Recent Submissions

  • Heavy metal concentrations in some organs of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Eko-Ende Dam, Ikirun, Nigeria

    Adeyeye, A.; Ayoola, P.B. (2013)
    The contents of the heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cd and As were examined in the liver, heart, gills, kidney and muscles of the fish Clarias gariepinus from Eko-Ende dam in Ikirun, the capital of Ifelodun Local Government of Osun State, Nigeria. C. gariepinus is the fish of choice and the most demanded in the southwest of Nigeria. The highest metal concentrations were in the liver and the gills while the lowest was in the muscles. The general deceasing order of metal accumulation in the organs was Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Cd. Lead and arsenic were not detected in any organ. The values were of lower concentrations than found in many other dams and rivers in Nigeria and some other countries. The values were also lower than the FAO/WHO recommended maximum limits in fish samples, making the fish to be safe and not of any hazards for the consumers.
  • Illegal fishing of inland water bodies of Nigeria: Kainji experience

    Raji, A.; Okaeme, A.N.; Omorinkoba, W.; Bwala, R.L. (2012)
    It is a common knowledge that illegal fishing which includes use of wrong gears, explosives, excessive exploitation of choice stocks, enhancement and stocking of water body and pollution has devastating effects on the critical biomass of fish biodiversity and livelihood activities associated with fishing. Efforts worldwide to arrest these menace are significant because it has been found that illegal fishing has made fishing non sustainable, resulted in poor fishermen catches, and exacerbated the use of illegal gears in an effort to a must catch. Conflict between fisher folk and policies has continued to generate different strategies in the control of illegal fishing. Some of these strategies at regional and National levels include creation and implementation of fisheries laws, fishing edicts, code of conduct for responsible fisheries, policing of inland water bodies, capacity building and capability through training of fishermen, creating necessary awareness, arrest and punishment of offenders. There are also other initiative on conservation and management of freshwater ecosystems which have interrelation with illegal fishing. This paper examines efforts in promoting and boosting the fisheries of Lake Kainji, through creating necessary awareness, campaign visits, radio programmes, gear control, reward systems, integration and diversification of livelihood activities, community based management and policing. It further analyses what is working, problems, and prospect of fisheries laws, the need to integrate factors of political policies, other global initiative on water management for people and nature. Recommendations on strategies including protection of fishing grounds, establishment of catch data base, integration of other intervention as alternative source of income to enhance livelihood, reduce fishing pressure, and capacity building of fisher folks, development of rules and regulations that is community based are highlighted.
  • Growth performance and nutrient utilization of catfish Clarias gariepinus fed varying inclusion level of fermented unsieved yellow maize

    Falaye, Augustine Eyiwunmi; Omoike, Augustine; Adesina, Suliyat Bolanle (2015)
    This study was conducted using 150 fish of Clarias gariepinus to investigate the growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fed five treatment diets containing varying inclusion level of fermented unsieved maize. The diets were grouped into CT, T1, T2, T3, and T4 with inclusion levels of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of fermented unsieved maize respectively. Highest weight gain was recorded in T4 with value of 10.24 and lowest weight was recorded in CT with 9.17. High FCR were observed in T2 with value of 0.70 and lower value was observed in T4 with value of 0.62. While, T2, T3, and T4 have highest survival rates with values of 90% in each treatment CT and T1 recorded 80% and 70% respectively. There was a significant (p< 0.05) difference between the food conversion ratios treatment T4 with the best value and other treatments. There was a significant (p< 0.05) difference between the levels of fermented unsieved maize inclusion and the specific growth rate of the experimental fish. The highest value of protein level and feed efficiency were observed in T4 at significant difference level (p< 0.05) than other treatments. It was concluded that fermentation of maize in fish feed has positive effects on the nutritional value of the feed. It is recommend that fermented maize can replace raw maize in fish feed diet for growth performance.
  • Morphometric characteristics and meristic traits of Tilapia zillii from three major dams of a southwestern state, Nigeria

    Fagbuaro, Omotayo (2015)
    Tilapia zillii was examined in three major dams in Ekiti State, Nigeria (Ureje dam, Ado, Egbe dam and Ero dam) for their morphometric characteristics and meristic traits. The results showed that the average body weight of the fish sampled were 145.86±50.06g in Ado, 30.19±9.35g in Egbe and 40.58±52.30g in Ero dam. Average total lengths were 21.29±3.20cm, 12.32±1.74cm and 11.24±1.56cm for Ado, Egbe and Ero dam respectively. The relationship between average weight and length of T. zillii showed that Y=15.202X-179.33 (R2=0.7181), Y=4.40049±-24.075 (R2=0.6708) and Y=2.6676X10.596 (R2=0.0063) for Ado, Egbe and Ero dam respectively. The results on headlength, total length, body weight and standard length and pre-pelvic distance are significantly different at 95% among the T.zillii of the three dams. There was no significant difference in the meristic traits of the T. zillii of the three dams. The population size of T.zillii in the three dams was just too small compared to other species of fish hence the need to assess the stock of fish in these dams critically for the encouragement of proper fishing activities in these dams.
  • A survey of pest (Dermestes maculatus) infestation of dried preserved Clarias gariepinus: its effect on nutrient quantity and quality

    Uneke, Bilikis Iyabo (2015)
    Studies on the nutrient composition of smoked-dried Clarias gariepinus were carried out, to assess the effects of pest infestation on the dried catfish from two different market (Abakpa and Kpirikpiri market) area in Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Fish samples from the two markets where kept for pest to infest it and it were taken to Biochemistry Laboratory of Food Science and Technology in Ebonyi State University to assess the damage of pest on dried catfish using standard methods. There was a significant different among the mean weight of fish from the two markets (Abakpa and kpirikpiri; 19.13kg and 18.98kg respectively) compared with the mean weight of the control 20.09kg. There was a variation in the proximate composition of the fishes from the two markets compared with the control, the decreases of the proximate composition are: crude protein from 60.07% to 40.27%; fat from 8.35% to 5.90%; moisture content from 11.67% to 10.67; fiber from 12.93 to 11.93; ash from 4.02% to 3.54% and carbohydrate 12.67% to 5.89%. The longer the storage periods of the infested smoked fish the more the tissue was degraded. Proper handling and storage of dried catfish are required to prolong the shelf life and nutrient content of dried catfish.
  • Challenges to effective fishing and preferred fishing gear in a hydrodynamic freshwater system

    Oyebola, O.O.; Ogunfowora, O.O. (2015)
    Challenges to fishing and preferred gear of multiple used Lake, whose water depth is controlled by opening of its dam gate were investigated. Geographic survey, interview and focused group discussion of fishermen were used to assess factors influencing effectiveness of fishing and the preferred gear of Asejire Lake. Water usage (s) such as frequency of Complete and Partial Opening of Dams Gate (CODG and PODG) were investigated as indices for hydrodynamic condition. Response during focused group discussion with about 33% of fishermen of the Lake were obtained on sources of disturbance to effective fishing (SDEF), most effective gear (MEG)- least environmentally perturbed gear, comparability of catch structure of preferred gear to conventional gear and sustainability of superiority of preferred gears in situations outside hydrodynamic condition (SSPPG). The PODG occurred 1-7times/Month-dry season, 15-18times/Month-wet season; CODG occurred 1-2times/Month in both season; Interval of CODG was 3-17 and 5-12days (dry and wet season). It affected set-net and catch. The SDEF were gear availability, weather condition, dam’s gate opening, religion activities and Health of fisher-folks. 50% respondents accepted opening of dams gate as most important disturbance while religion was least (5% respondents accepted). 60% respondents accepted traps as MEG being the least affected while 75% respondents accepted Gura cage trap as the MEG among traps.90% respondents accepted that among traps, its catch structure was closest (comparable) to conventional gear. However, 75% respondents rejected SSPPG. Opening of dams’ gate creates hydrodynamic condition and it affects fishing. Gura trap was preferred for fishing hydrodynamic condition.
  • Growth performance and nutrient utilization of catfish Clarias gariepinus fed varying inclusion level of fermented unsieved yellow maize

    Falaye, Augustine Eyiwunmi; Omoike, Augustine; Adesina, Suliyat Bolanle (2015-06-10)
    This study was conducted using 150 fish of Clarias gariepinus to investigate the growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fed five treatment diets containing varying inclusion level of fermented unsieved maize. The diets were grouped into CT, T1, T2, T3, and T4 with inclusion levels of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of fermented unsieved maize respectively. Highest weight gain was recorded in T4 with value of 10.24 and lowest weight was recorded in CT with 9.17. High FCR were observed in T2 with value of 0.70 and lower value was observed in T4 with value of 0.62. While, T2, T3, and T4 have highest survival rates with values of 90% in each treatment CT and T1 recorded 80% and 70% respectively. There was a significant (p< 0.05) difference between the food conversion ratios treatment T4 with the best value and other treatments. There was a significant (p< 0.05) difference between the levels of fermented unsieved maize inclusion and the specific growth rate of the experimental fish. The highest value of protein level and feed efficiency were observed in T4 at significant difference level (p< 0.05) than other treatments. It was concluded that fermentation of maize in fish feed has positive effects on the nutritional value of the feed. It is recommend that fermented maize can replace raw maize in fish feed diet for growth performance.KEYWORDS: Fermentation, yellow maize, Clarias gariepinus, Fish, Feed.
  • Technical efficiency in artisanal fisheries (AF) in Badagry local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria

    Ogunniyi, L.T.; Ajao, , A.O.; Sanusi , W.A. (2012)
    This study examined the technical efficiency in artisanal fisheries in Lagos State of Nigeria. The study employed a two stage random sampling procedure for the selection of 120 respondents. The analytical techniques involved descriptive statistics and estimation of technical efficiency following maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) procedure available in FRONTIER 4.1. The MLE result of the stochastic frontier production function showed that hired labour, cost of repair and capital items are critical factors that influences productivity of artisanal fishermen with the coefficient of hired labour being highly elastic. This implies that employing more labour will significantly increase the catch in the study area. The predicted farm efficiency with an average value of 0.92 showed that there is a marginal potential of about 8 percent to increase the catch, hence the income of the fishermen. The study further examined the factors that influence productivity of fishermen in the study area. Year of education, mode of operation and frequency of fishing have important implication on the technical efficiency of fishermen in the study area.
  • The review of recent advances in fish genetics and biotechnology

    Mgbabu , Christopher Nwokwa (2012-09-19)
    Great advances have been, and are being made in our knowledge of the genetics and molecular biology (including genomics, proteomics and structural biology). Global molecular profiling technologies such as microassays using DNA or oligonucleotide chip, and protein and lipid chips are being developed. The application of such biotechnological advances are inevitable in aquaculture in the areas of improvement of aquaculture stocks where many molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLDs and RAPD are now available for genome analysis, finger printing and genetic linkage mapping. Transgenic technology has been developed in a number of fish species and research is being pursed to produce transgenic fish carrying genes that encode antimicrobial peptides such as lysozyme thereby achieving disease resistance in fish. Also it is a short cut to achieving genetic change for fast growth and other desirable traits like early sexual maturity, temperature tolerance and feed conversion efficiency. KEYWORDS: Fish genetics, transgenesis, monoploidy, diploidy, polyploidy,gynogenesis, androgenesis, cryopreservation.
  • Production efficiency in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Burchell, 1822 in Cross River State , Nigeria

    Adinya, I.B.; Ikpi, G.U. (2008)
    In the study, the production efficiency of catfish in Cross River State was determined. Data was obtained from 120 fish farmers were randomly selected from Cross River Agricultural Zones, using a multistage random sampling technique. Multiple regression analysis model was the main tool of data analysis where different functions were tried. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglass production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of catfish and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2 = 0.61) indicates that sixtyone percent of the variability in output of catfish is explained by the independent variables. The results also indicate that farmers’ educational level positively influence their level of efficiency in catfish production in the study area. The F-value of 16.427 indicates the overall significance of the model at 1 percent level, indicating that there is a significant linear relationship between the independent variables taken together and the yield of catfish produced in Cross River State. The marginal value products of fish pond size (farm size), labour and feed (diet) were N67.50, N 178.13 and N 728.00 respectively, while allocative efficiency for (farm size), labour and feed (diet) were (0.09 over utilized, 2.85 under utilized and 0.99 over utilized), respectively, there existed allocative in-efficiency, there is a high potential for catfish farmers to increase their yields and income. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that fish farmers should expand fish farms, improving on production efficiency and adopting new technologies. Regular awareness campaign about new technologies in fish farming should be embarked by extension agents to make fish farmers know the importance of adopting new technologies. KEYWORDS: Production efficiency, Catfish, Cobb-Douglass, Production function, Cross River State
  • Evaluation of processed groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) cake meals in the feeding of Clariid catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fingerlings

    Fapohunda, O.O. (2008)
    Groundnut cake (GNC) meal is an important source of dietary protein for domestic animals with a cost advantage over the conventional animal protein sources used in aquaculture feed production. It would be useful to evaluate the effects of GNC processing methods on the density and nutritional values of processed GNC meals. The use of processed GNC meals in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings was evaluated. Seven iso-proteic and iso-caloric diets were formulated, replacing fish meal with roasted and boiled GNC meals, each at three inclusion levels of 30%, 35%, and 40%. Diet I is 100% fishmeal, Diet II is 30% roasted GNC meal, Diet III is 35% roasted GNC meal, Diet IV is 40% roasted GNC meal, Diet V is 30% boiled GNC meal, Diet VI is 35% boiled GNC meal and Diet VII is 40% boiled GNC meal. Results showed that the crude protein content of GNC meals was 40.5% and 40.8% in boiled and roasted GNC meals respectively; the lower protein content for processed GNC meals might be due to heat denaturation of the seed protein, with boiled GNC meal being more adversely affected. The mean weight gain of fingerlings fed roasted GNC meals ranged between 5.29 – 5.64 while for boiled GNC meals, it was between 4.60 – 5.22. Generally, fish performed better when fed diets containing roasted GNC meals, than boiled GNC meals, and compared favorably with fish fed fish meal based diet. Body mass increase, total feed increase, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate by C. gariepinus fingerlings in all diets, showed no significant differences, suggesting that processed GNC meals could partially replace diets for C. gariepinus fingerlings without adverse consequences. This study showed that processed GNC meals could partially replace fish meal up to 30% without significantly influencing fingerling growth and health. It is recommended that the use of fish meal as the main basal ingredient for fingerlings could be discontinued, since GNC meal was a cheaper alternative, and could replace fish meal up to 35%, without any significant adverse effects on the fingerling performance. KEYWORDS: Clarias gariepinus, Fingerlings, Groundnut cake meal, Nutrient utilization, Performance.
  • A field agronomic evaluation of Typha grass in Tomas dam Kano State Nigeria

    Birnin Yauri, Y.A.; Balarabe, M.L.; Mohammed, H.A.; Owotunse, S.O. (2008)
    The study was carried out by measuring plant height, length of leaves, width of the leaves, length of inflorescent, length of inflorescent tip were also measured with a measuring tape. Number of tillers per plants was counted. Soil auger was used to take soil samples randomly from ten different locations in Tomas Dam Kano states Nigeria. At the depths of 0-5cm, 5cm 13 10cm, 10cm 13 15cm. The soil samples were put into polyethylene bags and labelled according to their depth for mineral analyses. In the two season calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus constitute the highest concentration of the minerals at 0 155 cm depth. There is no significant differences in terms of mineral composition between wet season and dry season. (P<0.005).There is significance differences between plant Length of inflorescent and length of inflorescent tip when the two season are compared. KEYWORDS: Typha grass, field, agronomic evaluation,
  • Diet seasonality and overlap of Chrysichthys species on Lake Kainji, Nigeria

    Yem, I.Y.; Ago, N.D.; Ugoala, E. (2007)
    Seasonality and overlap of diet of Chrysichthys species in Kainji Lake was studied for a period of one year. A total of two hundred and forty five Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and one hundred and nineteen Chrysichthys auratus longifilis were used during the study. Chrysichthys species food items ranged from plant to animal materials. Seasonal variations of diet showed that plant material dominated the diet of both species in rainy and dry seasons. While zygoptera and Lumbiculus were absent in the diet of Chrysichthys auratus longifilis in rainy season, zygoptera and nematode were absent in dry season. There was significant correlation (p< 0.01) of the items between the two species. There was also high level of association between their diets, which indicated that both species have similar diet. Lake Kainji is a good environment for the survival of Chrysichthys species.KEYWORDS: Chrysichthys species, overlap, diet, seasonality, Kainji Lake, Nigeria
  • A mesocosm analytical study on the impact of freshwater mussel (Lamellidens marginalis Lamarck) mediated bioturbation and biodeposition on some ecological factors of a freshwater lake

    Jayakumar, P.; Jothivel, N.; Thimmappa, A.; Paul, V.I. (2008)
    The biotic potential of the benthic filter feeding freshwater bivalve mollusc Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck) influencing the nutrient dynamics of the bottom sediments of the lake by means of biodeposition and bioturbation activities were analysed using a lake mesocosm experiment. Five control as well as experimental mesocosms was maintained up to 60 days (d). The factors studied included the percentage of water content of the sediment, percentage of total nitrogen, percentage of organic matter along with the total phosphorus and humic acid content. While total phosphorus and humic acid content of the experimental mesocosoms showed gradual and significant increases from 30d of the experiment to reach the maximum levels after 60d, the percentage of organic matter registered significant increases right from 15d onwards and reached the maximum values after 60d. On the other hand, while the percentage of water content of the sediments of the experimental mesocosoms increased only up to 30d experiment, percentage of nitrogen was increased during the first half and at the fag end of the experiment. All the investigated ecological factors were found to be significantly influenced by the presence of L. marginalis in the experimental mesocosms. The study indicated that the mussel influence the nutrient dynamics of the inhabitant ecosystem through the processes of excretion, biodeposition of pseudofaeces and faeces, along with the bioturbation of the sediments brought about by their ploughing movements. KEYWORDS: freshwater mussel, Lamellidens marginalis, bioturbation, biodeposition, mesocosms.
  • Sub lethal mercuric chloride toxicity induced stress related alterations in the epithelial lining of foot of the freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck)

    Thimmappa, A.; Jothivel, N.; Paul, V.I. (2007)
    Sub lethal (0.2 ppm) mercuric chloride induced stress related histopathological alterations in the epithelial linings of foot (podium) of the edible freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck) were studied using histochemical techniques up to 60 days of exposure. The histomorphological changes were manifested only slowly and its intensity was somewhat proportional to the duration of exposure. The immediate response of the exposed mussels was the altered mucous secretion. There was a progressive incorporation of sulphated glycoproteins into the secretory contents of the mucous cells especially in the first half of the experiment. Marked histopathological changes including necrosis, appearance of pyknotic nuclei, sloughing of epithelial cells and appearance of non-tissue spaces, etc., started appearing during the later half of the experiment. The fag end of the experiment, which witnessed prominent histomorphological changes, was accompanied by highly decreased mucous secretion.KEYWORDS: heavy metal toxicity, mercuric chloride, Lamellidens marginalis, freshwater mussel, histopathology.
  • Length-weight relationship of benthic bivalves of the Andoni Flats, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Ansa, E.J.; Allison, M.E. (2008)
    The length weight relationship of three benthic bivalves namely, Senilia (= Anadara) senilis (bloody cockle), Tagelus adansonii (knife clam), Tellina nymphalis (soft shell clam) from the Andoni Flats were determined. The bivalves which are of ecological importance were obtained from the intertidal areas of the Andoni Flats. Shell lengths of the bivalves were measured and corresponding dry weight measurements were also taken. The data obtained were then subjected to regression analysis using the FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT). The length weight relationships obtained from the FiSAT analysis indicated isometric growth for Senilia (= Anadara) senilis, with slope (b) value of 2.942; positive allometric growth for Tagelus adansonii, with a ‘b’ value of 3.395 and negative allometric growth for Tellina nymphalis with ‘b’ value of 2.633.KEYWORDS: bivalves, length-weight, isometric growth, allometric growth, cockle, clam.
  • Aspects of mineral composition of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis adults exposed to different concentrations of Bonny-light crude oil

    Ugwu, L.L.C.; Valdon, B.S.; Adesiyan, A.F.; Nwani,, C.D. (2007)
    Studies were carried out to assess some macro and trace elements of mineral composition of the male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis adults exposed to graded concentrations (1.00-8.00m/L-1) of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO). The experiment was monitored for 4 days (toxicity) and 42days (recovery) periods. Significant decreases (P < 0.05)in the sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), vanadium (Va), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) contents of the male H. bidorsalis corresponded with the increasing concentrations of BLCO. In contrast, the female fishes recorded significant increases (P < 0.05) in the values of the above elements in their tissues as the concentrations of BLCO increased. Furthermore, the values of Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Zn, Fe, Va, Pb and Mn recorded in the male fishes where generally lower than those of their female counterparts and the control fish. Increased values of these elements were also recorded during the recovery periods (days 14, 28 and 42) of this study in the magnitudes of 15% at day 14, 20% at day 28 and 20% at day 42. This implied that the removal of crude oil stress during this period improved the quantity of these minerals deposited in the fish tissues. The highest percent proportion of Zn and the lowest proportion of Pb recorded in both male and female H. bidorsalis adults agreed with the report of other workers for other fish species. KEYWORDS: Heterobranchus bidorsalis, Mineral composition, Bonny-light crude oil, Toxicity, Recovery.
  • Skeletal malformations among the Clarias species from fish mongers in Ekiti State

    Fagbuaro, Omotayo; Oso, James Abayomi (2011)
    Clarias species purchased from fish mongers from Ado – Ekiti, Ikun Ekiti, Itapaji – Ekiti Nigeria were examined for possible deformities in any part of their body. A total number of 360, 140, and 40 fish samples were from Ado – Ekiti, Ikun – Ekiti, and Itapaji – Ekiti respectively. Deformities of various types were observed only from Ado – Ekiti collection. The deformities observed are malformed mouth, big head, stumpy body, and multiple vertebral deformities. The possible cause (s) of the deformities may be as a result of stress, pollution from human activities or other factors such as poor nutrition, hereditary, diseases, etc. but these causes has not been properly determined
  • Comparative evaluation of the proximate composition of smoked and salted-dried Oreochromis niloticus

    Ndakatu, M.A.; Oyero, J.O.; Mamsa , A.M. (2011)
    This study was carried out to evaluate and compare the shelf life of smoked and salted-dried Oreochromis niloticus over a relative time period. Improved traditional smoking kiln and salting were employed respectively. The smoking kiln was constructed with iron metal with a dimension of 120cm x 70cm and consisting of three smoking racks with dimension of 30 x 30cm each. Table salt was used for preservation of some of the specimens. A total of 30 samples weighing 7.1kg were used. Fifteen (15) samples each were used respectively for smoking and salting. Satisfactory smoking was achieved in two days while salting to dryness was accomplished in four days. The initial percentage proximate compositions of the smoked products were 7.94%, 66. 97%, 8.`84% and 2.96% for moisture, protein, lipid and ash respectively, while that of the salted products were 8.37%, 63.93%, 12.91% and 3.95% for moisture, protein, lipid and ash. Preliminary results of the proximate compositions of the two products at the end of the fifth week of storage were as follows; 8.23%, 65.70%, 10.63% and 2.23% for moisture, protein, lipid and ash respectively of the smoked products, while 6.33%, 64.25%, 11.28% and 2.38% represent the values of moisture, protein, lipid and ash of the salted-dried products. By the individual product proximate characterization, it was discovered that both products were still relatively in good and acceptable condition. However, the protein and moisture values of the smoked products were relatively greater than those of the salted-dried products, while on the other hand, lipid and ash were relatively greater in salted-dried products. The prevailed relative higher moisture in the smoked products constitutes a predisposing condition for microbial activity and spoilage of the products, while the relative higher percentage lipid in the salted-dried products predisposes the products to lipid oxidation and rancidity.
  • Environmental friendly aquaculture key to sustainable fish farming development in Nigeria

    Akinrotimi, O.A.; Abu, O.M.G.; Aranyo, A.A. (2011)
    Aquaculture production in Nigeria has increased tremendously in recent times; along with this increase is the rise in the level of waste outputs from aquaculture practices. The discharge of waste from aquaculture operations on continuous basis leads to eutrophication and destruction of natural ecosystem in receiving water body. Controlled wastes production strategies is necessary to maintain sustainable aquaculture growth into the future, as long-term sustainability of fish culture systems depends on their ability to reduce their waste outputs. The release of solid wastes is mainly a function of the digestibility of various dietary components while the release of dissolved wastes is mainly a function of the metabolism of nutrients by the fish. This paper critically reviews the impacts of aquaculture wastes on the environment and the strategies to mitigate the effect of these impacts. Future trends and research needs on aquaculture induced effluents are outlined. As the amount of nutrient discharge is typically site and operation specific, effective farm management has been identified as the most important factor to avoid effluent pollution.

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