• Packaging and storage studies of dried lizard fish

      Antony, K.P.; Govindan, T.K. (1983)
      Packaging and storage studies of salted and dried lizard fish (Saurida sp.) have been conducted using different synthetic films like low density polyethylene (LDPE) of different gauges, high density polyethylene (HDPE) of 200 gauge, polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) coated 400 MXXT cellophane, 100 gauge polypropylene (PP) and paper laminate of 100 gauge polythene. The films found most effective in the preliminary studies were subsequently used for packaging and storage of dried fish at atmospheric and lower temperature and humidity conditions for confirming their suitability under these conditions. Polyethylene films of higher gauges showed better results under both sets of conditions. PVDC coated cellophane film also performed satisfactorily under the latter conditions which under the former condition got easily attacked by insects. Lower temperature and humidity conditions in general enhanced the storage life of the dried product.
    • Panulirus versicolor (Latrielle), a new record from the central Andhra coast (Bay of Bengal)

      Satyanarayana, A.V.V. (1987)
      Details are given of the finding of Panulirus versicolor from the central Andhra coast of India for the first time, including also a brief description of the specimen, which was found in 1983.
    • Parallel twin-body trawl for shrimps, its design and efficiency

      Panicker, P.A.; Sivan, T.M.; Kartha, K.N.; Gopalan Nayar, S. (1978)
      Comparative studies with a new 17 m parallel twin-body trawl and a 17 m bulged belly trawl conducted off Cochin during 1974-77 are reported. The parallel twin body trawl showed an increase of 28% in catch over that of bulged belly with a break up of 39.9% and 23.1 % for prawns and fishes respectively. The increase in catch is attributed to the extra wide mouth opening (26.6 %) of the parallel twin-body trawl. Parallel twin-body trawl had 8.96% lesser resistance which resulted in lower utilization of horse power.
    • Pawn [i.e. prawn] fishery in Gujarat location of new prawn grounds off Veraval

      Gujarat. Department of Fisheries. Survey and Research Division (1965)
      Details about the three departmental vessels, Gulf shrimp, Indian Salmon and Silver Pomfret and gear in the exploratory fishing off Veraval coast are reported. Potential prawn fishing grounds have been located by their operation in section 20-70, 21-69 and 22-69 in the cruises conducted in October, 1962. Observation regarding suitability of gear and composition of catch are given. The possibility of better prawn grounds occurring in areas deeper than the present grounds is indicated.
    • Pearl culture and pearl oyster cultivation

      Tranter, D.J. (1967)
      Few marine animals have yet been tamed and harnessed for man's use. Of these the bivalves have the greatest potential, and of the bivalves the pearl oysters are perhaps the most thoroughly exploited. Not only are they eaten and their shell put to use, but their nacre secreting properties are tapped to produce pearls by design, rather than by accident as in nature.
    • Penetration of sodium chloride during prolonged salting of fish

      Narayanaswamy, D.; Narasimha Rao, C.V.; Govindan, T.K. (1980)
      This work deals with adsorption of salt and expulsion of moisture in Synagris japonicus, Sciaenids sp. and Lactarius lactarius during prolonged salting. The fish used in this study were procured fresh and handled immediately. They were gutted, gilled, cleaned well and salted. Results indicated that larger salt proportions and higher temperature of salting both accelerate the rates of absorption of salt and shedding of moisture by fish muscle during salt curing.
    • Performance of 25m large mesh demersal trawl off Veraval, north west coast of India

      Kunjipalu, K.K.; Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R. (1989)
      Performance of a 25m large mesh demersal trawl, with 150mm mesh size in the fore parts of the trawl was evaluated in comparison with one boat high opening trawl of the Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP) with 360 meshes of 160mm mesh size and 25.6m head rope length. An 8.2% increase in catch was obtained by 25m large mesh demersal trawl. The gear is comparatively cheaper, lighter in construction and offered better horizontal spread with significantly lower towing resistance. Commercial suitability of the gear for efficient harvesting of demersal fish resources of the region is discussed.
    • Pesticide induced physiological and behavioural changes in an estuarine teleost Therapon jarbua (Forsk)

      Lingaraja, T.; Venugopalan, V.K. (1978)
      Static bioassays were conducted with pesticides like PP'-DDT, Dimethoate (Rogor) and Carbaryl (Sevin) to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC sub(50)) on an estuarine teleost Therapon jarbua (Forsk). The respiration rates of fishes exposed to pesticides, as well as those of controls were determined. Respiration abnormalitieswere noticed in treated fishes. The metabolic rates are generally higher in treated fishes than in the controls. The behaviour of fishes exposed to LC sub(25) (96h) concentrations of pesticides is discussed. Estuarine fishes appear to be more sensitive and susceptible to pesticides than fresh water fishes. The pesticides affect the locomotory and swimming behaviour of fishes. Loss in weight of fishes exposed to LC sub(50) (96 h) concentration of pesticides was also estimated. The present report gives a comprehensive account of the toxic nature of these pesticides to fishes.
    • Pesticide residues in marine fishes

      Radhakrishnan, A.G.; Antony, P.D. (1989)
      Pesticide residues in four marine fishes, black pomfret (Parastromateus niger), mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), marine vala (Chirocentrus sp.) and tuna (Euthynnus affinis) are reported. Highest concentration is found in black pomfret followed by tuna, vala and mackerel. The contents of various pesticides present in fish under study are well below the action level prepared by FDA to cause any health hazard.
    • Phosphate treatment of frozen prawns. Pt 2. Frozen storage characteristics of prawn meat treated with polyphosphates

      Mathen, C. (1970)
      This communication reports the changes in physical, organoleptic and biochemical characteristics of prawn meat dip-treated with alkaline and neutral solutions of polyphosphates during frozen storage. Results are presented on changes in thawed and cooked yields, water extractable nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, free amino-nitrogen, salt solubility, myosin and moisture in the muscle and loss of soluble nitrogenous constituents in thaw drip during frozen storage up to seven months. The salt solubility remained unchanged during storage in samples treated with neutral polyphosphate solutions and the organoleptic quality was superior to control sample. It is concluded that dip treatment with neutralized solutions of tripolyphosphate not only maintains correct drained weight and improves cooked yield during prolonged frozen storage but also protects the frozen product from denaturation as measured by the salt solubility of the proteins.
    • Phosphate treatment of frozen prawns. Pt. 1. Screening of various phosphates for prevention of drip loss

      Mathen, C. (1968)
      Various phosphates and their mixtures were screened for their efficiency of preventing drip loss in frozen prawns. The effectiveness of the phosphates decreased in the following order: Sodium tripolyphosphate — Sodium pyrophosphate — Sodium hexametaphosphate Sodium metaphosphate — Sodium dihydrogen phosphate; the last two being ineffective. Even though thaw drip loss was reduced by the above treatments the organoleptic quality of the thawed as well as cooked products was unsatisfactory, discoloration being the major defect. A solution of a mixture of 12% sodium tripolyphosphate and 8.6% sodium dihydrogen phosphate or 2% citric acid in water when used as dip prevented thaw drip loss, improved cooked yield and organoleptic quality without adversely affecting the biochemical characteristics. Commercial scale trials showed that the results are highly reproducible.
    • Phospholipids of five Indian food fishes

      Gopakumar, K.; Rajendranathan Nair, M. (1971)
      The phospholipids of five Indian food fishes (sardine, pomfret, mackerel, anchovies and thrissocles) were fractionated quantitatively using column and thin layer chromatographic techniques and the results reported in this communication.
    • Photosynthetic bacteria in the marine environment at Porto-Novo

      Dhevendaran, K. (1984)
      Sediment and water samples were collected from mangrove and estuarine biotopes at fortnightly intervals. The physico-chemical characters of the overlying water were studied. In the mangrove biotope maximum temperature (31.5°C) and in the estuarine biotope maximum salinity (35.6‰) were recorded during the summer season, whereas in post-monsoon period the sulphate content was increased to 516 p.p.m. and the pH was reduced to 7.4. Invariably both in the enriched sediment and water samples four major peaks (at wavelengths 460, 705, 772 and 850 nm) and two minor peaks (at wavelengths 580 and 663 nm) of absorption spectra were noticed. A pure culture of Chromatium sp., isolated from mangroves sediment, showed three peaks of absorption spectra at wavelengths, 500, 580 and 850 nm. The effect of sodium chloride on the growth of Chromatium sp., was also studied and it was observed that maximum growth occurred in the range 1-3% sodium chloride concentration. This isolate was also capable of utilizing various sulphur and carbon compounds. Glycerol and glucose did not show any specific effect whereas pyruvate, malate and acetate increased the growth.
    • Physics in fish processing technology

      Rao, C.V.N. (1971)
      To design, develop and put into operation an equipment either to increase the productivity or to improve the existing technique to obtain a better quality of the product, the fishery engineer/scientist should have a comprehensive knowledge of fundamental principles involved in the process. Many a technique in fish processing technology, whether it applies to freezing, dehydration or canning, involves always a type of heat transfer, which is dependent to a certain extent on the external physical parameters like temperature. humidity, pressure, air flow etc. and also on the thermodynamic properties of fish muscle in the temperature ranges encountered. Similarly informations on other physical values like dielectric constant and dielectric loss in the design of quick trawlers and in quality assessment of frozen/iced fish, refractive index and viscosity in the measurement of the saturation and polymerisation of fish oils and shear strength in the judgement of textural qualities of cooked fish are also equally important.
    • Pickle curing of fish using tartaric acid and garlic as preservatives

      Devadasan, K.; Muraleedharan, V.; Joseph, K.G. (1975)
      Tartaric acid and garlic have proved highly satisfactory as pickling agents when used in combination, giving fishery products of good appearance, texture, taste and shelf life. Full details of the pickling method are given.
    • Pickle from blood clam (Anadara granosa) meat

      Gupta, S.S.; Basu, S. (1985)
      A pickle was prepared from blood clam (Anadara granosa) meat. The pickle was subjected to biochemical, bacteriological and organoleptic tests at different stages of storage. The pickle has a shelf-life of more than 5½ months at ambient temperature.
    • Pickled products from green mussel

      Muraleedharan, V.; Joseph, K.G.; Devadasan, K. (1982)
      Methods of preparing different types of delicious ready to serve pickled products from green mussel (Perna viridis) and a comparative study of their storage characteristics are reported. Of the three types of products, namely, dried and pickled, fried and pickled and light smoked and pickled, the last one had the best shelf life. The optimum conditions of drying and smoking for preparing such type of pickles are also reported.
    • Pilot plant for production of fish ensilage and the economics of production

      Chakraborty, P.K.; James, M.A. (1976)
      This communication describes the design aspect and functions of individual pieces of equipment of a pilot plant for the production of fish ensilage based on lactic acid fermentation process. Details about the equipment, process flow sheet and equipment layout of the pilot plant have been given. An attempt has been made to prepare an estimate of the cost of production of liquid ensilage and solid feed mix.
    • Portable electronic warp load meter

      Sivadas, T.K. (1978)
      A portable type warp load meter has been developed for the use in fishing trawlers. The instrument enables to monitor the warp load in fishing trawlers accurately and easily without disturbing the routine fishing operations. The instrument can be used in several other places like cranes, bollard tests for marine engines, dry docks etc. especially when the operation has to be conducted easily without disturbing the load system. The information displayed in micro ammeter in the range 0 to 1000 kg can be fed to continuous recorders for detailed analysis and permanent records.
    • Prawn fishing by M.F.V. Jheenga in Bombay waters

      Tagore, P. (1965)
      The design and construction of the motor fishing vessel Jheenga of the Deep Sea Fishing Station of the Government of India, Bombay, the areas covered and the gear used by her in 1959-63 are described. The prawn catches in relation to the total catches, and their catch rates in different months in area 18-72 in Bombay region which was fished continuously during the five years period have been studied with a view to ascertaining their seasonal abundance. The results indicate the availability of the prawns in the region for the major part of the year from March to October-November. High catches with high catch rates forming high percentage of their abundance in total catches are obtained in July to October.