• A pilot plant for fish protein concentrate

      Chakraborty, P.K. (1976)
      This communication deals with the design aspect and functions of individual pieces of equipment of a pilot plant of fifty kg capacity for the production of fish protein concentrate (FPC) per day. Design is based on a solvent extraction process of wet pressed cake with an azeotropic mixture of hexane and ethyl alcohol. A flow sheet for the process and equipment layout has been indicated.
    • A pilot scale set up for the manufacture of fish hydrolysate

      Chakraborty, P.K.; Madhavan, P. (1977)
      This paper describes a set up for a pilot plant with a capacity of 50 kg raw material per batch for the production of fish hydrolysate by enzymatic hydrolysis. Process flow sheet and complete specifications and functions of individual equipment have been described. Multifunctional equipment designed for this pilot plant set up has reduced the number of equipment considerably.
    • A preliminary account and review of the simple methods for determining the operational parameters of fishing gear, underwater, with notes on its application

      Pradhan, M.J. (1965)
      An account and review of the simple methods for determining the operational parameters of fishing gear, underwater, such a tilt of otter boards (outwards or inwards, forwards or afterwards), vertical height of net, its horizontal spread, angle of divergence at bosom, spread between wing tips, angle of inclination of danlenos, butterfly, slope of legs and sweep-line has been given. The relationship of distance between the otter boards spread and the vertical height of net has been obtained as generally linear. The possibilities of regulating the vertical height of net (dependent variate) and spread of otter boards (independent variate) for increasing the fishing efficiency has been discussed. The angle of attack of oval shaped otter boards used during the operations still remain undetermined, however, it has been explained how the best angle of attack for increasing the efficiency of gear can be obtained by regulating the ratio of depth to warp for a given net.The inadequacy of the mere indices of catch per hour of trawling in comparing the relative efficiency of trawls in gear research studies has been indicated. The importance of estimating the operational parameters and its application to commercial fisheries depending upon the distribution pattern of fish and in gear research has been discussed. The efficiency of the jelly bottle method has been compared statistically with the observations made on the trawl gear underwater with instruments.
    • A proforma for assessment of the levels of sanitation in fish processing establishments

      Gopalakrishna Iyer, T.S.; Kandoran, M.K. (1971)
      Over the past 15 years of its development, the fish processing industry in India has shown considerable improvement in maintenance of hygiene during handling of the raw material, processing and marketing of the finished product. This is best manifested in the lowering of upper limits of bacterial loads in factory environs and in processed products (Pillai, 1971). More care and attention is given by the processors in recent years in the scientific cleaning and sanitizing of utensils and equipment, chlorination of water supplies and personnel hygiene. An example of sanitation score form is given to help scientists and technologists to evaluate the hygienic status of the processing units.
    • A programme to carry out analysis of variance: two-way classification on Micro 2200

      Kesavan Nair, A.K. (1983)
      A brief description is given of a program to carry out analysis of variance two-way classification on MICRO 2200, for use in fishery data processing.
    • A quantitative study of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Sakazaki et al) in Etroplus suratensis (Bloch) and Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers) from Cochin backwater

      Pradeep, R.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. (1986)
      Seasonal variation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in fish (Etroplus sauratensis) and prawn (Metapenaeus dobsoni) was monitored from March 1982 to February 1983. Analyses of total viable count, vibrio-like organisms, V. parahaemolyticus like organisms and V. parahaemolyticus showed that they occur more in prawn than in fish. In a more polluted environment, the counts of V. parahaemolyticus associated with fish were found to be higher than in prawn.
    • A rapid procedure for the approximation of bacterial load in fishery products

      Mathen, C.; Lekshmy, A.; Krishna Iyer, H.; Pillai, V.K. (1964)
      The production of colour by homogenised fish material in a simplified sugar medium containing and acid indicator has been made use of for the rapid approximation of bacterial load in such products. The medium thus developed contains poptone, tryptone, yeast extract, sodium chloride and beef extract besides dextrose. The time of colour production is influenced to some extent by the level of sodium chloride in the medium and is almost always inversely proportional to the bacterial load in the homogenate.
    • A re-description of the little known rabbit fish Siganus lineatus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) (Pisces:Siganide) with notes on siganid fishes of the Vembanad Lake

      Kurup, B.M.; Samuel, C.T. (1985)
      Siganus lineatus (Cuv. and Val) is reported from the coast of peninsular India for the first time and a detailed description of it is given based on morphology and meristic characters. It differs from the other allied species of the genus Siganus Forskal in having an oval body without spots and having fifteen parallel longitudinal golden yellow bands, relatively larger last dorsal spine, maxillary position far below the level of the orbit and cheek with distinct rows of scales. S. javus (Linnaeus) and S. canaliculatus (Park) were also obtained from the Vembanad Lake. Short notes on the habitat, occurrence, abundance, seasonal and geographic distribution in relation to fluctuating hydrological conditions of the Vembanad Lake are incorporated together with a key for their identification.
    • A review of experimental trawling from small and medium sized mechanized vessels off Kanikada

      Satyanarayana, A.V.V.; Narayanappa, G. (1971)
      The most suitable otter trawl for small boats was found to be a 10.9 to 15m 2-seam trawl with 100cm x 50cm x 35kg horizontally curved otter boards together with long single sweep line. For operation from medium sized trawls, 18.26m 2-seam 18.3m 4-seam and 29.26m long wing trawl were found suitable. An 18.3m 4-seam trawl was netting a considerable quantity of off-bottom fishes. Shrimps predominated in the catches of the 29.26m trawl. Productive grounds for Cynagris species, Psenus species and Decapterus species within 50 to 100m depth ranges off Kakinada were available for profitable exploitation.
    • A review on oil sardine 1. Distribution, preservation and transportation

      Madhavan, P.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.; Balachandran, K.K. (1974)
      Oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) is widely reported from the Indian Ocean and southeast Asia coasts. It is found, with other less important spp of Sardinella, around both coasts of India. Landings have shown wide variations from yr to yr. Figures were 7412 tons in 1956 and 301,641 tons in 1968. Various possible reasons for this are noted. The main fishery is concentrated in coastal waters 12-15 km from shore in waters up to 15 m deep. The gears used are mostly seine nets. Though the fish has a good protein value, its prices do not compare well to other fish, often due to handling and preservation difficulties. Problems encountered during preservation and transportation of the fish are considered. These include bursting and rancidity.
    • A review on oil sardine 2. Preservation by canning, curing and smoking

      Madhavan, P.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.; Balachandran, K.K. (1974)
      Commercial canning of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) in India is a relatively new procedure. Although 7 firms are engaged in canning this compares poorly with the abundance of the fish. There are often wide variations in the quality of the canned fish and important chemical and physical variations occur in the product once canned. A description of the canning process is given, and production figures compared to those of other countries. Production figures for 1965 to 1969 are given. These show that production increased from 1.2 to 1.5 million cans, but that there was a peak in 1967 when 3.2 million can s were produced. Exports of canned marine fish by country, and production of caned sardine by country from 1965 to 1970 are tabulated. The types of containers used and the feasibility of exporting canned fish are considered. Finally, the preparation of cured and smoked products is discussed briefly.
    • A review on oil sardine 3. Oil and meal industry

      Madhavan, P.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.; Balachandran, K.K. (1974)
      The author reviews the advances in the oil and meal industries related to the oil sardine fishery (Sardinella longiceps) since the 1920s. Data on the production of by-produced produced in Kerala over the period 1964- 69 are tabulated. Details of the properties of the commercial oil are given, and the values compared to those for other similar oils. The use of oil sardine for industrial purposes - the oil has been used to cure leather, temper metals and as fungicides or insecticides - and the production of fish meal and fish protein concentrate is considered.
    • A scale to measure the attitude towards improved fish processing methods

      Thiagarajan, R.; Mohan, B.; Kandoran, M.K. (1989)
      An attitude scale was constructed to measure the attitude of fisherwomen towards improved fish processing methods. To construct the attitude scale, 'scale' and ‘Q’ values (the interquartile ranges) were calculated for 31 statements selected, based on the opinion of 34 judges. Based on the 'scale' and ‘Q’ values 16 statements were selected with eight favorable statements and eight unfavorable statements. The weightages given were 3, 2 and 1 for favorable statements and 1, 2 and 3 for unfavorable statements.
    • A small scale fish meal dryer

      Chakraborty, P.K.; Pillai, S.A.; Balachandran, K.K. (1970)
      A batch type rotary drum dryer for the production of fish meal suitable for operation in the fishing villages of India has been designed, fabricated and operated successfully. The dyer can be used for production of fish meal from whole lean fish or press-cake from fish body oil extraction plants. The time taken to reach a moisture level below 10% is 5-8 hours depending upon the type of material fed into the dryer.
    • A statistical study on weight loss in frozen prawns

      Unnithan, G.R.; Krishna Iyer, H.; Krishna Rao, K. (1976)
      This paper deals with an extensive study conducted to estimate the extent of weight loss in frozen prawns. The weight Joss varied from 7 to 12% in peeled and deveined (PD), 5 to 7% in headless (HL) and about 7% in cooked and peeled (CP) prawns from the date of processing to the date of inspection, normally within two weeks. To compensate the weight loss nearly 11% of excess material is being added with every frozen block resulting in an average annual loss of Rs. 2.68 crores in foreign exchange. The relevant data pertain to the period 1971 to 1973 and the annual average loss was estimated for the ten years ending 1973.
    • A study on the average yield of different species pf prawns used for freezing and canning

      Unnithan, G.R.; Rao, P.S.; Krishna Iyer, H. (1975)
      The paper deals with the average yield of four spp of prawns viz. Metapenaeus dobsoni, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera and Penaeus indicus on conversion to peeled and deveined (PD), cooked and peeled (CP) and head less shell on (HL) forms in the different months of a year and the likely variations observed in the average yield.
    • A study on the fish fauna of Coorg District, Karnataka

      Raghunathan, M.B. (1989)
      Some 35 species of fishes were collected from 57 localities spread in various taluks of Coorg district of Karnataka State. Four species of fishes which are rare and restricted to this region are recorded after a lapse of several years. A number of species of Puntius, namely, P. arulius arulius, P. arulius tamraparniei, P. pulchelus, P. micropogon , P. conchonius, P. vittatus, P. parrah, P. sarana, P. sophore, P. chola, P. denisonii were observed. Cold water species namely, Barilius bakerii, B. vagra vagra, B. gatensis, B. canarensis are recorded. Maximum number of species (13) were met in Ramthirtha stream at Poochkal.
    • A study on the lipid distribution pattern in muscles of two teleosts, Arius dussumieri and Ophiocephalus striatus

      Alexander, K.M. (1970)
      The muscles of the various regions and zones of the body of the two teleosts, A. dussumieri and O. striatus have been analyzed for lipid contents. There is a significant dorsum-ventral gradient in lipid concentration exhibited by both the fishes with higher lipid values in the ventral aspect of the body, especially the belly flaps. As regards the vertical series, both the fishes exhibit comparatively higher lipid contents at the dorsal aspects of the caudal region and at anterior portion of the dorsal fin area with lower lipid values at cephalic and middle portions of the body. The red muscle of Arius exhibits higher lipid content than the white muscle.
    • A study on the piscifauna of the Idukki Reservoir and catchment area

      Gopinath, P.; Jayakrishnan, T.N. (1984)
      From the area under report 17 species, 15 endemic and 2 exotic, of freshwater fish have been identified. Of these, 8 species are commonly found in the catches and are of fishery significance. The fact that small fish species which have no fishery importance also support life in other trophic levels of this ecosystem is well exemplified by the interaction of the birds and mammals with these species. A scientific management and monitoring of the reservoir waters as well as the remaining segments of forests are recommended to salvage the wild life and vegetation from a possible rapid deterioration within years.
    • A study on the quality of prawns during processing in prawn-freezing factories

      Krishna Rao, K.; Pillai, V.K. (1967)
      A study on the occurrence of defective pieces of prawns at three different stages of processing of headless shell on and peeled and deveined varieties was undertaken, each in one freezing factory. The average percentages of the defective prawns together with the standard deviation observed over a period of one year at the three stages are mentioned. Correlation is indicated between the occurrence of the defective pieces at the pre-freezing stage and those of earlier stages.