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  • Supporting community-based resource management in Solomon Islands: the role of provincial governments

    WorldFish (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2018)
    Rural communities in Solomon Islands rely heavily on coastal fisheries for food and income. However, coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass are degrading in many areas because of overharvesting, pollution and unsustainable land-use activities such as logging. The degradation of coastal fisheries has big implications for the food security and livelihoods of rural communities. The national government recognizes the importance of coastal fisheries and aims to ensure that 50 percent of coastal areas are sustainably managed by 2020. This brief summarises the key actions and policies taken by the provincial governments in supporting community-based resource management in Solomon Islands.
  • Sierra Leone aquaculture assessment with special emphasis on Tonkolili and Bombali districts

    Sankoh, S.; Teoh, S.J.; Phillips, M.J.; Siriwardena, S.N. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2018)
    This assessment set out to investigate why fish farming has spread in Tonkolili District yet been poorly adopted in neighboring Bombali District. The purpose was to analyze what was working in Tonkolili but not in Bombali and then extrapolate this beyond Tonkolili. The current study aims to consolidate the most recent FAO study and map out pond distribution in Tonkolili, the most popular aquaculture development district in Sierra Leone, while also trying to make sense of this distribution. It also tries to update existing GIS models for aquaculture site suitability, particularly Tonkolili, with a view to identifying the opportunities and challenges of developing aquaculture in the country.
  • Inland valley swamp assessment in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone

    Rashid-Noah, A.B.; Johnny, M.; Olapade, J.; Phillips, M.J.; Siriwardena, S.N. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2018)
    Inland valley swamps (IVSs) form part of the upland-inland valley continuum in Sierra Leone, occupying the lowest position in the landscape. This study aimed to analyze the actual use, constraints on the use and the agro-potential of IVS in Tonkolili District. Through interviews and limited field testing, it was possible to obtain detailed information regarding socioeconomic aspects and food production systems, as well as a rough assessment of physical properties such as soil quality and inundation period for each targeted IVS in all 11 chiefdoms in the district. The report concludes with several recommendations for interventions to optimize the use of IVSs in Tonkolili District to enhance food production, nutrition and income.
  • Basic biosecurity manual for tilapia hatchery technicians in Bangladesh

    Mohamed Din, M.S.; Subasinghe, R. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2017)
    With the onset of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) outbreaks in several Asian countries, WorldFish, in collaboration with Bangladesh’s Department of Fisheries, has developed a program to improve biosecurity in the tilapia industry throughout the country. As the first step, a training program has been designed and conducted to train a group of specialists called Master Trainers on improving tilapia hatchery biosecurity. This manual is a result of that program. The Master Trainers will use this manual for training tilapia hatchery technicians countrywide on how to improve biosecurity in hatcheries.
  • Sierra Leone fish value chain analysis with special emphasis on Tonkolili District

    Kassam, L.; Lakoh, K.; Longley, C.; Phillips, M.J.; Siriwardena, S.N. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2017)
    The USAID-funded Sierra Leone Feed the Future (FtF) Agriculture Project implemented by WorldFish has completed its initial pilot phase (July 2015 to September 2016). During this phase, the project identified and tested interventions to develop integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems and associated value chains to enhance food, nutrition and livelihood outcomes for rural households in Tonkolili District. This project emphasizes rehabilitation and improvement of fish and rice farming systems combined with nutritious vegetable crops. The assessment of existing fish and rice value chains in Sierra Leone was a key component of this initial phase to improve understanding of current farming systems and identify opportunities for interventions to increase productivity and income and improve nutrition among rural households in Tonkolili District. This report presents the key findings of the fish value chain assessment, with an emphasis on the development of the aquaculture sector and recommendations for potential value chain interventions in marine and freshwater fisheries and aquaculture sectors.
  • Aquaculture in Zambia: An overview and evaluation of the sector’s responsiveness to the needs of the poor

    Genschick, S.; Kaminski, A.M.; Kefi, A.S.; Cole, S.M. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2017)
    Given the recent expansion and commercialization of aquaculture in Zambia, an important question that needs to be explored is how have the recent changes in the Zambian aquaculture sector contributed to the needs of the poor? The aim of this report is to (a) outline the current trajectory of aquaculture development in Zambia and (b) evaluate whether these development efforts are inclusive of and responsive to the needs of the poor.
  • Aquaculture for income and nutrition: Final report

    Keus, E.H.J.; Subasinghe, R.; Aleem, N.A.; Sarwer, R.H.; Islam, M.M.; Hossain, M.Z.; Masum, A.A.; Rahman, M.M.; Alan, M.B.; Anisuzzaman, A.W.M.; et al. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2017)
    The United States Agency for International Development-Aquaculture for Income and Nutrition (USAID-AIN) project, implemented by WorldFish, emphasized technology development for improved fish strains, and capacity building in hatcheries and nurseries for wider dissemination and uptake among small- and medium-scale household and commercial producers. Improving nutritional benefits from household aquaculture investment was also an important activity of the project. Specifically, AIN aimed to increase aquaculture production by developing hatcheries and nurseries, disseminating improved fish and shrimp seed, enhancing farm management skills of smallholder farmers, promoting new technologies to expand commercial aquaculture, developing backward and forward market linkages, supporting policy reform and building capacity of the public and private sectors, which resulted in increased productivity and revenue for farmers. This report also highlights the major achievements of the AIN project between 2011 and 2016.
  • Tilapia lake virus (TiLV): Literature review

    Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Mohan, Chadag Vishnumurthy (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2017)
    Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is an emerging infectious agent that has recently been identified in diseased tilapia on three continents. At the time of writing, scientific publications have reported TiLV in samples collected from Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Israel and Thailand. While the link between TiLV and disease outbreaks in Israel and Thailand are well documented, further investigations are being undertaken to determine the significance of TiLV in the other countries. Israel and Taiwan Province of China have made a notification of TiLV as an emerging disease to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Studies have shown that populations infected with TiLV show variable levels of morbidity and mortality. This report summarizes the currently available scientific information on TiLV, including clinical signs, diagnostics and epidemiology. While of no concern to human health, the consequences of infection with TiLV in tilapia populations may potentially result in socio economic losses and impacts on food security.
  • Fish to 2050 in the ASEAN region

    Chan, C.Y.; Tran, N.; Dao, C.D.; Sulser, T.B.; Phillips, M.J.; Batka, M.; Wiebe, K.; Preston, N. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2017)
    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has emerged as a global fish producer, owing to the rapid growth of aquaculture in Southeast Asia and its large offshore fishing fleet. Fish is a regional commodity that is traded globally, and this region is at the frontline of the global trend toward meeting seafood demand by 2050. Fisheries and aquaculture are increasingly becoming a primary source of protein and micronutrients, foreign exchange, livelihoods and well-being for the population in the region. Therefore, it is imperative for ASEAN decision-makers to enhance policies nationally and regionally to maximize the synergies between socioeconomic development and protecting natural resources and the environment in the region. This paper presents a baseline (business-as-usual) projection of fish supply, net trade, consumption and nutrition in the ASEAN region to 2050.
  • Etude de la chaine de commercialisation du poisson: Lac Ntomba, section du fleuve Congo (Ngombe) et marchés de Mbandaka et Kinshasa

    Bandi, B.; Bungubetshi, G.; Gordon, A.; Russell, A.J.M. (WorldFishCairo, Egypt, 2009-01)
    Cette étude a été réalisée par le WorldFish Center dans le cadre de sa collaboration avec le WWF et le projet CARPE de l’USAID. La chaîne de commercialisation du poisson a été suivie des zones de production jusqu’au principal marché final. La région au centre de cette étude est le lac Ntomba ainsi qu’une partie du fleuve Congo. Ceci correspond à la partie nord de la section du Paysage Lac Télé - Lac Tumba de la République Démocratique du Congo. Toutes les étapes de la chaîne de commercialisation du poisson ont été prises en compte dans cette étude. Les stratégies des acteurs présents à chaque étape ainsi que les dynamiques les associant à la chaîne ont été utilisées pour refléter le fonctionnement de la chaîne de commercialisation du poisson et identifier ses spécificités. La pêche est une activité saisonnière de grande importance dans la région du lac Ntomba et la partie proche du fleuve Congo. La majorité des habitants de la région constituent leurs moyens d’existence d’un panachage d’activités, dont la séquence semble être rythmée essentiellement par l’opportunité et le climat. Presque aucun service n’est offert dans cette région où les activités économiques sont réduites et n’ont le plus souvent qu’une faible productivité. Cependant, la chaîne de commercialisation du poisson supporte un large éventail d’acteurs différents et représente un secteur d’une grande importance pour la région. Cette région périphérique est reliée au reste de l’économie nationale par une série de marchés et de nombreux différents types d’acteurs. Assurer ce lien représente de sérieuses difficultés et comporte des risques importants tandis que les marges de profits sont le plus souvent minces. Cependant, il semblerait que, de manière générale, le marché se développe et les liens se renforcent, même si cette évolution est plus discrète dans les lieux les plus isolés.
  • Preliminary assessment of the artisanal fishery sector around Lac Maï-Ndombe in the Lac Tele-Lac Tumba (LTL) CARPE Landscape

    Russell, A.J.M.; Gordon, A.; Bungubetshi, G.; Zanga, N. (WorldFishCario, Egypt, 2007-09-30)
    The WorldFish Center was contracted by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) to lead a preliminary assessment of the Lac Maï-Ndombe fishery, one of three water bodies for which such an assessment will be completed in the Lac Tele-Lac Tumba Landscape of the CARPE program. Between Aug.29-Sept.5, 2007, a joint WorldFish Center-WWF team traveled to Lac Maï-Ndombe in Bandundu Province, and conducted an analysis of the conditions surrounding the fishery and fisherfolk livelihoods in a total of 19 villages and camps. Included in this assessment were preliminary analyses of market-chain networks and stakeholders’ receptivity to NGO capacity-building to improve commercialization of fish catches and/or to introduce local fisheries management regimes. While perceptions of declining fish stocks prevail, the absence of changes in reported fish sizes bring into doubt any urgent need for fishery management interventions. However, lacking scientific fish population structure data the team would not recommend any NGO interventions to increase fishing effort. Lac Maï-Ndombe fisherfolk have highly diversified levels of dependence on fishing, and while there is evidence that some stakeholder groups are flourishing, the majority of the fishery appears to be characterized by a livelihood insecurity and a lack of capital. This limits fishers’ abilities to negotiate with transporters and with Kinshasa-based market brokers, and in combination with a heavy burden of rent-seeking behavior by civil servants, this condition forces over half of the fishers to sell their fish and buy all manufactured products through local intermediaries at disadvantageous prices.
  • Assessment of institutional contexts for collective action, and stakeholder receptiveness to integrated research-extension approaches on Lac Ntomba, Lac Maï-Ndombe and the Maringa-Lopori-Wamba watersheds

    Russell, A.J.M.; Bungubetshi, G.; Hoekstra, M. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2008-10-30)
    The WorldFish Center has been collaborating with its partners (AWF and WWF) in the Maringa-Lopori-Wamba (MLW) and the Lac Tele-Lac Ntomba (LTL) Landscapes to develop participatory monitoring systems for aquatic ecosystems. This requires rigorous data collection regarding fishing effort and catch, and the establishment of community partnerships; enabling WorldFish Center researchers to understand and counteract the institutional legacies of previous NGO interventions. In the MLW, fisherfolk livelihoods are severely limited due to their extreme isolation from markets and government services. However, fisherfolk have some experience dealing with natural resource conservation or extraction entities as well as humanitarian agencies. Their history has left them slightly skeptical but reasonably willing to collaborate with incoming NGOs. Around Lac Ntomba, fisherfolk have had more extensive interactions with conservation and humanitarian NGOs, but despite their proximity to the Congo River, they appear to have very limited access to distant markets. As past benefits from NGO activities have been captured by local village elites many fishers are highly skeptical and even antagonistic toward NGOs in general, and see little benefits from collaborating with each other or NGOs. Similarly to the MLW and Lac Ntomba, Lac Maï-Ndombe fisherfolk were disillusioned by past NGO activities. However, in this area levels of fish catch are greater than in the other watersheds, and many fishers make regular trips to major markets in Kinshasa, Kikwit and Tchikapa. Consequently, while there are significant divisions to be addressed in Lac Maï-Ndombe, fisherfolk in general are more interested in exploring options for improving livelihoods. In order to overcome these hurdles, the WorldFish Center has introduced an integrated research-extension approach in its interactions with these communities. The teams conducted demonstrations of technological innovations that could significantly improve on present post-harvest fish processing practices, in particular: a solar fish drying tent and a fish smoking barrel.
  • A manual for improving fish production in Northern Zambia through integrated farming systems

    Nsonga, A.; Imelda, K.M. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2016)
    This manual was written as part of the Integrated Research in Development for Improved Livelihoods Programme in Northern Province, Zambia (IRDLP) and is primarily intended for extension agents to use with smallholder farmers engaged in semi-intensive fish farming in Northern Zambia. The IRDLP is an Irish Aid-funded project implemented by WorldFish, Harvest Plus and the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). The goal of the IRDLP is to help improve the livelihoods, health status, and food and nutrition security of resource-poor households in the Mbala and Luwingu districts in Northern Zambia, especially women and vulnerable groups. This is achieved through generating and providing evidence-based information, scientific technologies and livelihood solutions to trigger community and farmer innovations for positive change. This manual provides information on how smallholder fish farmers can improve fish production in Northern Zambia, particularly in the Luwingu and Mbala districts, through integrated farming practices.
  • WorldFish Center report on the opportunities and constraints to improved fisheries exploitation and management in the Maringa – Lopori – Wamba landscape

    Russell, A.J.M.; Brummett, R.; Kambala, B.; Gordon, A. (WorldFishEgypt, 2007-07-15)
    The WorldFish Center was contracted by Africa Wildlife Foundation to conduct a preliminary survey of the role of fisheries in livelihoods, and opportunities and constraints to improved fisheries exploitation and management, in the Maringa-Lopori-Wamba Landscape. In May 2007, a three person WorldFish Center team, supported by AWF staff, visited the landscape to explore how the fishery operates to meet local needs and identify scope for interventions that might improve fisheries livelihood opportunities without undermining its sustainability. It is clear that although fishing is important for both income and subsistence in the areas visited, profits are nonetheless modest and somewhat unpredictable. Moreover, fisherfolk should not be considered a homogeneous group: there are different sub-groups, using different gears and skills, involving women and men in both fishing and post-harvest activities, groups who are more or less dependent on farming, and who fish, on balance, more either for cash or subsistence needs. Thus the findings here need to be set within this context of different sub-groups, fishing for generally very modest remuneration, with the latter subject to considerable variability and uncertainty.
  • Learning from the lagoon: Research in development in Solomon Islands

    van der Ploeg, J.; Albert, J.; Apgar, M.; Bennett, G.; Boso, D.; Cohen, P.; Daokalia, C.; Faiau, J.; Harohau, D.; Iramo, E.; et al. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2016)
    A major challenge for international agricultural research is to find ways to improve the nutrition and incomes of people left behind by the Green Revolution. To better address the needs of the most marginal and vulnerable people, the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) developed the research-in-development (RinD) approach. In 2012, WorldFish started to implement RinD in Solomon Islands. By building people’s capacity to analyze and address development problems, actively engaging relevant stakeholders, and linking research to these processes, RinD aims to develop an alternative approach to addressing hunger and poverty. This report describes the key principles and implementation process, and assesses the emergent outcomes of this participatory, systems-oriented and transformative research approach in Solomon Islands.
  • Value chain transformation: Taking stock of WorldFish research on value chains and markets

    Kruijssen, F.; Audet-Belanger, G.; Choudhury, A.; Crissman, C.; Dalsgaard, J.P.T.; Dawson, C.; Dickson, M.; Genschick, S.; Islam, M.M.; Kaminski, A.; et al. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2016)
    The goal of WorldFish’s research on markets and value chains is to increase the benefits to resource-poor people from fisheries and aquaculture value chains by researching (1) key barriers to resource-poor men, women and other marginalized groups gaining greater benefits from participation in value chains, including barriers related to the availability, affordability and quality of nutrient-rich fish for resource-poor consumers; (2) interventions to overcome those barriers; and (3) mechanisms that are most effective for scaling up of value chain interventions. This paper aims to promote and document learning across WorldFish’s value chain research efforts in Asia and Africa. It has three main objectives: (1) to take stock of WorldFish’s past and ongoing research on value chains; (2) to draw out commonalities and differences between these projects; and (3) to provide a synthesis of some learning that can guide future work.
  • A social and gender analysis of Northern Province, Zambia: Qualitative evidence that supports the use of a gender transformative approach

    Cole, S.M.; Sweeney, M.; Moyo, A.; Mwauluka, M. (WorldFish & Self Help AfricaLusaka, Zambia, 2016)
    A qualitative social and gender analysis was carried out in June 2015 in Luwingu and Mbala Districts in Northern Province, Zambia. The research explored the norms and power relations at various institutional levels that constrain certain social groups from benefiting from programmatic investments aimed at improving livelihoods, health status, and food and nutrition security within the Irish Aid Local Development Programme (IALDP). This technical paper provides a summary of the research findings, lessons learned and suggests options for action the IALDP could consider to help bring about gender transformative change in the lives and livelihoods of poor and vulnerable people.
  • Improving Employment and Income through Development of Egypt’s Aquaculture Sector (IEIDEAS) project

    Dickson, M.; Nasr-Allah, A.M.; Kenawy, D.; Fathi, M.; El-Naggar, G.; Ibrahim, N. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2016)
    The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)-funded Improving Employment and Income through Development of Egypt’s Aquaculture Sector (IEIDEAS) project was implemented by WorldFish in partnership with CARE Egypt and the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation from 2011 to 2014 and later extended to November 2015. The project focused on four governorates with significant aquaculture production (Kafr El Sheikh, Behera, Sharkia and Fayoum) and one governorate (El Mineya), where aquaculture was a new activity. The project was based on a value chain analysis conducted by WorldFish in September 2011 that identified the aquaculture value chain as a significant employer, particularly in rural areas. The analysis suggested that there was scope to increase employment of youth and women in the aquaculture sector The main objective was to increase aquaculture production by 10% and create 10,000 jobs. Other objectives included improving profitability for existing producers, securing employment for women fish retailers, expanding aquaculture in El Mineya and improving the policy environment for aquaculture.
  • Understanding the gender dimensions of adopting climate-smart smallholder aquaculture innovations

    Morgan, M.; Choudhury, A.; Braun, M.; Beare, D.; Benedict, J.; Kantor, P. (WorldFishPenang, Malaysia, 2015)
    This study explored how climate-smart agricultural and aquaculture innovations may lead to more successful climate adaptation efforts and enhanced resilience for both men and women in households and across communities, as well as to improved and equitable outcomes in terms of income, nutrition and livelihood opportunities. Specifically, it investigated efforts to target women with household aquaculture innovations to understand (1) if such approaches enable women to use or benefit from them; (2) if and how usage impacts the sustained use of these innovations; and (3) if it would be possible to scale out these innovations to achieve large scale development outcomes.
  • Improving income and livelihood of poor farming household in Bangladesh through adoption of improved aquaculture technologies and varieties

    Nahiduzzaman, M.; Zahura, I.; Islam, M.E.; Sarker, A.K.; Miah, M.M.A.; Datta, G.C.; Basak, R.K.; Haque, A.B.M.M.; Hossain, M.M. (WorldFishBangladesh, 2015)
    Fish are an important part of Bangladeshi culture and diet. Bangladesh ranks among the top five freshwater fish producers in the world. Fish are abundant in the thousands of rivers, ponds, lakes and seasonal floodplains across the country. They are a major source of protein for people living near these water bodies. In Bangladesh, many households depend on fish farming for their livelihood. By growing fish in homestead ponds, households have a consistent supply of nutritious fish and can sell the surplus for an income. The USAID-funded Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia in Bangladesh (CSISA-BD) aimed to increase the income of farming households through increased productivity of aquaculture systems. Key activities of the project included developing and disseminating appropriate improved agricultural technology and quality fish seeds to improve livelihoods, food security and nutrition.

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