• Underwater warp tension meter

      Sivadas, T.K. (1970)
      A self-contained electronic solid-state instrument capable of measuring the tension between the different parts of a trawl net in operation, has been designed and developed for the measurement in the range 0 to 300 kg with an accuracy of ± 2 kg. The instrument is useful for measuring the resistance to motion of various accessories of a trawl net. It consists of an inductive type underwater tension transducer and an electronic indicating meter kept on board the vessel, both the units being connected by electric cable.
    • Use of antibiotics in the preservation of prawn

      Surendran, P.K.; Mahadeva Iyer, K. (1971)
      Effect of incorporating chlorotetracycline (CTC) in ice up to 5 ppm level on the keeping quality of prawns has been studied. A shelf life extension by nearly six days is obtained for the CTC-iced sample over the control. The headless prawns absorbed greater amounts of CTC than whole prawns during storage in CTC-ice. Traces of the antibiotic are found in the muscle of the CTC-iced prawns even after cooking for one hour. The cause of destruction of CTC when used for prawn preservation is discussed.
    • Use of aspirator for aeration in fish culture

      Das, S.R.; Chatterjee, J.G.; Nath, D.; Hazra, A. (1988)
      A description is given of the use of an aspirator in fish culture and hatchery water management in order to solve the problem of dissolved oxygen depletion. Trials show that a single aspirator can be used efficiently when using 1,000 litres of water for bioassays, breeding experiments, or hatchery management work with continuous flow or recirculating systems.
    • Use of different glazes in frozen oil sardines

      Mathen, C.; Choudhuri, D.R.; Pillai, V.K. (1966)
      This paper reports on the relationship between the seasonal variations in the oil content of the Indian oil sardines (Sardinella longiceps) and their frozen storage life at -l8°C and on the use of various chemicals and coating materials to extent their storage life. It is observed that there is an inverse relationship between the oil content and the frozen storage life- oil content varying from 10.33 to 42.43% (MFB) and storage life from 2 to 5 months. Extension of storage life is achieved by dipping in hydroquinone solution prior to freezing or by coating with agar after freezing. Data on changes in peroxide value, free fatty acids, moisture, drip and organoleptic characteristics during frozen storage are presented.
    • Use of linear low density polythene film for frozen fish packaging

      Srinivasa Gopal, T.K.; Joseph, J.; Govindan, T.K. (1987)
      Physical properties of linear low density polythene film of 60 gauge thickness and its suitability as packaging material in frozen fish industry was studied in comparison with conventional 100 gauge low density polythene film. Both were comparable in water vapor transmission rate both at 38°C and -20°C, overall migration test and :flexibility at low temperatures. ·Even though the tearing strength was inferior to the conventional one, it is of no significance in its use in frozen fish industry. The new film worked out to be more economical than the other one.
    • Use of simple fat analysis for evaluating quality changes in intermediate moisture fish stored at tropical temperature

      Obanu, Z.A. (1987)
      Changes in the quality of intermediate moisture (IM) fish during storage at 38°C were monitored by assessing the moisture content, pH, acid value, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value periodically. Results adequately portrayed the hydrolysis and peroxidation of fats and the concomitant protein degradation and crosslinking reactions that have been shown by more sophisticated methods to occur in intermediate moisture fish. Since these changes markedly affect the organoleptic quality, acceptability/shelf-life and nutritive value of IM flesh-foods their predictability by simple fat analytical techniques is of practical value where/when the more sophisticated monitoring techniques are not feasible.
    • Utilisation of squid waste as meal

      Joseph, J.; Prabhu, P.V.; Madhavan, P. (1987)
      The squid waste which includes head, tentacles, viscera, fin, skin and pen amounts to 52% of the whole weight and is discarded at present. A method has been worked out for the conversion of squ.id waste into meal. The waste is boiled in salt solution (2%)/salt (2%) and alumn (0.5%) solution/and water for two minutes, drained and dried. All the dried samples including the control (dried without blanching) were analysed for physical and biochemical changes. Blanching reduced the yield but the product could be dried in a shorter period. The volatile bases were reduced significantly and the colour was improved. Blanching made pulverisation of the dried product easy. Pulverisation before drying yielded a granular product.
    • Utilisation of trash fish. Pt. 1. Preparation of fish flake

      Venugopalan, V.; Govindan, T.K. (1967)
      The paper deals with the investigations carried out on the preparation of odorless fish-starch flakes using partially deodorized trash fish meat and different sources of starch like corn, tapioca, maida and black gram. It has been found that the products using corn and tapioca are better compared to those prepared using other two starches, the product from corn being the best. The product has a protein content of about 20% and has been found to have a storage life of 4 months at 37°c.
    • Utilisation of trash fish. Pt. 2. Studies on preparation of fish soup mix

      Venugopalan, V.; James, M.A. (1969)
      The paper deals with the investigations carried out on the preparation of fish soup mix using partially deodorized trash fish meat. The product contained about 25% protein and had a storage life of 4 months at ambient temperature (28-31°C).
    • Utilization of frog waste

      Lekshmy Nair, A.; Prabhu, P.V. (1980)
      Commercial frog waste samples have been converted into meals by cooking at 0.7 kg/sq. cm for 30 min, draining off the stick water and drying the press cake either in the sun, tunnel dryer under controlled conditions or hot air oven. Yield of the meal varied between 18.6 to 21.5% of the fresh frog waste. Chemical analyses of the meals have shown that the meals prepared from frog waste conform to standards prescribed for fish meal and livestock feed and can therefore be used for supplementation of poultry/animal feed.
    • Utilization of prawn waste: isolation of chitin and its conversion to chitosan

      Madhavan, P.; Ramachandran Nair, K.G. (1974)
      process is described for the preparation of chitosan from prawn waste. The process involves extraction of protein using 0.5% sodium hydroxide solution, bleaching the protein free mass with bleach liquor containing 0.3-0.5% available chlorine followed by demineralisation with 1.25 N hydrochloric acid in the cold and deacetylation using 1:1 (w/w) sodium hydroxide solution at 100°C for 2 hours.
    • Utilization of sardines

      Madhavan, P.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S. (1973)
      Oil sardine Sardinella longiceps stands out as the single largest pelagic fishery in India contributing to about 30% of total marine fish landings. Commensurate with the volume of the fishery, efforts at proper utilization of the fish by processing into canned and frozen products or by distributing in fresh state to internal consuming centres by quick transport have remained rather very poor. The paper presents the problems and prospects with regard to the utilization of the fish on the above lines. Results of investigations made at C.I.F.T. on the utilization of sardine body oil into industrially useful products such as factice, vehicle for paints, additive in lubricating oil and base for printing ink have also been discussed.
    • Utilization of the fish waste self-brine of fish curing industry as farm fertilizer

      Valsan, A.P.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S. (1976)
      Large quantities of self-brine accumulating in curing tanks during the process of commercial fish salting is mostly wasted at present. This liquor exuded from the fish during the process of salting contains considerable amounts of soluble proteins and minerals. Due to the presence of organic matter the self-brine quickly putrefies causing nauseating smell. This renders the whole surroundings insanitary and often leads to health hazards to neighboring localities. Any economic method of utilising this waste brine and converting it into some useful product will be a tangible help to the fish curing industry. Hence, a method is given for converting this waste self-brine into a cheap and efficient fertilizer.
    • Utilization of trash fish for human consumption. 3: Studies on the development of fish pickle from Nemipterus japonicus

      Chandrashekar, T.C.; Rudrasetty, T.M.; Lakshman Reddy, P.T.; Aswathnarayana, C. (1978)
      A method for the preparation of fish pickles from a lean variety of fish namely pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) is described. Dipping the fish in 10% sodium chloride solution containing 6% acetic acid before pickling, was found desirable for retaining the meaty texture of the product. The product has no fish smell or flavour and has a shelf life of more than six months at ambient temperatures and scored very well in organoleptic tests.
    • Utilization of treated wood, steel, fibreglass, ferrocement and aluminium in the construction of modern fishing boats and their comparative cost analysis

      Balasubramanyan, R. (1973)
      Modern fishing boats have to be built not only on perfect lines but also with sound and strong construction materials that will ensure a long lasting trouble free service commensurate with the heavy capital investment involved. Choice of construction materials for fishing boats need careful scrutiny as they have to perform too well under most aggressive environments-sea-water and marine atmosphere. A number of alternative boat-building materials are now available whose comparative merits and demerits as well as comparative costs are brought out in this paper.
    • Vertical distribution of marine wood boring and fouling organisms from the estuarine areas of the south west coast of India

      Santhakumari, V.; Balakrishnan Nair, N. (1984)
      Vertical distribution of marine wood boring and fouling organisms from three different estuarine areas namely, the Ernakulam channel in the Cochin backwaters, Ayiramthengu in the Kayamkulam Lake and Neendakara in the Asthamudi Lake during the post-monsoon, the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods is presented. The boring organisms noticed during the present study were Martesia striata, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi and Sphaeroma terebrans. The dominant fouling organisms were Balanus amphitrite amphitrite, calcareous worms and Modiolus sp. Algae and diatoms were very common on the sub-tidal panels during the monsoon. The incidence of Teredo, Nausitora and calcareous tube worms were significantly high on the bottom panels. Sphaeroma, Balanus and Modiolus occurred in greater numbers on the intertidal panels.
    • Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the seafood industry

      Natarajan, R.; Abraham, M.; Balakrish Nair, G. (1980)
      The role of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in food borne gastroenteritis outbreaks associated primarily with the consumption of contaminated seafoods has been well documented. Information pertaining to various aspects of its occurrence in seafoods, procedures for isolation and identification, generation time and inactivation profiles is discussed. Emphasis has been given to the response of V. parahaemolyticus to low temperatures, heating and antibacterial agents. The public health hazard posed by the pathogen is outlined and the guidelines for control are reviewed in detail.
    • Waste minimisation in fishing operations

      Boopendranath, M.R. (2012-07)
      Sources of wastes in fishing operations mainlyinclude bycatch discards; processing wastes wherecatch is processed onboard; plastic wastes due toabandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear; bilgesand other wastes from the vessel operations. Fishingsystems in general have an associated catch of nontargetedorganisms known as bycatch. Non-selectivefishing gear that is not modified or equipped toexclude non-targeted organisms, may take a significantquantity of bycatch of non-targeted finfish,juvenile fish, benthic animals, marine mammals,marine birds and vulnerable or endangered speciesthat are often discarded. Average annual globaldiscards, has been estimated to be 7.3 million t,based on a weighted discard rate of 8%, during1992-2001 period. Trawl fisheries for shrimp anddemersal finfish account for over 50% of the totalestimated global discards. Plastic materials areextensively used in fisheries, owing to their durabilityand other desirable properties, contributing tothe efficiency and catchability of the fishing gear.However, plastics biodegrade at an extremely slowrate compared to other organic materials. Abandoned,lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear(ALDFG) and related marine debris have beenrecognized as a critical problem in the marineenvironment and for living marine resources.Prevention of excess fishing capacity by appropriatemanagement measures could lead to enormoussavings in terms of fuel consumption, emissions andbycatch discards from the excess fishing fleet, capitaland operational investments and labour deploymentin capture fisheries, with significant economic gains.In this paper, wastes originating from fishingoperations are reviewed, along with their environmentalimpacts and possible mitigation measures
    • Water imbibition and thawing losses from frozen prawn meat

      Mathen, C.; Thomas, F. (1987)
      Prawn meat which was never in contact with ice or water prior to freezing was frozen at -30°C and was studied up to six months of storage at -23°C for thawing losses and cooked characteristics of the thawed material. Thawing loss was nil in unwashed samples after three days of storage and it gradually increased to 6.6% after 6 months compared to 6.0 and 18.2% in the washed samples during the same periods. It is inferred that the high thawing losses observed in commercial frozen prawn meat immediately after freezing may be mainly an after effect of the water imbibed during the pre-freezing stages. During frozen storage, the changes in texture observed by sensory methods on the cooked product were more in the washed sample indicating that the imbibed water or constituents washed out of the tissue play an important role in textural changes in prawn meat during frozen storage.
    • Water soluble nitrogenous component from squilla (Orato squilla nepa)

      Lekshmy Nair, A.; Prabhu, P.V. (1982)
      A water soluble hygroscopic powder has been isolated from squilla in good yield, ranging from 3.5 to 5.0% of the fresh raw material, by a simple direct method. The process consists of homogenising squilla with an equal quantity of water, removal of chitinous matter from the slurry by filtration, heating the filtrate at 0.7 kg/sq.cm steam pressure for 15-20 minutes, removal of the precipitated protein by filtration and concentration and final drying in vacuum of the filtered cooled liquor. The pale brown powder so obtained consists mainly of peptones and proteoses and has been found to be comparable to BDH peptone for growth of bacteria, ability to serve as source for tryptophan for indole production and to provide substrate for the production of hydrogen sulphide. Comparative studies have been made on similar water soluble fractions from two species of prawns, namely, Metapenaeus affinis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera.