• Salinity and survival of Martesia striata (Linn) in Cochin harbour

      Cheriyan, P.V.; Cherian, C.J. (1980)
      The effects of salinity variations on the survival of Martesia striata from Cochin harbour are presented. It is observed that at least a few of the animals survive the low saline conditions during monsoon. Laboratory experiments showed the lethal salinity as 6‰ when animals acclimatised in 34‰ were subjected to abrupt changes in salinity. But acclimatisation to 17‰ salinity showed a downward shift in the lethal salinity to 4‰. The present observations indicate that M. striata is euryhaline arid the extent of tolerance to lower salinities depends on the degree of acclimatisation.
    • Salt tolerance of bacteria isolated from tropical marine fish and prawn

      Surendran, P.K.; Mahadeva Iyer, K.; Gopakumar, K. (1983)
      Salt tolerance of selected cultures of Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Vibrio, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter and Flavobacteria/ Cytophaga was determined. More than 80% of the cultures belonging to each of the above genera, were capable of growth in presence of 1.5 to 3.5% salt (NaCl) and at least 25 to 30% of the cultures in each group required 1.5 to 3.5% salt for growth. 40% each of Pseudomonas and Vibrio strains and 30% each of Moraxella, Micrococcus and Flavobacteria/Cytophaga strains tolerated 10% salt. Majority of the cultures belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Moraxella, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter and Flavobacteria/Cytophaga were slightly halophilic (2 to 5% salt tolerant), about 25% especially of Micrococcus spp. moderately halophilic (5 to 20% salt tolerant) and none from Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Moraxella, Acinetobacter and Flavobacteria/Cytophaga spp. extremely halophilic (20 to 32% salt tolerant).
    • Sampling of frozen prawns for bacteriological estimation

      Krishna Iyer, H.; Kaimal, P.N.R.; Pillai, V.K. (1964)
      Experiments were conducted to study the significance of difference between samples taken from the surface and interior of a frozen shrimps block, as well as to determine the size of sample necessary to represent the whole block, with respect to bacterial count determination. The results showed that the surface samples and interior samples did not differ significantly at 5% level of significance and that the minimum quantity representative of the block was 21-26 gms in the case of a block weighing about 1300 gms. The procedure adopted for taking the bacterial count was the normal standard plate count method.
    • Sampling plans for pre-packed fish and fish products

      Krishna Iyer, H.; Unnithan, G.R. (1984)
      An outline is given of a sampling plan for prepacked fish products based on the net weight of the container, which may be used to make the inspection of fish and fish products easier and more effective.
    • Scantlings for small wooden fishing vessels

      Rajendran, R.; Roy Choudhury, R.L. (1969)
      Studies are carried out to find a suitable basis of specifying scantlings for wooden fishing vessels for India, especially for the range 30' to 50' length overall. Equations of the type y=a (where 'y' is scantling in inches, N is cubic numeral in ft³ and 'a', 'b' are constants) are fitted to the scantling tables (applicable to vessels 50’ and above) available from USA, Newfoundland, Denmark, France and Scotland and they are found to represent the regulations accurately. These lines are corrected for standard frame and beam spacing and molded/sided dimensions to bring them on a common basis for comparison and minimum scantling lines for the main structural members are derived. These lines are extended to cover the range 30' to 50' which is generally outside the range of the above regulations.
    • Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of liver in Garra mullya (Sykes)

      Somvanshi, V.S. (1979)
      Seasonal changes taking place in the biochemical constituents of liver of G. mullya are reported. An inverse relationship was noticed in the variation of fat and water. Maximum fat contents were observed during june-july. Reserve fat was utilized through gluconeogenesis during the spawning months. Protein and glycogen percentages were comparatively higher in liver than in the muscles and gonads. Decline in the glycogen content was associated with spawning during July to November. Nutritive values have shown more energy contents in the liver during pre-spawning months.
    • Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of ovary in Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)

      Shreni, K.D. (1981)
      Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of ovary in H. fossilis are reported. An inverse relationship was noted in fat and water contents. Maximum fat was observed in June and lowest in December. Protein and ash were generally low during winter and high during summer or monsoon months. Variations in the cholesterol content were more or less identical to those of the fat.
    • Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of pomfret - 2. Silver Pomfret (Pampus argenteus)

      Solanki, K.K.; Kandoran, M.K.; Venkataraman, R. (1976)
      Seasonal variation in the proximate composition of different body regions of Pampus argenteus is reported. The fat content of the fish is high during winter whereas during summer the fish becomes lean. A comparison of average values of proximate composition and energy values of silver pomfret and black pomfret (Parastromateus niger) is given.
    • Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of pomfrets. Pt. 1. Black pomfret (Parastromateus niger)

      Venkataraman, R.; Solanki, K.K.; Kandoran, M.K. (1968)
      Seasonal variations in proximate composition of the different parts such as head, middle, tail and skin of black pomfret (Parastromateus niger) are reported over three years on monthly basis. The lean and fatty conditions of fish are discussed on the basis of spawning period, food and feeding activity, size group appearance and the gonadal maturity of the pomfret.
    • Seasonal variations in the total cholesterol content of the liver of cat fish Heteropnuestes fossilis (Bloch)

      Shreni, K.D.; Jafri, A.K. (1977)
      Variations in the total liver cholesterol content of Heteropnuestes fossilis followed well defined seasonal cycle. A decline was recorded during the period when the gonads were passing through the peak ripe stage. The highest value of the cholesterol was however attained before this phase of gonad maturation. Concentration pattern of liver cholesterol seemed related to variations in the cholesterol metabolism of the fish, necessitated, besides other factors, by the demand for sex hormones. A possibility of the influence of feeding intensity on liver cholesterol content has also been indicated.
    • Seasonal variations of bacterial flora of fresh oil sardines (Sardinella longiceps)

      Karthiayani, T.C.; Mahadeva Iyer, K. (1971)
      An elaborate study was made on the qualitative and quantitative seasonal variations in the bacterial flora of fresh oil sardines and their biochemical reactions. It was observed that the total bacterial loads and their phosphorescent and biochemical characters were influenced by changes in seasons. During monsoon season total bacterial count was high. Mesophiles predominated during summer, but phosphorescent bacteria were less. Winter favoured the selection of biochemically less active groups of bacteria.
    • Selection of bacterial flora in the Chlortetracycline treated oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and prawn (Metapenaeus dobsoni) during ice storage

      Surendran, P.K.; Gopakumar, K. (1981)
      The native flora of oil sardine and mackerel consisting of Pseudomonas spp; Moraxella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and Vibrio spp. underwent significant changes during ice storage. At the time of spoilage, Pseudomonas spp. were predominant. CTC treatment significantly reduced the Pseudomonas spp. in the initial stages of storage; but later Pseudomonas spp. reasserted and constituted the bulk of the spoilage flora. In prawn, the native flora was comprised of Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Moraxella spp. and Vibrio spp. At the time of spoilage a heterogeneous flora, consisting of Pseudomonas spp; Moraxella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. predominated. CTC treatment significantly changed the flora of prawns. During spoilage, Pseudomonas predominated in CTC treated prawns.
    • Selection of materials for marine instruments

      Gopalakrishna Pillai, A.G.; Ravindran, K. (1989)
      The paper describes the selection of materials for the reliable operation of oceanographic instruments. For selecting the material, raft immersion tests were carried out for one year. Results of the tests are presented. Comparisons between metals were discussed.
    • Selection of suitable diluents for bacteriological examination of fishery products

      Thampuran, N.; Krishna Iyer, H.; Mahadeva Iyer, K. (1985)
      For raw, iced and frozen samples of fish and prawn, significant difference was observed in total plate counts done with various diluents, the significance level ranging from 5% to 0.1%. For raw fish, N-saline, seawater and quarter strength Ringers' solution gave maximum total plate counts. In the case of iced-fish, n-saline yielded highest total plate counts. For frozen samples, however, peptone water and n-saline gave good recoveries. Trials with suitable combinations of diluents showed that though some of them were as good as the control, namely n-saline, none were superior in any way.
    • Selective release of fatty acids during lipid hydrolysis in frozen-stored milk fish (Chanos chanos)

      Nair, P.G.V.; Gopakumar, K. (1985)
      Lipid hydrolysis and the nature of fatty acids lost as a result of lipid hydrolysis in milk fish (Chanos chanos) during frozen storage at -20°C is discussed in this paper. There was a preferential loss of saturated acids during the first three weeks of storage. This was followed by loss of polyunsaturated acids during the next seven weeks. Sharp decrease in the levels of monounsaturated acids was observed from the 10th week of frozen storage. These observations are due to the preferential hydrolysis of phospholipids with relatively high proportion of saturated acids during the first three weeks, followed by the hydrolysis of phospholipids with high proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the 3rd to the 10th week, and finally, predominant hydrolysis of neutral lipids from the 10th week onwards. Storage of fish in the ice prior to freezing was found to accelerate lipid hydrolysis, especially that of neutral lipids, during frozen storage.
    • Selectivity of gill nets for Hilsa toli and Pampus argentus

      Panicker, P.A.; Sivan, T.M.; Mhalathkar, H.N.; Mathai, P.G. (1978)
      Fishing conducted off Saurashtra coast during 1971-74 with 27 units of nylon gill nets using 210/2/3, 210/3/3 and 210/4/3 twines with 51, 57 and 63 mm bar mesh and 0.70, 0 60 and 0.50 hanging coefficients have helped in standardizing an optimum gear for exploitation of commercial size group of Hilsa toli and Pampus argenteus. Gill nets of 210/2/3 with 51 mm bar mesh and 0.60 hanging coefficient for Hilsa toli and 210/2/3 with 63 mm bar and 0.60 hanging coefficient for Pampus argenteus are recommended for the commercial exploitation of these two species of fishes.
    • Selectivity of gill nets for Scomberomorus commersoni

      Sulochanan, P.; Sadanandan, K.A.; Mathai, T.J.; Syed Abbas, M. (1975)
      Selectivity of gill nets for S. commersoni was studied with nets made of 4 different mesh sizes fabricated with 4 different specifications of nylon twines. Fishing operations were conducted off Cochin through the fishing seasons 1968-72. The commercially significant size group of S. commersoni was found to fall in the length range of 850-950 mm. The optimum mesh size required for the capture of this group of S. commersoni was estimated as 76 mm. bar in nylon twine 210/12/3. The relationship between the twine size and mesh size was alsoworked out.
    • Sequential analysis for testing quality standard of fish ham and sausage

      Udupa, K.S.; Kulkarni, G.K. (1972)
      Fish sausages are finely ground fish flesh, either of a single species or mixed, homogenised with starch, sugar, fat, spices and preservatives, generally filled in cylindrical synthetic or natural casings and pasteurised. Similar products containing small pieces of quality fish and lard are termed "fish ham". They are highly relished products in Japan, annual consumption exceeding 2 lakh tones. Preliminary studies have shown that they can catch a lucrative market in our country. However, being a pasteurised product which is often consumed as such without any further cooking, strict quality control measures have to be enforced so as to avoid food poisoning hazards. Besides physical characteristics like absence of damages, pin-holes, curliness and air pockets as well as jelly strength, texture and flavour, chemical characteristics like pH and acid values, moisture, carbohydrate and fat contents and volatile bases have to be assessed. A very important test that has to be carried out along with the above, before passing a lot for free distribution is the bacteriological examination to avoid the presence of pathogenic organisms.
    • Serological studies on oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta)

      Dhulkhed, M.H.; Nagesh, C.N. (1976)
      An antiserum was raised in a rabbit against 0 panel red cells of mackerel. The erythrocytes of oil sardine and mackerel were tested against human blood typing sera anti A and B and also the test serum of rabbit which revealed the presence of antigens A and B. In addition, an antigen common to both the fishes and human A, B and 0 panel red cells was noted but not identifiable. The blood group B did not manifest itself clearly either in oil sardine or mackerel. The blood groups A, AB and 0 indicated the existence of genetically different groups of oil sardine and mackerel. Isoagglutinin tests revealed the presence of a reciprocal relationship with antigens A and B in both these fishes.
    • Settlement characteristics of Crassostrea madrasensis in the Cochin backwaters

      Unnikrishnan Nair, N.; Balakrishnan Nair, N. (1985)
      Settlement pattern of Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) at five different habitats in and around Cochin Harbour is reported. The settlement pattern is found to be considerably influenced by the distribution of salinity at the various locations. Peak settlement occurred when salinity ranged between 22.4‰ to 33‰.