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  • Collection of broodstock and juveniles of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii from the wild

    Anyanwu, P.E.; Ayaobu-Cookry, I.K.; Ebonwu, B.I.; Hamzat, M.B.; Pepple, P.C.G.; Ihimekpen, A.F.; Matanmi, M.A.; Ikoyo-Eweto, G.O.; Afolabi, E.S.; Abass, M.A.; et al. (FISON, 2013)
    A total of 457 broodstock and 143,000 juveniles of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii were collected at Isheri Olofin area and Okunmanya River over a period of time. They were transported live to the shrimp hatchery of NIOMR in Lagos. Live transportation of the broodstock of M.vollenhovenii with body weight ranging from 71.0-264.5g in liter-capacity plastic containers half-filled with water, recorded 98-100% survival rate between 80-110 minutes transportation time. However, live transportation of the juvenile in 50 liters capacity plastic containers without water recorded survival rates ranging from 20-66% while those carried with water and aerated recorded 12.5-93.75%. An air conditioned vehicle was used during the live transportation. Higher mortality rate was recorded for the juvenile than the broodstocks due to large number transported in additoin to the small-size gear used for trapping the jiveniles. The study has developed a simple technology for the collection and transportation of live specimens of broodstock and juveniles of M. vollenhovenii. Efforts will be made to increase survival of the juveniles through the use of larger containers and gears.
  • Effects of spices on the chemical properties of hot-smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Ayeloja, A.A.; George, F.O.A.; Akinyemi, A.A.; Atanda, O.O. (FISON, 2013)
    Effect of spices on the chemical properties of hot-smoked catfish (C.gariepinus) was examined. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD) with the treatments been the variously spiced hot-smoked catfish (garlic, ginger, garlic-ginger homogenate spiced and the control without spices). Proximate and mineral content analyses were carried out using standard experimental procedures. There exist significant differences (p<0.05) in the percentage moisture and crude protein content with smoked catfish without spices having the highest moisture content with mean value 6.18 ~c 0.13 and 79.44 ~c 0.13 respectively which could be as a result of the increase in the fibre content of the spiced fish products which is a function of fibre content of the spices applied to the fish products. Similar trend was also observed for the lipid and ash contents the fish products. There exist significant differences (p<0.05) in the mineral content preseent in the various fish products with the exception of magnesium. The products are rich in calcium and other minerals with garlic-ginger homogenate spiced product having the highest level of calcium (0.980 ~c 0.02).
  • Impact of calcium carbonate on the juveniles of brackish river prawn, Macrobrachium marobrachion under laboratory conditions

    Okobgue, B.C.; Ansa, E.J.; Hart, A.I. (FISON, 2013)
    The acute toxicity and the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of calcium carbonate on the morphology of M. macrobrachion were investigated under laboratory conditions. The prawns were exposed at 0, 160, 320, 640, 1280, 2560 and 5120 mg/l of CaCO3 using static renewal bioassay for 96 hours for the acute toxicity test. The prawns were also exposed for the chronic test at 0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80.0 mg/1 for a period of two weeks. Mortality occurred in the bioassay tanks at random and the bioassays were monitored throughout the exposure period. Results showed that exposed prawns were not significantly impacted when compared with the control group and correlations were significant at P<0.05. There were no mortalities in the tanks with the highest concentrations while one death was recorded in the control tank and in the tank with the 160 and 320mg/1 of CaCO3 respectively. The gills of exposed prawns were analyzed using photomicrography and the results showed that the organs had their normal morphological status after the exposure time, implying that CaCO3 is non-toxic to M. macrobrachion. The applications of the result to prawn culture and water quality management were discussed in details.
  • Re-maturation of spent female broodstock of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii fed trash fish

    Anyanwu, P.E.; Ihimekpen, A.F.; Pepple, P.C.; Ebonwu, B.I.; Hamzat, M.B.; Ayaobu-Cookey, I.K.; Matanmi, M.A.; Afolabi, E.S.; Ajijo, M.R.; Ikoyo-Eweto, G.O.; et al. (FISON, 2013)
    Gravid female broodstock of M. vollenhovenii were collected from Ogun River. Their body weights ranged from 17.2g, 22.4g and 17.4g while the total lengths ranged from 9.7cm-11.7cm. The broodstock were stocked in three plastic tanks and allowed to spawn naturally. Three spent female broodstock were stocked separately in plastic tanks containing six (6) litres of freshwater. They were fed trash fish twice daily at 5% body weight. The spent females started to develope eggs again in 21 days with full maturation at 35 days. The body weights after 35 days ranged from 8.5g-24.1g while the total lengths ranged from 11.4-11.9 cm. The result obtained have shown that spent female broodstock of M. vollenhovenii can become gravid again in plastic tanks in 35 days when fed fresh trash fish. This will ensure all year round production of broodstock for development of M.vollenhovenii.
  • Fish processing technologies in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria

    George, F.O.A.; Ogbolu, A.O.; Okunnade, O.A.; Akintayo, I.A.; Odusanya, F.A.; Odulate, D.O.O. (FISON, 2013)
    Traditional fish processing technologies vary widely in terms of equipment type, size and processing efficiency in Nigeria's coastal states. This study was carried out to identify fish processing technologies and evaluate the effectiveness, energy sources and efficiency of fish smoking equipment in use in the study area. Data were collected using structured questionnaire administered between January and March, 2011 in seven fishing villages along the coastline in the lbeju-Lekki LGA, Nigeria. Major fish species being processed were identified; and the profitability of the post harvest technologies adopted was evaluated. A total of five traditional fish processing equipment were observed; and included galvanized iron sheet supported by planks 51 (46.4%); drum oven 8 (7.2%); black clay oven 24 (21.8%); red clay oven 9 (8.1%); brick kiln 5 (4.2%) and government model kiln 4 (3.5%). Generally, energy sources were fuel wood and charcoal for traditional fish processing equipment; and electricity for the government model kiln. Majority of traditional fish processors were peasant women; and three types of processing technologies were observed, including air drying (1.0%), hot smoking 169.1%); and salting and smoking (29.9%). The capacity of kilns and ovens observed ranged from 20 to 50kg daily with a price range of Nl0,000 to N50,000. Factors considered before replacement of smoking equipment by the processors were equipment ruggedness, cost and production capacity. Women's involvement in traditional fish processing was 95%; and major fish species in the value chain included Ethmalosa fimbriata, Caranx senegallus, Sardinella maderensis,Drepane africana, Cynoglossus monodis, Pseudotolithus megalensis, P. typus, Arius latiscutatus and A. mercatoris. It was observed that products of traditional fish processing industry were readily acceptable to consumers and commanded marginal market prices with optimal economic benefits to processors.
  • Preliminary study on the antioxidative and anti-fungal effects of ginger oil on the shelf life of hot smoked fish

    Kumolu-Johnson, C.A.; Ndimele, P.E.; Ayorinde, O.A.; Ojikutu, T.I. (FISON, 2013)
    The anti-oxidative and anti-fungal effects of ginger oil on smoked Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus was examined during five week storage at room temperature (25-30)~'C. The ginger oil was extracted from fresh ginger through hydro-distillation. The fish samples were gutted washed thoroughly and each fish species was divided into three groups. Two groups were spiced with 1.0ml and 1.5ml of ginger oil/kg of fish respectively before they were smoke dried for 2 hours. The third group acts as the control which was not spiced with ginger oil. Chemical and microbiological analyses were performed to investigate quality changes, and to determine the shelf stability of the products. The lowest TBA (14.64 mg MDA/kg), and Peroxide (3.91 mEq/kg) values were recorded in 0. niloticus samples treated with 1.5ml ginger oil/kg of fish at week 1, while the highest TBA (30.48 mg MDA/kg), and PV (18.76 mEq/kg) occurred in the C. gariepinus control at week 5. The result also revealed that samples treated with ginger oil had lower mould count than the control, but there was no significant different (P~.0.05), when compared to the control after 5 weeks of storage.
  • Current trends of fish processing in Jabi Lake area

    Ngwu, E.O.; Ihuahi, J.A.; Oluborode, G.B.; Olokor, J.O. (FISON, 2013)
    A survey of the fish processing practices of the fishing settlement around Jabi lake area in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) was conducted. The main purpose of constructing the reservoir is to serve as the main source of water supply to the FCT, fishing and fish processing became prominent. Fishermen are recording very low fish catch and the level of hygiene in fish handling practices is very low. The processors are majorly involved in smoking and frying which is dominated by 79% of middle aged young men whereas, 21% are women. The scale of fish processing in Jabi Lake area is still at the subsistence level. Furthermore, the processors do not package the processed fish products, rather they gather them in baskets and plastic bowls. FCT resideents usually procurelive and smoked fish from Kado fish market.
  • Modification of NIFFR multipurpose smoking kiln with insulation

    Babanna, A.A.; Abdulrahman, Y. (FISON, 2013)
    A study was conducted on the old NIFFR smoking kiln in order to improve on it. The parameters used to determine the smoking efficiency include the loss in weight of the fish samples, temperature and the time taken to properly smoke the fish using fire wood as smoking fuel. The smoking kiln was tested by smoking three different species of fish: Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromies niloticus, Synodontis membranecious over a period of two hours. The modified smoking kiln was discovered to perform faster. Its advantage over the already existing one is that it is faster in smoking fish to a regular golden brown colour. The temperature of the heat supplied was quite higher about 100~'C to 120~'C than the commonly used drum oven. The smoking kiln has the average oroduction cost of No.90,000.
  • Perception of fish farmers to climate change and adoption strategies in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Fregene, B.T.; Ogunika, O.F. (FISON, 2013)
    The study identified the perception of fish farmers in Oyo State to climate change as well as the adaptation strategies used by them. A two stage stratified sampling method was used to select 156 fish farmers from the four Agriculture Development Programme (ADP) zones and eight local government areas (LGAs) in Oyo State. Structured questionnaires were administered to the fish farmers. Descriptive statistic and linear regression were used to analyses data collected. The result shows that majority were males (84.0%\}, dominant age (66.0%) were within the age bracket of 46-65 years. The farmers are literate as 46.8% have attained secondary education, 69.9% had above six years of experience in fish farming experience and 97.5% were engaged in culturing catfish Clarias spp. The highest portion (70.5%) earns less than N500,000 as income from fish sale. Due to effect of climate change on fish production in the study area, fish farmers reported different types of adaptation strategies. Result of the linear regression analysis indicates that there is a significant (p<0.05) negative effect of household size and years of fish farming experience and significant (p<0.1) positive effect of age on farmers' perception of climate change on fish production.
  • Comparative nutritional composition of smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) produced from NIOMR smoking kiln and local cut-drum oven

    Okereke, A.N.; Opara, J.Y.; Opara, C. (FISON, 2013)
    The effects of two different preservative equipment-the NIOMR (Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research) kiln and local cut-drum oven-on crude protein, minerals and vitamins of C. gariepinus were studied. The fish were obtained from Africa Regional Aquaculture Centre, Aluu, Port Harcourt. Moisture, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat and ash content were determined using standard methods. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the moisture and crude fiber content. The moisture content of the fish sample ranged from 2.18 to 5.98, this could be attributed to the drying methods. The crude fibre content ranged from 2.78 and shows no significant difference. The ash content of the samples ranged from 0.25- 0.6%, an indication that smoking reduces the ash content of fish. Result of the crude protein of fresh fish was 21.84 ~c 1.10 which increased to 59.53 ~c 1.88 and 35.41 ~c1.00 in NIOMR smoking kiln and local oven respectively. This means that, there was a significant different in the effects of the two dryers on crude protein. The vitamin content of both ovens showed no significant difference except in vitamin A which was significant in the fish dried with smoking kiln. There was significant different (p<0.05) in the mineral content of the two drying equipment, this was in Sodium, Potassium and Phosphorus level of fish smoked with NIOMR smoking kiln. This result indicates that the two drying methods have varying effects on the nutritional quality of catfish, which is in favour of NIOMR kiln.
  • Communication strategies / matrix for stakeholders' adaptation to climate change issues in Nigeria

    Yarhere, M. (FISON, 2013)
    Over the years, man has exploited the ocean and its resources for sustainable livelihood. Man's indigenous and traditional knowledge has been the mainstay and guidance in exploiting the ocean and coastal resources. However, as industrialization and other climate conditions set in to alter or modify the productivity of the ecosystem, there has been a lot of concern by international, regional and local authorities to continuously study the prevalence of these factors and triggers off these climatic changes and their impacts on livelihood of fisherfolks at the industrial or artisanal level of fishing and other fisheries activities like fish farming and fish processing. A quantum of technical and scientific information on the ocean and interactions with other elements have been archived in various libraries, information centers and on the internet. These channels provide information for only those who can access them for policy formulation but cannot actually reach those who will benefit or implement the issues discussed in the policy documents for their livelihood. Meteorological data are reported in technical terms. Figures and other illustrations cannot be utilized by the average artisanal and industrial fishermen for the rational exploitation of the ocean resources. The woman fish processor who uses solar dryer may not be able to relate the weather condition and why her fish cannot dry at the normal time. There are times natural phenomenon like change in the direction of or its intensity can be interpreted by a fisherman as the handwork of his enemy to thwart his fishing effort for that day. Oceans sourge causes and its possible displacement of coastal dwellers might not be fully comprehended by those living in coastal communities. There is the need therefore to develope a communication and outreach strategies using a simple communication matrix for easy articulation of approaches to communicating with all potential and identified stakeholders in Climate change and its effects on stakeholders. This paper therefore discusses some of the climatic conditions and factors that affects the ocean, coastal areas and their productivity. It particularly focuses on communication strategies of information, educating and entertaining in reaching out to identified stakeholders on climate impacts for its rational exploitation and improved income for better standard of living. It finally produced a simple applicable communication matrix for reaching out to all stakeholders in Climale change and its impacts.
  • Socioeconomic analysis of fish farming in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria

    Olasunkanmi, J.B. (FISON, 2013)
    Fish farming as an economic activity in Nigeria is predominantly an extensive land based system practiced at subsistence level in water. The socio-economic analysis of fish farming in Ogun State, South-Western Nigeria was carried out using data collected from sixty randomly selected fish farms. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, costs and returns, as well as regression analysis. The relationship between fish output and five inputs: feed, fertilizer, lime, labour and fingerlings were measured using Cobb-Dou production model. Results suggest that a unit increase in feed application contributed 68 percent increase to the profitability of the farms and this was significant at p<0.1. Also, fertilizer was significant at p<0.05, the results suggest that a unit increase in fertilizer application contributed 5l percent increase to the profitability of the fish farms. The model explained 79% of the variation in total output. On the whole, fish farming was found to be profitable with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.23 and the rate of return on investment is 0.19. It is recommended that fish farmers in the study area should increase their use of feed, lime and fingerlings and decrease their use of fertilizer and labour. Socio-economic characteristics of fish farmers showed that most of them were males, married and middle aged with formal education.
  • The role of women in fishery activities in some coastal communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Cliffe, P.T.; Akinrotimi, O.A. (FISON, 2013)
    Fisheries activities in 10 communities of Rivers State were investigated to determine the role of women in its development and sustainability. Two hundred structured questionnaires were randomly distributed in three communities (20 per community) across three Local Government Area of the State. The results from the study indicated that young and married women are actively involved in fisheries activities on part-time basis, when compared to the older ones. In the study area, women are mainly involved in the marketing of fishery products than processing or active fishing. Women are more involved in picking of shellfishes such as oyster, periwinkle at low tide than in creeks and rivers. Fish processing in these communities are done mostly by smoking, using a standing oven, which can dry a lot of fish at a time. The marketing strategies adopted by most women in selling their fishery products in the area are open market display and hawking, although, some sell their catch at landing jetties to buyers. Lack of credit facilities, poor transportation network and upsurge in criminal activities have been identified as major constraints facing women involvement in fishery activities in these areas. There is therefore, the need to empower the women fisher folks in these areas through granting of loans and credit facilities, capacity building, introduction of new technologies and improved transport network systems. These will go a long way in boosting fish production, improve their livelihood and enhance socio-economic status of the women fisherfolks in the coastal communities .
  • Public relations and extension services in Nigerian fisheries industry

    Bolarinwa, J.B. (FISON, 2013)
    The paper discussed the importance of fish as a food commodity and the rich icthyofauna resources of Nigerian territorial which has not been optimally utilized to be sustainable. Among the challenges facing the fisheries subsector of Nigerian economomy apart from overfishing, poor post-harvest technology and high incidence of sea piracy is poor level of communications, public relations, restricted access to extension services especially to the rural artisanal fisherfolks/fish farmers in Nigeria . This has been identified as contributory to the increasing shortfall between demand and supply of fish in Nigeria. There is a need/or a good public image fisheries concerns. Production and marketing personnel need to respect the wishes of the consumers and have good interpersonal relationships. Communication should be a 2-way affair between the extension officers and the fisherfolks in the rural communities to be achieved. The various media that could aid better dissemination in the Fisheries subsector were highlighted. The author recommended better funding, training of extensionists and target audience, improved public sensitization of rural practitioners to fish output. There is a need for a more productive and result-oriented reform in Nigerian extension system. A unified extension is also recommended for effective extension education from the stage of production, handling, processing, transport and retailing. More conducive enabling environment should be created by the government.
  • Effects of boiled Jatropha kernel meal as a substitute for soybeans meal in diet of African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings

    Alatise, S.P.; Ajiboye, G.E. (FISON, 2013)
    A feeding trial was conducted in the laboratory for 8 weeks to evaluate the growth response of C. gariepinus fingerlings using boiled Jatropha kernel as the protein source in place of soybean meal. Four experimental diets (40% crude protein) were formulated, three of these diets contained boiled Jatropha kernel meal at varying levels of 0% 10%, 20%, and 30% while the diet without boiled Jatropha kernel meal served as control. Fish fingerlings were fed weekly at 5% body weight. It was discovered that the percentage weight gain was significantly different (p<0.05) among the controlled diet and the experimental diets; specific growth rates were also significantly different (p<0.05) among the controlled diets 3 and 4, but different in diets 1 and 2 with diet 4 (30%) of boiled Jatropha kernel having the highest value. The highest weight gain was recorded in diet 4 containing 30% of boiled Jatropha kernel meal (75.57g), while the least is at 10% inclusion (52.47g). The soybean meal protein increased with increasing boiled Jatropha kernel substitution. Based on the results of this study, it could be concluded that C. gariepinus could tolerate 30% inclusion of boiled Jatropha kernel meal in the diet in place of soybean meal.
  • Fisher folk's response to climate change in New Bussa and its environs of Kainji Lake Basin, Nigeria

    Oluwasegun, T.O.; Landu, E.J.; Oluwasegun, O.M. (FISON, 2013)
    The study examined fisher folk responses to climate change in Kainji lake basin. The sample comprises of fisher folks within and New Bussa. Eighty questionnaires were administered to obtain the primary data and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The results revealed that majority (70%) of the respondent were male, however (61.2%) of them had tertiary education. Majority (60%) of the respondents were aware of changes in climate in the area. Majority (65%) and (55%) of the respondents were involved in incidence of deforestation and charcoal production respectively. In conclusion, it was discovered that little knowledge about climate change and its effects were found among fisher folk. Therefore it recommends that sensitization workshops/lectures be done to enable the fisher folk have adequate knowledge on climate change and the implications on fisheries activities in the basin.
  • Poverty and inequality among fishing households and implications for fishery resources management in Kainji Lake, Nigeria

    Tafida, A.A.; Adebayo, A.A.; Galtima, M.; Arowolo, K.O. (FISON, 2013)
    Fishing has traditionally been a major source of livelihood for fishing households in Kainji Lake Basin (KLB). It plays a significant role to the rural and national economy in terms of employment, income and source of protein. However, the livelihoods of the primary actors (fishers) are being jeopardized by the depletion of fishery resources, mainly due to over exploitation and poor management. This paper examines poverty among the fishing households in KLB using empirical data. Foster Greer Thorbecke (FGT) Model was adopted for the analysis. The results reveal greater poverty (over 60%) with minimal inequality among fishing households. Finally, the paper advances reasons based on the implications of the study for designing intervention strategies by policy makers and the like.
  • Whole rocky fresh water prawns, Caridina africana as replacement for fish meal in diets for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Oyekanmi, F.B.; Omoniyi, I.T.; Akegbejo-Samsons, Y. (FISON, 2013)
    Specimens of Caridina africana were oven dried at 110~'C for 24 hours and refrigerated at 200~'C prior to proximate analysis. Whole rocky freshwater prawn meal (WRFWPM) was evaluated as a dietary replacement for fish meal in the diet of C. gariepinus fingerlings. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of C. gariepinus fingerlings (10.6 ~c 0.08g) reared in concrete tanks, to assess the effects of its partial or complete replacement with fish meal for 90 days. The diets comprised a control which contained fish meal as a protein source; 0% and four others on weight basis at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in which fish meal was progressively substituted with WRFWPM. The crude protein content was 40% and fed at 4% body weight of the fish per day. Results shows that the daily body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive values were highest in diet with 50% replacement, closely followed by diet with 25% replacement. All parameters were significantly different for all diets (p<0.05). Higher dietary inclusion WRFWPM of 75% and 100% led to decrease in growth performance and nutrient utilization of C. gariepinus fingerlings. The cost WRFWPM was significantly lower than that of fish meal. Though the economic viability of C. africana is yet to be evaluated due to its tiny size; its substitution as a fish meal replacer in the diet of C. gariepinus is considered profitable.
  • Comparative study of proximate composition of oil extracted from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) viscera and red palm oil

    Adetuyi, O.O.; Aladekoye, G.; Akinbobola, A.P. (FISON, 2013)
    The proximate and fatty acid composition of oil extracted from catfish viscera C. gariepinus and red palm oil was carried out in this study, fish oil was extracted using wet rendering method. The result of the proximate composition shows moisture content of 64.81 ~c 2.37% for catfish viscera and 5.75 ~c 1.40% for red palm oil, protein content 16.40 ~c 2.66% for catfish viscera and 3.27 ~c 0.11% for red palm oil, ash content 120 ~c 0.20% and 1.04 ~c 0.30% for catfish ~c 0.10% and 50.40 ~c 0.84%, peroxide value (PV) 16.60 ~c 0.40 and 1.0 ~c 0.42% and iodine value (IV) 140.05 ~c 0.14% and 51.07 ~c 0.47% for catfish viscera and red palm oil respectively. There was significant difference (p< 0.05) among the means of moisture, protein, lipid, PV and IV but the ash content shows no significant difference (p< 0.05). The result of the fatty acids composition shows that red palm oil has the highest saturated palmitic acid and mono-unsaturated oleic acid 44.29% and 40.62% respectively. 10.20% palmitic acid and 6.20% oleic acid was observed in catfish oil. 3 3.26 and 8.59% linoleic acid, 1.40 and 0.40 stearic acid was observed in catfish oil and red palm oil rapeclively. Catfish oil shows dominant unsaturated linoleic and oleic acid, saturated palmitic acid and stearic acid. The result shows that catfish oil is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which lower total serum cholesterol level.
  • Haematological changes in the blood of Clarias gariepinus fed Chrysophyllum albidum seedmeal replacing maize

    Jimoh, W.A.; Ajasin, F.O.; Adebayo, M.D.; Banjo, O.T.; Rifhat, A.O.; Olawepo, K.D. (FISON, 2013)
    This study was conducted to investigate growth response of C. gariepinus fed diets containing C. albidum seed-meal replacing Five isonitrogenous diets containing maize which was replaced by C. albidum at a rate of 0,25, 50, 75 and 100% were made. Without C. albidum seed-meal served as the control, experimental diets were assigned randomly to the tanks and each group was fed 5% body weight in equal proportion per day. The fish fed diet 1 had the highest PCV while the fish fed diet 3 had the PCV. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the PCV of the fish fed various dietary treatments. However there was no difference (p>0.05) in the PCV of the fish fed diet 2, diet 3, diet 4, diet 5. A similar trend as observed for PCV was also Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the WBC of the blood of the fish fed various treatments so also were neutrophyls and lymphocytes.

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