• Observation on the lunar and tidal influence on gill netting in the Bay of Bengal

      Pati, S. (1981)
      The effect of lunar and tidal influence on the landing of pelagic fish with drift gill nets has been studied for the first time from Bay of Bengal along the Orissa coast. The catchability of the gear was highest during the first quarter and lowest in the fourth quarter of the moon. The variation in catch rates during the four different quarters was not statistically significant. Contrary to the earlier belief, landing with gill net was not poor during the moonlit nights. The extensive use of bluish grey nylon twine matching with seawater in place of indigenous hemp or cotton twine, has largely eliminated the visibility of gear during the brighter phase of the moon. The rate of exploitation was found to be significantly higher during the nights of neap tide, compared to those of spring tide. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon has been offered.
    • Observations on changes in the major protein nitrogen fraction of prawns and sardines during ice storage

      Devadasan, K.; Rajendranathan Nair, M. (1970)
      Changes in the major protein nitrogen fractions (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, stroma) have been studied in two species of prawns and in oil sardine held in ice storage. Myofibrillar proteins were observed to get denatured at a rapid rate as determined by salt extractability method. The sarcoplasmic proteins were not denatured to any considerable extent. With sardine however, the extraction of myofibrillar proteins was inhibited rather in the uniced condition itself presumably owing to the presence of free fatty acids.
    • Observations on the durability of fifteen species of CCA treated timber in the Cochin harbour

      Cheriyan, P.V.; Cherian, C.J. (1983)
      Observations on the durability of fifteen species of common Indian timber treated with CCA at two absorption levels, for eight years are presented. CCA treatment has improved the durability of this timber to a great extent. T. grandis, D. indicus and X. xylocarpa give maximum durability on treatment with CCA. Less durable A. kurzi, T. nudiflora and P. longifolia when treated with CCA showed results comparable to the best species.
    • Observations on the fish and prawn seed resources of the Gulf of Kutch and their utilization in aquaculture

      Gopalakrishnan, P.; Krishna Raju, V.; Madhusudhan Pillai, K.; Joshi, K.D.; Somaiya, V.J.; Devmurari, H.L. (1987)
      The characteristics of the fish and prawn seed resources of the Gulf of Kutch are described. Results of experiments conducted in a primary low saline reservoir of a solar salt works to study their utility for aquaculture are reported. The prospective role of aquaculture in augmenting fish production along the coast is also discussed.
    • Observations on the fouling characteristics of four bryozoans in Cochin harbour

      Unnikrishnan Nair, N. (1973)
      The occurrence of the four species of bryozoans under study showed that Electra crustulenta PALLAS and Victorella pavida KENT are brackish water forms, Electra bengalensis stoliczka and Schizoporella cochinensis Menon and Nair are typical marine forms. It is interesting to note the seasonal succession of these species in Cochin harbour correspond to the distribution of salinity in this area.
    • Observations on the ingression and distribution of larval prawns in the Nethravati-Gurupur estuary, Mangalore

      Bhat, B.V.; Gupta, T.R.C. (1984)
      The spatial and temporal distributions of larval prawns of penaeids and non-penaeids in the estuarine waters of Mangalore were studied. Larvae appear to be passively brought in by the incoming flood tides to the estuary, enjoy a wider distribution throughout the estuarine complex with abundance towards the mouth. The distribution of larval prawns was more in Nethravati than in the Gurupur stretch. The influence of temperature, hydrogen-ion-concentration, salinity and dissolved oxygen on the distribution of larvae in the estuaries is discussed. Inference on spawning seasons of commercially important prawns in the neighbouring waters has been arrived at based on their larval abundance.
    • Observations on the inhibitory effect of sodium chloride on molds met with in smoked fishery products

      Appuraj, V.E.; Valsan, A.P. (1966)
      Even though smoke curing is a very elegant method of preserving fish, the resultant products have only a very restricted shelf-life, unless stored under refrigerated conditions. The main source of spoilage is the early setting in of a vigorous growth of moulds. This problem is of a serious nature even in temperate climatic conditions. In full and universal recognition of the gravity of the problem, the FAO conference on herring technology held in September 1950 at Bergen in Norway has recommended the problem of "means of prevention of mould growth in smoked products" for future research study. This note records an interesting observation made at this Laboratory on the inhibitory action of sodium chloride on the development of mould in smoked fishery products.
    • Observations on the parasites and associates of wood boring molluscs and crustaceans of the south-west coast of India

      Santhakumari, V.; Balakrishnan Nair, N. (1982)
      An interesting assemblage of commensalic organisms ranging from Protozoa to Arthropoda has been identified from the wood boring animals (molluscs and crustaceans) from the south-west coast of India. Certain aspects of the general biology of the associated ciliates such as the nature of incidence, division in relation to environmental parameters, survival outside the body of the host and reactions related to the general condition of the host are described. Results are also presented of the tolerance of the rare commensalic hydroid Eutima commensalis to different salinities of the medium.
    • Observations on the wastage of raw material and recovery of meat in the prawn processing industry

      Kesavan Nair, A.K.; Srinivasa Rao, P.; Unnithan, G.R.; Kaimal, P.N.R. (1979)
      The wastage of prawns due to spoilage in processing factories accounted to about 0-12% in 1974, 0-35% in 1975, 0-3% in 1976 and 0-4% in 1977. Spoilage increases with the time lag between catching and processing and also due to defective icing. The paper discusses the counts of whole prawns required for obtaining meat of specified size grades.
    • Occurrence of a deeper red colour in prawn pulp prepared from iced-prawns

      Kandoran, M.K.; Valsan, A.P.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S. (1967)
      In commerce, great importance is given to the color of the dry prawn pulp in its quality evaluation. The possible correlation between this color factor to the iced or not iced condition of the raw prawn used, is investigated. The study reveals that as the icing period of the raw material increases the color of the finished product proportionately intensifies to a bright red compared to light brownish yellow or orange color of the product from the not iced prawn, and at the same time the other characteristics like flavor and taste deteriorates as the time of icing advances. This finding tends to show that the color factor does not reflect the true quality of prawn pulp. Based on chemical data it is suggested that "browning" due to Maillard reaction may have an important role in this color phenomena.
    • Occurrence of enterotoxigenic staphylococci in frozen fishery products

      Sanjeev, S.; Mahadeva Iyer, K.; Rao, C.C.P.; James, M.A. (1986)
      Sixty six samples of frozen fishery products consisting of frozen crab meat, frozen prawns, frozen cuttlefish and frozen mussel collected from nine cold stores situated in and around Cochin city were examined for coagulase positive staphylococci. Forty eight samples (72.72%) revealed the presence of coagulase positive staphylococci, which were then tested for enterotoxigenity, employing cellophane-over-agar method for toxin production and optimum-sensitivity-plate (OSP) method for toxin detection. Seventy seven out of one hundred and two (75.49%) coagulase positive staphylococcal isolates from the above products produced enterotoxins A, B, C, D and E either singly or in combinations. Enterotoxin A and D were detected more often than others. The occurrence of enterotoxigenic staphylococci in frozen fishery product is reported for the first time in this country.
    • Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in marine prawns and environments

      Chandra Bose, S.V.; Chandrasekaran, F. (1976)
      Qualitative studies on the microflora of slime and guts of prawns and of sea water off Nagapattinam showed the presence of Vibrio in the slime and sea water. They were further tested for Vibrio parahaemolyticus types and related bio-types. Evidence of its occurrence is given. This points to the need for further studies on the distribution of this organism in terms of public health significance.
    • Oceanographic importance of the Cochin littoral

      Balakrishnan Nair, N. (1967)
      Situated as it is on the north-western section of the Indian Ocean, the Cochin littoral has played a very significant role in the history of India. Despite being an extremely interesting region from the point of view of oceanographic studies, the Indian Ocean in general has been one of the least scientifically known regions of our planet.
    • On a rational criterion for assigning batch number to processed products of shrimps

      Banerji, S.K. (1964)
      Investigations were conducted to find the variability of processed shrimps with respect to two quality characteristics, namely, the numbers of deteriorated and discoloured pieces. Samples were collected for three days from two arbitrarily selected processing factories from Cochin at the pre-freezing stages. Results show that both the quality characteristics vary significantly between different size-grades, but while the variation in the number of deteriorated pieces between days is not significant, the variation in the number of discoloured pieces between days is significant.
    • On certain allometric relations of the spiny lobster Panulirus polyphagus (Herbst)

      Mathai, T.J.; Kesavan Nair, A.K. (1979)
      Certain allometric relations of the spiny lobster Panulirus polyphagus are derived. While the relation between tail length and tail weight is made for both the sexes together, separate relations are derived for the sexes in the case of tail length versus total length. For conservation and economic purposes, it appears that the undersized ones are to be released alive.
    • On control of drained weights in some fishery products

      Krishna Rao, K. (1972)
      Canned and frozen prawns are subjected to compulsory pre-shipment inspection, during which compliance of the products with their declared drained weights is verified. The materials used in the processing of these products being biological in origin, the drained weights are susceptible to variation due to a number of factors. Since determination of the drained weights involves destructive and time consuming procedures, application of control chart for drained weights on the processing line is not possible. The present study has shown that gross weights of the products are significantly correlated with their drained weights and since the determination of the former does not have the disadvantages of determination of the latter, the drained weights can be controlled through the application of control chart for the gross weights.
    • On further improvement of the techinque of evaluating summer institutes

      Krishna Iyer, H.; Kaul, P.N. (1986)
      Data from an earlier study are reanalyzed to improve upon the evaluation measures of summer institutes. The Summer Institute Efficiency Index is improved by using weighted geometric mean using different ranks as weights for the several dimensions. The coverage utility index is improved by taking the ratings given by all the participants.
    • On statistical comparison of efficiencies of fishing gear

      Kesavan Nair, A.K. (1986)
      The distribution of fish caught by experimental gill nets has been found to be in the Poisson or Negative binomial form. Using this information, application of Chi-square test as suggested by Mood et al. (1974) has been illustrated, for comparing the efficiencies of gill nets. This test provides an alternative to Anova F-test especially in the context of significance of non-additivity for the two-way model. Based on the present work and the findings by Nair (1982) and Nair & Alagaraja (1982, 1984) an outline approach for statistical comparison of the efficiencies of fishing gear is presented.
    • On sun-drying of Bombay duck

      Prabhu, P.V. (1972)
      Sun-drying of Bombay duck by hanging on scaffolds gave better products than those obtained by drying them in trays. Optimum rate of drying and quality of dried product were obtained when the fish were suspended at the rate of 50 to 60 per meter length of the rope. The quality of the raw material as affected by the delays in different hauls in the fishing trip was reflected in the dried products also.
    • On the arrival time, waiting time to unload, unloading time and waiting time for departure for purse seiners at Mangalore landing centre

      Udupa, K.S.; Rao, B.V.N.; Reddy, T.N.V. (1986)
      Fifty four purse-seine boats at Mangalore landing centre were observed during different stages of unloading fish catch. It was found that a boat takes 75% of the berthing time to unload an average quantity of 2.4 tons of fish. Further, unloading period and catch were found to be directly related where it was estimated that 5 to 7 minutes are spent in unloading about half a ton of fish to a nearby tempo by employing 9 ± 2 laborers.