• Technical terms in fishing gear materials and gear fabrication

      Eapen, P.K. (1964)
      Papers dealing with technical terms in fisheries science are few. This paper however, covers only one or two aspects of the subject, namely fishing gear materials and fishing gear fabrication. Similar papers on other aspects are also planned. Short explanations or descriptions are also given wherever considered necessary.
    • Technological aspects of preservation and processing of edible shell fish 2. Influence of season on the chemical composition of crab (Scylla serrata)

      Chinnamma, G.; Arul James, M. (1971)
      The purpose of this communication is to bring out the influence of season on the chemical composition of crab, covering a period of 2 years. Changes in moisture, protein, water extractable nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, glycogen, lactic acid, fat and free amino acid composition of crab meat have been reported on a monthly basis.
    • Technological aspects of preservation and processing of edible shell fishes III. Factors influencing the keeping quality of crab (Scylla serrata) during freezing and frozen storage

      Chinnamma, G. (1973)
      The possible factors leading to the loss of flavour and general quality of crab during freezing and frozen storage have been studied. The preprocess ice storage condition of the raw material was found to be one such important factor while the fresh frozen crab meat remained in good organoleptic condition for about 51 weeks at -23°C, the 7 days iced material held frozen was found to have a shelf life of about 21 weeks. The fall in myofibrillar protein noted during frozen storage together with the loss of myosin ATPase activity correlated well with the loss of organoleptic qualities.
    • Technological aspects of preservation and processing of edible shell fishes IV. Comparative efficiency of different glazes in the preservation of frozen crab meat

      Chinnamma, G. (1973)
      The present work was undertaken to enlighten upon the comparative efficiency of different glazes in improving the quality of frozen crab meat (Scylla Serrata).
    • Technological aspects of preservation and processing of edible shell fishes V. Cold storage changes in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and clams (Villortia [i.e. Villorita] sp.)

      Chinnamma, G. (1973)
      The changes in chemical, bacteriological and organoleptic qualities of mussels and clams during freezing and subsequent frozen storage have been studied in relation to the holding time in ice prior to freezing and the shelf-life of the product is determined.
    • Technological aspects of processing of edible mussels, clams and crabs. Pt. 1. Spoilage during ice storage

      Chinnamma, P.L.; Chaudhuri, D.R.; Pillai, V.K. (1970)
      Rate and pattern of spoilage of some of the economically important edible species of shell fishes Mytilus edulis (Mussel), Villorita cornucopia (Clam), Neptunus pelagicus (Crab) and Scylla serrata (Crab) have been discussed in this communication. Chemical indices used for objective evaluation of quality were water extractable nitrogen (WEN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), free α-amino nitrogen (α - NH2 -N), glycogen, lactic acid and inorganic phosphorus in addition to the subjective tests. No significant difference in the spoilage pattern of the species during ice storage was observed and these species could be preserved in ice in organoleptic acceptable condition up to 8 days, 9 days, 8 days and 11 days respectively.
    • Temporal behaviour of marine landing in Karnataka 2. Seasonal patterns

      Gadagkar, S.R.; Sundararaj, N. (1985)
      Seasonal patterns of 21 fisheries in Karnataka (after isolation from time-series components) are presented. Depending on the pattern of seasonal fluctuation in landings, 19 fisheries have been grouped into five patterns, A, B, C, D and E. Ribbon fishes and 'other clupeids' did not exhibit any significant seasonal pattern. Pattern A with highest landings in the 4th quarter (October to December), followed by the 1, 2 and 3 quarters, is the most common in 10 species/groups (comprising 78% of the total landings). Harmonic analysis has been carried out using the seasonal indices.
    • Temporal behaviour of marine landings along coastal Karnataka 1. Relative distribution and secular trends

      Gadagkar, S.R.; Sundararaj, N. (1985)
      Landing data of 21 fisheries from Karnataka (quarterly landings for the period 1956 to 1978 and annual landings for the period 1979 to 1981) were analysed to study the te111poral behaviour of the landings. The relative distribution and secular trends in each of the fisheries are reported. On an average, mackerel and oil sardine together account for about 70% of the annual landings. The fluctuation in the landings in all the fisheries was very high with the coefficient of variation attaining a minimum value of 61.53%. The inverse relationship between the landings of oil sardine and mackerel was found to be statistically significant. It is suggested that fishing effort be further increased in fisheries that have demonstrated a rising trend (about 73% of the total annual landings) as also in the case of the fisheries whose trends appear stagnant (about 21% of the annual landings). However, there seems to be some evidence of a need for regulating fishing in Hemirhamphus and Belone, Caranx and penaeid prawns. Regulations need to be made authentic with the help of sufficient information on not merely the fishery but on the whole population.
    • Temporal behaviour of marine landings along coastal Karnataka 3. Cyclical patterns

      Gadagkar, S.R.; Sundararaj, N. (1986)
      Marine landing data for Karnataka during 1956-1978 were subjected to time series analysis and cyclical periodicities isolated in the case of seven fisheries namely, ribbon fish (five year cycle); Caranx spp., Leiognathus spp, and mackerel (six year cycle each); the combined landings of Hemirhamphus spp. and Belone spp.,'Lesser Sardines' and 'Other Clupeids' (seven year cycle each). 'Total' demonstrated an eight-year cyclical periodicity.
    • Tensile strength properties of polyethylene netting twines under exposure to out-door and artificial UV radiation

      Meenakumari, B.; Ravindran, K. (1985)
      Photodegradation of three types of polyethylene twines namely, polyethylene fibrillated tape twine, polyethylene flat tape twine and polyethylene monofilament twines were studied by exposing them to sunlight and artificial UV radiation. The percentage residual strength varied in the samples, the monofilament with the highest residual strength followed by fibrillated tape twine and flat tape twine. A plot of the difference between the breaking strengths of the fibrillated tape twine and the mono filament twines against any given period of exposure exhibited a linear relationship
    • Texturised meat from low cost fish

      Shenoy, A.V.; Thankamma, R.; Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K. (1988)
      A comparative study of the suitability of five species of fish, namely, threadfin bream (Nemipterous [sic] japonicus), cat fish (Tachysurus fella), ribbon fish (Trichiurus spp.), barracuda (Sphyraena jello) and jew fish (Pseudosciaena spp.) for the production of texturised meat has indicated that all these species are good source for the purpose. Protein content of the final product from all the species was higher than that prescribed for FPC type A. The product had excellent rehydration capacity and firm and elastic texture. No significant difference was observed in the rehydration capacity of the texturised meat from all the species studied. Salt concentration was found to influence the texture and salt content of 1.5 to 2% was found to result in the desirable firm and elastic texture. Rehydration capacity was not influenced to any significant extent by the salt content.
    • The bacterial flora and their possible association with spoilage in a variety of fresh-water fish: Cyprinus carpio. var. communis

      Sen, R.; Pal, R.N.; Gopalakrishnan, V. (1966)
      The bacteria from a variety of fresh-water fish, Cyprinus carpio. var. communis, showed the presence of micrococci, Gram positive and Gram negative rods. These have been characterized as far as was possible. Of thirty-eight strains of bacteria used, only six strains were considered as causing spoilage of fish flesh in experiments where flesh was incubated with individual cultures of the bacteria. These six strains had been found on the surface and/or intestine of the fish and support the suggestions that, after death, invasion of flesh by bacteria from the surface and intestine could be the cause of bacterial spoilage of fish.
    • The bacteriology of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) caught from tropical waters off Cochin. 1 - Quantitative aspects

      Surendran, P.K.; Gopakumar, K. (1982)
      The total aerobic viable plate counts (TPCs) of skin, gills and intestine of newly caught oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and Indian mackerel ( Rastrelliger kanagurta) at four different temperatures, namely 36 ± 1°C, 28 ± 2°C (RT), 8 ± 1°C and 1 ±1°C, are reported. The total plate count at RT of the skin of oil sardine and Indian mackerel were in the range of l0 super(3) to 10 super(7) and 10 super(4) to 10 super(6) per cm², that of gills in the range of 10 super(5) to 10 super(9) and 10 super(4) to 10 super(8) per g and that intestine in the range of 10 super(5) to 10 sueper(9) and 10 super(5) to 10 super(8) per g respectively. The TPCs were markedly affected by the incubation temperature. Incubation at 28 ± 2°C gave the highest count; at 36 ± 1°C and 8 ± 1°C, the counts decreased by nearly 1-2 log cycles from that at RT. Incubation at 1 ± 1°C registered the lowest count. The peak values for bacterial counts of these fishes occurred at different periods of the year.
    • The bacteriology of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from tropical waters off Cochin. 2. Qualitative aspects

      Surendran, P.K.; Gopakumar, K. (1983)
      80% of the flora of skin, gills and intestines of oil sardine and mackerel at isolation temperature 28 ± 2°C consisted of Gram negative asporogenous rods or cocci, belonging to the genera Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Acinetobacter and Flavobacteria/Cytophaga. Nearly 10% of the flora was constituted by Gram positives, Micrococcus and Arthrobacter. Incubation temperature of 36 ± 1°C recovered more Vibrio spp. and Gram positives, while at lower temperatures of 8 ± 1°C and 1 ± 1°C, more Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Moraxella spp. were recovered. Significant changes with respect to season were observed in the relative distribution of different genera.
    • The Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Ernakulam

      Society of Fisheries Technologists, India (1964)
      In appreciation of the pressing need for coordinated research in various aspects of fishery technology and for the overall development of fisheries industries in India, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture had decided to set up the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology. The Institute was established in 1957 at Cochin (Ernakulam).The research work at the Institute including its sub-stations and units is carried out in two wings: Craft and Gear Wing and Processing Wing. The third unit, the Extension Information and Statistics Wing, renders a service by functioning as a liaison between the research laboratories and the industry.
    • The design and construction of flat rectangular otter boards for bottom trawling: a review

      Mukundan, M. (1970)
      The design and construction of the otter board is a subject of great importance for economy in trawling. This review incorporates a historical resume tracing the change and development• of otter boards. The size of the otter board and its relationship with the horse power of the engine and size of the net and the methods of rigging are dealt with. The factors influencing the horizontal spread are discussed. The effect of the angles of attack, heel and tilt and the ground reaction on the force coefficients have been reviewed and discussed with particular reference to flat rectangular otter boards used for bottom trawling. A short account of other designs of otter boards used for improved efficiency is given. Suggestion for improving the efficacy of otter boards based on the work hitherto done has been made. The contributions relating to the various aspects of design and performance of trawl boards carried out till 1969 have been considered.
    • The development of the freezing and export of prawns in India

      Society of Fisheries Technologists, India (1964)
      The paper deals with an overview on the preservation of fish by freezing process. Until a few years ago the surplus catches of fish, prawns were being dried, salted or pickled. The Kerala coast had always yielded large catches of prawns and about 5000 tons of dried prawns were annually exported to Burma and other Eastern countries. The Government of India looking at the great potential of this industry, has now, with a view to encourage exports, provided a series of incentives towards this end.
    • The effect of increase in the number of fishing trips on the economic efficiency of 9.82 m and 11 m fishing trawlers along Kerala coast

      Krishna Iyer, H.; Unnithan, G.R.; Rao, P.S.; Rao, C.C.P.; Nair, R.G. (1983)
      Cost-benefit analysis of a 9.82 m and 11 m fishing trawlers based on the number of fishing trips is presented. The number of fishing trips per year determines the profit and loss of the trawler. With the increase in the number of fishing trips, the profit also increase for both the sizes of trawlers. The minimum quantity of prawn and fish to be landed for 0-20% profit for varying number of fishing trips are worked out. The break-even for 9.82 and 11m trawlers was observed to be 185 and 210 fishing trips respectively during 1980-81.
    • The effect of mesh size on the fishing efficiency of sardine gill nets

      Joseph, K.M.; Sebastian, A.V. (1964)
      The study deals with the effect of mesh size on the fishing power of gill nets. The authors have shown that there can be substantial difference in the out puts of sardine gill nets, of identical design and rigging, but of different mesh sizes, operated under the same conditions.
    • The effect of salinity on some endocommensalic ciliates from shipworms

      Santhakumari, V. (1985)
      The ciliates, Nucleocorbula adherens, Boveria teredinidi, Trichodina balakrishnia, Thingmozoon fencheli and Nyctothereus marina, live inside the mantle cavity of the shipworms in the estuaries and backwaters of the south-west coast of India. Seasonal incidence and relative abundance of these ciliates showed that they were more abundant during the low saline than the high saline periods. Even though these ciliates can endure higher salinities through gradual acclimatization of their habitat it was found that they prefer low salinity for active growth and healthy existence.