rohita), Mrigal (Cirrhina mrigala) and Calbasu (Labeo calbasu) are reported. The proximate composition of all the three fishes was similar. However the amino acid composition varied considerably. Protein quality index of the three fish proteins calculated from the amino acid composition are also reported. The nutritional quality of the 3 types of proteins to meet the growth requirements of infants, children and adult human beings is discussed. The possibility of substantial improvement in nutritional quality of the three fish proteins to suit the requirements of infants and children by marginal supplementation with valine/valine-rich food for rohu and valine and isoleucine/food rich in valine and isoleucine for mrigal and calbasu is also discussed. The results indicate that of the three fishes rohu is the best in protein quality followed by mrigal and calbasu. All of them have a better amino acid make up than casein to meet the amino acid requirement of adults.
    • Nutritional evaluation of texturised meat from Nemipterus japonicus

      Lekshmy Nair, A.; Stephen, J.; Shenoy, A.V.; Gopakumar, K. (1988)
      Evaluation of the nutritional quality of texturised fish meat from threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) is reported. Proximate composition and amino acid analysis showed that its protein content is very high with all the essential amino acids present in higher levels than those prescribed for man in the 1973 FAO/WHO amino acid scoring pattern. Lysine amounted to 11.0 g per 16 g N of which 75 percent is biologically available. Studies on PER and NPU also corroborate the excellent nutritional quality of the texturised meat.
    • Nutritional quality of some food fish

      Mukundan, M.K.; James, M.A. (1978)
      The proximate compositions and amino acid make-up of silver jew fish (Johnius argentatus), Indian halibut (Psettodes erumei), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and pearl spot (Etroplus suratensis) are reported. Calorific values of these fishes have been calculated from their proximate compositions and their amino acid make-up compared with the available data for beef and egg. From the study, pearl spot is adjudged to be the most nutritive among the fishes studied, followed by Indian halibut, grey mullet and silver jew fish.
    • Nutritive value of the crab Podophthalmus vigil (Fabricius)

      Radhakrishnan, C.K.; Natarajan, R. (1979)
      Among the edible crabs, Podophthalmus vigil occupies a distinct position in Porto Novo coast. Though the fishery is seasonal, P. vigil supports an additional crab fishery from august to october. An attempt has been made to evaluate the nutritional status of different size groups of P. vigil. It has been observed that protein and moisture values are more in smaller crabs, corresponding with a drop in carbohydrate and fat. In bigger size groups, the values of fat and carbohydrate are found to be higher, while protein and moisture contents decreased slightly. The total meat content varies in different crabs of the same size group and the average value of the total consumable part is found to be only less than 30% of the total weight of the animal.
    • Observation on the lunar and tidal influence on gill netting in the Bay of Bengal

      Pati, S. (1981)
      The effect of lunar and tidal influence on the landing of pelagic fish with drift gill nets has been studied for the first time from Bay of Bengal along the Orissa coast. The catchability of the gear was highest during the first quarter and lowest in the fourth quarter of the moon. The variation in catch rates during the four different quarters was not statistically significant. Contrary to the earlier belief, landing with gill net was not poor during the moonlit nights. The extensive use of bluish grey nylon twine matching with seawater in place of indigenous hemp or cotton twine, has largely eliminated the visibility of gear during the brighter phase of the moon. The rate of exploitation was found to be significantly higher during the nights of neap tide, compared to those of spring tide. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon has been offered.
    • Observations on changes in the major protein nitrogen fraction of prawns and sardines during ice storage

      Devadasan, K.; Rajendranathan Nair, M. (1970)
      Changes in the major protein nitrogen fractions (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, stroma) have been studied in two species of prawns and in oil sardine held in ice storage. Myofibrillar proteins were observed to get denatured at a rapid rate as determined by salt extractability method. The sarcoplasmic proteins were not denatured to any considerable extent. With sardine however, the extraction of myofibrillar proteins was inhibited rather in the uniced condition itself presumably owing to the presence of free fatty acids.
    • Observations on the durability of fifteen species of CCA treated timber in the Cochin harbour

      Cheriyan, P.V.; Cherian, C.J. (1983)
      Observations on the durability of fifteen species of common Indian timber treated with CCA at two absorption levels, for eight years are presented. CCA treatment has improved the durability of this timber to a great extent. T. grandis, D. indicus and X. xylocarpa give maximum durability on treatment with CCA. Less durable A. kurzi, T. nudiflora and P. longifolia when treated with CCA showed results comparable to the best species.
    • Observations on the fish and prawn seed resources of the Gulf of Kutch and their utilization in aquaculture

      Gopalakrishnan, P.; Krishna Raju, V.; Madhusudhan Pillai, K.; Joshi, K.D.; Somaiya, V.J.; Devmurari, H.L. (1987)
      The characteristics of the fish and prawn seed resources of the Gulf of Kutch are described. Results of experiments conducted in a primary low saline reservoir of a solar salt works to study their utility for aquaculture are reported. The prospective role of aquaculture in augmenting fish production along the coast is also discussed.
    • Observations on the fouling characteristics of four bryozoans in Cochin harbour

      Unnikrishnan Nair, N. (1973)
      The occurrence of the four species of bryozoans under study showed that Electra crustulenta PALLAS and Victorella pavida KENT are brackish water forms, Electra bengalensis stoliczka and Schizoporella cochinensis Menon and Nair are typical marine forms. It is interesting to note the seasonal succession of these species in Cochin harbour correspond to the distribution of salinity in this area.
    • Observations on the ingression and distribution of larval prawns in the Nethravati-Gurupur estuary, Mangalore

      Bhat, B.V.; Gupta, T.R.C. (1984)
      The spatial and temporal distributions of larval prawns of penaeids and non-penaeids in the estuarine waters of Mangalore were studied. Larvae appear to be passively brought in by the incoming flood tides to the estuary, enjoy a wider distribution throughout the estuarine complex with abundance towards the mouth. The distribution of larval prawns was more in Nethravati than in the Gurupur stretch. The influence of temperature, hydrogen-ion-concentration, salinity and dissolved oxygen on the distribution of larvae in the estuaries is discussed. Inference on spawning seasons of commercially important prawns in the neighbouring waters has been arrived at based on their larval abundance.
    • Observations on the inhibitory effect of sodium chloride on molds met with in smoked fishery products

      Appuraj, V.E.; Valsan, A.P. (1966)
      Even though smoke curing is a very elegant method of preserving fish, the resultant products have only a very restricted shelf-life, unless stored under refrigerated conditions. The main source of spoilage is the early setting in of a vigorous growth of moulds. This problem is of a serious nature even in temperate climatic conditions. In full and universal recognition of the gravity of the problem, the FAO conference on herring technology held in September 1950 at Bergen in Norway has recommended the problem of "means of prevention of mould growth in smoked products" for future research study. This note records an interesting observation made at this Laboratory on the inhibitory action of sodium chloride on the development of mould in smoked fishery products.
    • Observations on the parasites and associates of wood boring molluscs and crustaceans of the south-west coast of India

      Santhakumari, V.; Balakrishnan Nair, N. (1982)
      An interesting assemblage of commensalic organisms ranging from Protozoa to Arthropoda has been identified from the wood boring animals (molluscs and crustaceans) from the south-west coast of India. Certain aspects of the general biology of the associated ciliates such as the nature of incidence, division in relation to environmental parameters, survival outside the body of the host and reactions related to the general condition of the host are described. Results are also presented of the tolerance of the rare commensalic hydroid Eutima commensalis to different salinities of the medium.
    • Observations on the wastage of raw material and recovery of meat in the prawn processing industry

      Kesavan Nair, A.K.; Srinivasa Rao, P.; Unnithan, G.R.; Kaimal, P.N.R. (1979)
      The wastage of prawns due to spoilage in processing factories accounted to about 0-12% in 1974, 0-35% in 1975, 0-3% in 1976 and 0-4% in 1977. Spoilage increases with the time lag between catching and processing and also due to defective icing. The paper discusses the counts of whole prawns required for obtaining meat of specified size grades.