• Quality characteristics of cured fish of commerce

      Kalaimani, N.; Gopakumar, K.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S. (1988)
      A survey was conducted at the fish curing yards at Shakthikulangara (Quilon), fish market at Vizhinjam, fish curing yards, fish market as well as dry fish godowns in and around Tuticorin. A total of 23 samples of different varieties of fishes collected from the markets and curing yards and 8 samples of anchovies collected from different godowns at Tuticorin were analysed to evaluate the quality and extent of fungal and insect infestation. Samples were analysed for proximate composition and estimated their water activity. About 70% of the 23 samples of different varieties of fish were found to be unfit for consumption and 12.5% of the samples of anchovies were found to be infested with beetle, after 3 weeks of storage after collection from these centres.
    • Quality control in the Indian fish processing industry

      Mathen, C. (1974)
      Quality control is defined as the continuing assessment of a current operation. It is usually the responsibility of an individual or a department directly responsible to the management. In the case of fish and fishery products, quality control includes all the steps taken to protect the quality of the material since catch until it reaches the consumer.
    • Quality deterioration in tilapia during storage in refrigerated brine

      Obanu, Z.A.; Ajayi, F.O. (1985)
      During storage of Tilapia nilotica in refrigerated brine at 4°C, the whole (ungutted) fish had higher levels of free fatty acid and spoiled faster than the gutted fish. The shelf life of whole fish was 16 days and that of gutted 28 days; these values are, at least, as good as those reported for ice storage. Flavour of the cooked fish appeared to be the quahty-hm1tmg factor reducing the shelf-life of gutted tilapia to 28 days even though the raw gutted fish was judged acceptable, after 31 days retaining 65-70% freshness.
    • Quality loss in prawns due to double freezing

      Chinnamma, G. (1973)
      Icing is the practice for preserving prawns on board fishing boats in India. Majority of these boats need to preserve the catch only for a few hours because of the short duration of the fishing trip. However, with the anticipated introduction of a considerable number of bigger fishing vessels which can remain in the fishing ground for longer periods, more than fortnight, preservation methods, other than icing are required to retain prime quality. Freezing and cold storage of whole prawns on board followed by thawing and processing on land is a possible proposition. The extent of quality loss in prawns during these operations is one of the important points to be considered. Hence, laboratory scale studies were undertaken on double freezing of prawns and the results are dealt within this communication.
    • Quality of certain ready-to-eat fish products of the domestic trade

      Gopalakrishna Iyer, T.S.; Varma, P.R.G.; Rao, C.C.P.; Joseph, K.G.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S. (1986)
      Quality of 181 samples of ready-to-eat fish products comprising fried fish, fish curry and fish/prawn pickles collected from Cochin and Calicut were studied. Salmonella was absent in all the samples. V. cholerae was tested in the samples collected at Cochin and was absent in all the cases. Coliforms, E. coli, faecal streptococci and coagulase-positive staphylococci were present in some of the samples studied. The study indicated the necessity to improve the sanitary and hygienic conditions of the hotels engaged in the preparation of these products. The study further indicated that fried fish and fish curry shall not be served after 6 hours of their preparation. Added care is to be exercised in the selection of shrimps and fish for the preparation of pickles.
    • Quality of commercial frozen boiled clam meat

      Varma, P.R.G.; Iyer, T.S.G.; Mathen, C. (1988)
      The bacterial quality and sand content of commercial frozen boiled clam meat are discussed. In general the commercial frozen boiled clam meat belonging to the Villorita cyprinoides sp. collected from Cochin are highly contaminated with faecal indicator and pathogenic organisms than that belonging to the Katelysia opima sp. collected from Quilon. The studies also show that the bacterial quality of frozen boiled clam meat can be improved by enforcing better hygienic and sanitary practices.
    • Quality of cured fish from Tamil Nadu coast

      Joseph, K.G.; Muraleedharan, V.; Kalaimani, N.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S. (1986)
      Results of studies of chemical, bacteriological and organoleptic quality of cured fish collected from four major curing centres along the Tamil Nadu coast are reported. Only 32.43% of the samples had moisture level below 35%, 0.9% had salt 25% and above. None of the samples showed acid insoluble ash below 1.5%. The main defects were unhygienic processing, inadequate salting, use of poor quality salt and incomplete drying. Recommendations for improvement of quality are given.
    • Quality of cured fish from the Maharashtra coast

      Joseph, K.G.; Muraleedharan, V.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.; Kalaimani, N. (1988)
      Chemical, bacteriological and organoleptic characteristics of sun dried/dry salted fish collected from five major centres of coastal Maharastra [sic] are reported. Wide variations are seen in the quality of the different samples. In dry salted products, moisture ranged from 16.17 to 46.58%; salt from 5.18 to 22.75%; acid insoluble ash from 1.0 to 6.8%. In sun dried samples moisture varied from 16.15 to 39.51% and acid insoluble ash from 0.42 to 2.82%. The sun dried samples, though no salt was used in the process, showed fairly good amount of salt.
    • Quality of cured fish on the west coast: comparative study with the IS specifications

      Muraleedharan, V.; Unnithan, G.R.; Joseph, K.G.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S. (1989)
      Moisture and salt content in cured fish products from various centres on the west coast of India are compared. The moisture contents varied in samples from different centres, whereas the salt content remained more or less uniform. The deviations from the Indian standard specification were highly significant in both cases. The high mean moisture values and low salt values with respect to accepted standards are indicative of the improper drying and poor salting.
    • Quality of cured fishery products from Malabar and Kanara coasts

      Joseph, K.G.; Muraleedharan, V.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S. (1983)
      Results of chemical, bacteriological and organoleptic quality studies of cured fishery products of commerce collected from six major fish curing centres on the west coast of India are presented. 77.12% of the samples had moisture above 35%, 97.18% showed salt content below 25% and all samples had acid insoluble ash above 1.5%. 42.32% gave standard plate counts above 10,000 and 45.77% were contaminated with 'Red' halophiles. The major defects in curing were imperfect cleaning, inadequate salting and unhygienic conditions of processing.
    • Quality of dry fish from markets in Andhra Pradesh

      Basu, S.; Khasim, D.I.; Gupta, S.S.; Panduranga Rao, C.C. (1989)
      Dry fish samples were procured from different fish markets and subjected to biochemical and bacteriological evaluation for assessing quality. The quality of market samples was compared with the samples dried in laboratory and in the mechanical drier [sic]. Most of the market samples had high moisture and sand contents. TVN values of market samples were high showing poor quality of the finished product.
    • Quality of fish in retail markets of Bombay

      Gopalakrishna Iyer, T.S.; Damle, S.P.; Garg, D.K.; Nambiar, V.N.; Vasu, N.M. (1986)
      Study carried out on the quality of fresh fish in retail markets of Bombay revealed that only 75% of the samples were of acceptable quality. Incidence of faecal streptococci was generally high, indicating poor sanitary and hygienic practices in handling of fresh fish. Total bacterial counts higher than Indian standard specified limits were observed in more than one third of the samples analysed. 7.5% of the samples were found to be contaminated either with Salmonella or Clostridium perfringens, thus posing a serious potential health hazard to the consumer. The quality of fish in different markets is also discussed. The urgent need for formulation and implementation of quality standards for fresh fish in domestic trade is highlighted.
    • Quality of fish preparation served in catering establishments of Bombay

      Damle, S.P.; Garg, D.K.; Nambiar, V.N.; Vasu, N.M. (1986)
      The results of the study carried out on the quality of fish preparations served in catering establishments of Bombay revealed that there is no serious potential health hazard to the consumer. Pathogens like Salmonella and Clostridium per were found to be absent. Based on organoleptic, biochemical and bacteriological parameters the quality of fish curry was better than that of fish fry. Overall quality of samples from grade I establishments was better in comparison with grade II and III. However, a few samples of poor quality were also observed in grade I. Extraneous matter like hair and dead housefly were observed in a few samples from grade III indicating poor handling practices. The importance of good hygiene and sanitary practices in catering establishments is discussed.
    • Quality of fishmeal processed from sun-dried fish in a commercial fishmeal dryer

      Ramananda Rao, D.; Kamasastri, P.V. (1971)
      The physical and chemical compositions of the raw materials received and the composition and nutritive values of the finished products in a commercial size fish meal plant employing the dry rendering process were studied and reported in this paper.
    • Quality tolerances for water for use in fish processing

      Thomas, F.; Mathen, C. (1973)
      A survey on the sources and quality of water used in prawn processing factories has revealed much non-uniformity in the chemical quality. An attempt has been made to study the effect of varying concentrations of chemical constituents in the water used for prawn freezing and its influence on the quality of the prawn after freezing and during cold storage. The results of the study are reported in this communication, together with recommendations on the quality tolerances for water used in fish processing industry.
    • Quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacterial flora of fresh sardines

      Karthiayani, T.C.; Mahadeva Iyer, K. (1967)
      Plate counts at R T and 8 C on the skin with muscle and the gut contents of absolutely fresh sardines (Sardinella longiceps) caught off Cochin showed a seasonal variation when sampling was done over a period of 12 months. The counts of the gut contents ran parallel with those of the skin with muscle, but at a higher level of magnitude. Qualitatively, the analysis of 360 strains of bacteria isolated from the skin with muscle and 100 strains from the guts during a year's study revealed a very high preponderance of Gram negative rods, mainly of Achromobacter, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas groups. The percentage of Gram positive organism was very low or nil at times in the ocean fresh sardines.
    • Rapapport's broth, a better enrichment medium in the identification of Salmonella from processed frog legs

      Rajagopalan, D.; Despande, C.K.; Joshi, L. (1985)
      Live clams (Villorita cyprinoides) collected from their natural beds were packed in different ways like dry pack, tray pack, in oxygenated water (wet pack) and depurated samples in wet pack. It was found that the packaging in l kg lots in 200 gauge polythene bags with oxygen at a temperature of 20°C could keep them live for 4 days. In tray pack without oxygen and water they can be kept alive for 3 days at 20°C. Temperature seems to be the critical factor in the transportation of live clams. At room temperature both dry and wet pack can be kept for 24 h only. Depuration technique does not appear to be useful in prolonging the storage life of clams in live condition as percentage mortality is more at 48 h both at 20°C and room temperature compared to the non-depurated samples.
    • Rate of filtration by Perna viridis pre-exposed to heavy metals

      Prabhudeva, K.N.; Menon, N.R. (1985)
      Perna viridis exposed to different concentrations of copper and zinc for varying periods and then the rate of filtration estimated under metal free culture conditions. The concentrations under which the animals were maintained before the experiments were 0.025 to 0.150 p.p.m. of zinc and 0.005 to 0.08 p.p.m. of copper.
    • Rational exploitation of Catla catla (Ham) from Hirakud reservoir: a preliminary account

      George, V.C.; Khan, A.A.; Varghese, M.D. (1979)
      Frame nets and simple gill nets of identical mesh size were experimented to determine their comparative efficiency for exploiting economic size group of Catla catla. The results indicated that frame nets of 90 mm mesh bar as the most effective.
    • Raw material supply to shrimp freezing plants: some significant aspects

      Krishna Rao, K.; Lakshmanan, P.T.; Agarwal, A.; Chakraborty, R. (1986)
      The shrimp processing plants located at any particular place receive their raw material supplies from local and outside centres. The raw material received, the form in which it was received, the relative contribution by local and outside centres and the seasonal variation in the supplies were studied with respect to the shrimp processing plants located at three places - Cochin, Veraval and Kakinada.