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  • Proceeding of the Technical Seminar on South China Sea Fisheries Resources, Bangkok, Thailand, 21-25 May 1973

    Japan International Cooperation Agency (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
  • Major fisheries in Thailand and some technical recommendations for their improvement

    Nishioka, Yasumasa; Yamazaki, Tomeyoshi (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    Presented in this paper is the development of fisheries industry in Thailand. The data on the production of the principal fisheries species and major fishing methods are also presented. Also included are the recommendations for the future developments of the fishery industry in the country.
  • Fisheries of Vietnam

    Chu, Ha-Khac (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    The fishery resources of Vietnam have not been neither rationally managed nor exploited up to the present time. Fisheries organizations both on the government side and in the private sector were first established in 1957. Since then, fishery production has increased annually. The total catch in 1972 was 677.000 MT and if the rate of increased production can be mentioned is expected to reach about 1 million MT by 1975. With the gradual coming of peace, it can be expected for a variety of reasons that the fisheries of Vietnam will be expanded significantly and become a bigger contribution to our food supply as well as export production. At present, there are 340,000 fishermen operating 95,000 wooden fishing boats of which 55,000 are mechanized. The marine coastal area is intensively exploited by small boats while 20 large steel trawlers recently have begun to fish offshore. A joint project (UNDP-FAO and government of Vietnam) survey in the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand was set up 3 years ago and should continue to operate for some time to come. The inland fisheries, the production of which represents one sixth of the total annual catch, is carried out in rivers, streams and flooded areas in the Mekong delta and also by fish culture in fresh water and brackish water ponds and in floating cages in rivers. With improved methods of aquaculture the yield of fish ponds increases constantly. With a rapid expansion of the commercial fisheries, and rapid increases in exports, which tend to be concentrated on a few high value species, there may be a danger of over-exploitation in one area or another. There is also a danger that investment in plants, fleets, and shore facilities may be improperly timed and inefficiently utilized. Therefore, a thorough basic study of the entire commercial fisheries is needed, and a well coordinated plan for investment and development made. Plans are now being made to accomplish this important objective.
  • Preliminary observations on the utilisation of pig-dung effluent for fish production

    Seow, P. C.; Tay, George (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    In developing Singapore where agricultural land is making way for urbanisation and industrialisation, carp culture is being looked upon from a new perspective. It is obvious that the wanton discharge of animal waste will eventually result in polluted streams, reservoirs and coastal waters. In view of the above, preliminary investigations were carried out to evaluate the use of cess-pit effluent of pig dung for carp production. Initial results indicate that the carp pond can serve as a buffer zone where organic wastes can be cheaply and profitably removed, thereby minimising the subsequent pollution of our inland and coastal waters. However, further investigations are necessary to substantiate the use of carp ponds not only for fish production but also to serve as a reservoir for the biological reduction of organic pollutants.
  • The seaweed industry of the Philippines

    Caces-Borja, Priscilla (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    The paper presents the status of commercial useful seaweeds in the Philippines. Likewise, the common uses of seaweeds are also presented.
  • Current status of research activities of the Marine Fisheries Research Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (1970-1972)

    Chen, Foo Yan; Mito, Satoshi (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    The paper presents the research activities of the Marine Fisheries Research Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. The results of the Department's trawl fishing activities, longline and vertical handline operations, tuna longline operations and oceanographic observations were also presented. Also presented in the paper are the future plans of the Department.
  • Problems other than fisheries resources in the South China Sea area

    Yamamoto, Tadashi (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    The paper presents the problems other than fisheries resources in the South China Sea such as, 1) those relating to the nature of the fishing industry; and, 2) those relating to fisheries institution to support the fishing industry. The paper attempts to clarify the nature of these problems and to give guidelines for solving these problems.
  • Harvesting of marine resources in the Philippines

    Flores, Efren Ed. C. (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    The production from commercial and municipal fishing are presented for a period of 10 years showing a continuous increase. The commercial fishing production is broken down into production by major fishing grounds for a closer evaluation. The trend by type of fisheries for the same period is also presented. Purse seine and trawl fisheries show advancement with increase in production and number of fishing vessels in operation.
  • Fishery statistics required for the stock assessment of fisheries resources in South China Sea area

    Yamamoto, Tadashi (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    Existing national marine fishery statistics and proposals for the improvement are reviewed under the following headings; (1) Definition of Catch (2) Measurement of Gross Tonnage (3) Standardization of National Statistical classifications i. Tonnage classificationii. Species classificationiii. Fishing Gear Classification(4) Establishment of Fishing Area Classification in South China Sea Area(5) Types of Statistical Tables Required for International Comparison.In designing any statistical survey the first thing to do is (I) to establish clear definitions or concepts for survey items and classifications to be used in the survey and (2) to work out statistical tables which might well meet the requirements of users. These kinds of works are particularly important when international comparison of fishery statistics is required. Therefore, reviews and proposals hereunder are made along the above line with respect to some pertinent points.
  • Current status of fisheries development in South China Sea area

    Yamamoto, Tadashi (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    A brief review of current status of fisheries development in South China Sea is made based on fishery statistics currently available. The results are summarized as follows: (1) During the past decade the number of inboard powered boats operating in South China Sea area increased by 470%. Furthermore, a good number of fishing boats exceeding 100 gross tons have also appeared. (2) During the same period there appeared a massive explosion of trawl fishery in every country. (3) The present level of marine fishery production in the area is supposed to be some 4 million metric tons valued at about US$800 million. Although numerous fisheries exists trawl, purse seine and drift gill net fisheries have played a leading role and these three fisheries alone produced 55% of the total marine catch in the area.
  • Brief note on the relationship of scattering layer and some hydro-biological factors

    Shirota, Akihiko (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    The analysis of echo-sounding records obtained from the South China Sea showed that scattering layer is caused by a concentrated layer of zooplankton and is related to thermocline. The occurrence of scattering layer may be used to indicate either the depth where thermocline occurs or the vertical movement of zooplankton. Fish schools were recorded at the vicinity of the scattering layer and this phenomenon is probably associated with the feeding habits of the fish.
  • Preliminary report on the distribution of chaetognaths in the southern part of the South China Sea

    Lim, L. C. (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    This paper reports the distribution of chaetognaths in the southern part of the South China Sea, based on the plankton samples collected by the research vessel CHANGI from April 1970 to April 1972. The chaetognath specimens collected in April, 1972 were identified. Altogether 22 species belonging to 5 genera were discerned. Sagitta enflata was the dominant species and was widely distributed in the areas surveyed. While the common species in the neritic waters are S. bedfordii, S. bedoti, and S. Oceania, the common species in the oceanic province are Krohnitta pacifica, K. subtilis, Pterosagitta draco, S. bipunctata, S. hexaptera, S. lyra, S. minima, S. pacifica and S. regularis. S. enflata and S. ferox are common in both neritic and oceanic provinces. The individual numbers of chaetognaths varies from 400 to 13,000 per 100 m3 of water. In general, the chaetognaths are abundant in coastal waters but decline towards the open sea. Based on the occurrence of the various species, the importance of chaetognaths as biological indicators of water masses are discussed. P. draco, S. hexaptera, S. minima and S. pacifica are useful indicators of the presence of oceanic water in the neritic province. The presence of these species in some neritic waters adjacent to the oceanic province suggests the mixing of oceanic water and neritic water in the respective areas during the survey.
  • Some consideration on the relationship between environmental factors and the distribution of fisheries resources in the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea

    Shirota, Akihiko (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental factors and the distribution of fisheries resources in the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea, based on the oceanographic and fisheries resources data collected by R/V CHANGI from November, 1969 to March, 1973. The fish catch is related more to the bottom topography than the bottom feature of the sea. Good mean catch (> 200 kg/hr) was obtained in up welling regions at the steep continental slope in areas off the north and the east coast of the Andaman Sea, and in areas with boundary zone at the flat area along the east coast of Malay Peninsula. The distribution of fisheries resources was also related to the hydrological factors. In general, better catch (> 116 kg/hr) was obtained from areas having depths of 45—65 m, salinity range of 32.0 — 33.5 ‰ and bottom temperatures above 23°C. However, in the coastal waters off Sarawak and North Andaman Sea (off Burma), good fishing grounds were characterized by low salinity, low temperature and high nutrient contents, suggesting the influence of freshwater discharge in the area. Abundant occurrence of coastal water fishes were found in these areas. From the present analysis, it appears that the combination and interaction of both hydrological and topographic conditions are important factors contributing towards the formation of good fishing ground in the surveyed areas.
  • Behaviour of the warm-water mass along the east coast of the Malay Peninsula

    Suzuki, Otohiko; Hooi, Kok-Kuang (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    A preliminary study was made on oceanographic conditions in the South China Sea, using the data collected over two monsoon seasons. In the northeast monsoon and the subsequent stagnant season, a narrow belt-like water mass of high temperature and low salinity was observed along the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. While in the southwest monsoon season, the existence of this water mass was not clear. The presence of this narrow belt of water mass suggest the existence of a southward-flowing current which may play a role in transporting the water from the Gulf of Thailand to the coastal area of the Peninsula.
  • Fishing condition and its oceanographic interpretation in bottom long line fishing grounds

    Suzuki, Otohiko (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    During the experimental bottom long line fishing conducted in June and September, 1972, near the Gulf of Thailand and off Kuching, Sarawak respectively, simultaneous oceanographic surveys were also carried out. The analysis of the data suggested possible relation between oceanographic and fishing conditions. Throughout the two trips it was a common feature that good catches were often obtained near the boundary between the nearshore warm water and the deeper cold water. Through oceanographical consideration of the data obtained, the following conclusion was deduced. There is a possibility that good fishing grounds are located along the canyon off Kuching throughout all seasons. However, their locations may be altered with the change of oceanographic conditions. In the area off the Gulf of Thailand, good fishing grounds may be formed only in certain specific seasons.
  • A study of the catch data of the Jurong in the South China Sea in 1971 and 1972

    Hooi, Kok Kuang (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    The semi-commercial bottom trawl fishing by the training vessel JURONG in the South China Sea in 1971 and 1972 was confined to three areas at its south western portion. The positively skewed frequency distributions of catch per hour assumed approximately the shape of a normal curve when the yield was transformed logarithmically. Sample statistics from these transformed values form the basis of discussion of the yields for 1971 and 1972 in relation to fishing seasons and types of nets used. Yield records from JURONG showed that the catch in waters off Terengganu (northeast coast of West Malaysia) was poorer than that of Homan and Sarawak. These yields were briefly discussed together with values obtained by the R/V CHANGI. In the area off Sarawak, the Engel II net obtained much better catches than the four seam net. The percentage composition of dominant fish categories from Tioman and Sarawak are also discussed.
  • The demersal resources of South China Sea

    Liu, Hsi-Chiang (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    Based on the catch statistic derived from the official returns which were offered from all Taiwan paired trawlers operated in the South China Sea, dating from 1969 to 1971, the author made an investigation on the species composition, the seasonal changes of the demersal fishes appeared in their catches. The magnitude and potential of the demersal fish resources in these areas have also been assessed.
  • Research on demersal fishes on the continental slope in the northern part of the South China Sea: The cruise result of R/V Kaiyo-Maru

    Aoyama, Tsuneo (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    Presented in this paper is the report of the research cruise for trawl fishing ground in the northern area of the South China Sea between the margin mainland China continental shelf and continental slope. The cruise reported the water quality and topographical characteristics of the slope that might affect the abundance of fishes. Likewise, fishes that were caught during cruise were also documented.
  • Demersal fish resources in untrawlable waters, viewed through vertical-line fishing

    Senta, Tetsushi; Miyata, Chuichi; Tan, Sen-Min (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    Rocky reefs (80-120 m. in depth) along shoulders of steep continental slope in the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea often provide potentially good fishing grounds. Demersal fish resources in these reefs, having quite different species composition from those in trawl fishing grounds, have been scarcely exploited so far. The results of the recent surveys by Japanese research vessels and by R/V CHANGI revealed that vertical line fishing is promising in such untrawlable fishing grounds. The daily catch often exceeded one ton and was composed mainly of white snapper, gold-lined sea bream, grouper, pigface, trevally and jobfish. The catch and species composition in different areas did not vary much provided that the above mentioned bottom feature and oceanic environment were present. Daily catch may fluctuate considerably the above mentioned bottom features but tends to be equally poor during the period around the 4th day of a lunar month. While the relatively inexpensive fishing gear and equipment for vertical line fishing are important, the skill of skipper and crew in searching for fish schools and in the maneuvering of vessel and gears will affect the catch.
  • Biological study of red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus

    Senta, Tetsushi; Kungvankij, Pinij; Tan, Sen-Min (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1977)
    Among the red snappers caught by trawling in the South China Sea, L. sanguineus is the most important species, comprising more than 10% of the total catch. Although L. sanguineus is widely distributed in the South China Sea, its pattern of distribution seems to be rather patchy. However, they were most abundant at 35—80 m. water depth and inhabit muddy-sand areas especially where “Neptune’s cup” are abundant. Size frequency histograms indicate four to six size groups, with peaks of almost the same height. The growth rate of fish of 23 cm. was taken to be approximately 2 cm. per month. As no significant difference in length-weight relationship between male an female was observed, the following formula can be applied for both sexes. W = 7.64 x 10–5 L2.823 where, W = body weight (g). L = body length (mm). The number of ovarian eggs ranged from 69 to 260.104 and the regression between the number of eggs in thousand (N) and fish weight in gram (W) was N =0.4459W + 83.2. High values of gonadal index from March to November with a peak in April—June suggests a prolonged spawning season.

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