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  • Studies on the morpho taxonomic variations of four Centropagidae species (Crustacea: ‎Calanoida) with note on their abundance collected from Sonmiani Bay, northern ‎Arabian sea

    Mubarak, Shumaila; Ali, Qadeer Mohammad (2022-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Centropagidae is comparatively a larger family to other families of order calanoida. The ‎quantitative data revealed that the copepods of the genus Centropages are the ‎dominant component in the zooplankton samples from the designated station in ‎Sonmiani bay, a coastal lagoon at Balochistan coast, northern Arabian sea. Four ‎epipelagic species of family Centropagidae, Centropages (Centropages dorsispinatus ‎Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903, Centropages tenuiremis Thompson I.C. & Scott A., ‎‎1903, Centropages furcatus (Dana, 1849) and Centropages orsinii Giesbrecht, 1889 ) ‎were identified. Male and female specimens were distinguished on their characteristic ‎features of antennules, thoracic segments and fifth legs. Identified specimens were ‎described briefly with their microscopic illustrations. Centropages dorsispinatus and ‎Centropages tenuiremis were frequently found in zooplankton samples throughout the ‎sampling season.‎
  • Morphometric relationship of Perna viridis Linnaeus, (1758) from the Manora Channel, ‎coastal waters of Pakistan

    Naz, Farah; Afsar‎, Nuzhat; Abbas‎, Ambareen; Siddiqui, Hafsa Hoor; Diljan, Salman; Sherazi, Syed Ibtehaj (2022-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Perna viridis (Green Mussels) is characterized by fast-growing, found in large clusters, ‎one of the dominant bio-fouling organisms, native to West Indo Pacific region and ‎commonly distributed along the Southeast Indian and Asian coast. They are found in ‎the shallow sublittoral water up to a depth of 15 m and be able to tolerate an extensive ‎range of environmental situation i.e. tolerate temperatures range of 15-32.5C. Green ‎mussels were collected from the navigation buoy in Manora Channel and brought to the ‎research laboratory. Samples were washed to remove the sand, vegetation, and other ‎particles. Morphometric measurements were measured to the nearest gram. The result ‎revealed that the shell length ranged between 0.60-7.4 cm, the width range between 0.10-‎‎2.9 cm, and the weight range between 0.037-15.549 g. In all morphometric relationships, ‎the validation of the “b” values was significantly different from the isometric value. ‎Significant correlation variation was observed in all variables whereas the highest ‎correlation values were observed in the length-width (n-224, r2 = 0.966) and the lowest ‎was observed in width-total weight (n-224, r2 = 0.85). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) ‎revealed that all variables showed significantly different (DF=1, p<0.000).‎
  • Estimation of population structure, growth and condition of Lates calcarifer (Bloch, ‎‎1790) in the Bay of ‎Bengal

    Ilah‎, Nur-E-Farjana; Abedin‎, Md. Joynal; Rahman‎, Md. Ashekur; Azad‎, Md. Abul Kalam; Khatun‎, Most. Taslima; Asadujjaman‎, Md.; Samad, Md. Abdus; Habib, Kazi Ahsan; Ali, Md. Nowsher; Sarmin, Most. Shakila (2022-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    The current study illustrates the life-history traits; including length frequency distribution ‎‎(LFD), length-weight and length-length relationship (LWR and LLR), condition factors ‎‎(allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; relative condition, KR; relative weight, WR), and natural ‎mortality (Mw) of Lates calcarifer from the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. A total of 103 ‎individuals were randomly collected from January to December 2021 using traditional ‎fishing gear including Koral net and gill net. For each individual, total length (TL), ‎standard length (SL), and total body weight (BW) were measured with measuring scale to ‎‎0.1 cm and digital balance to 0.1 g precision, respectively. The TL size class 84.0 cm was ‎a numerically dominant group in the population. The b value of LWR (TL vs. BW) ‎indicated positive allometric growth (b=3.28) pattern in the Bay of Bengal. Likewise, the ‎b value of LLR indicated also the same growth pattern. Among the four types of ‎condition factors, KF is the best-suited tool for evaluating the well-being of L. calcarifer. ‎Additionally, WR exhibited significant divergence from 100 (P< 0.0001), defining an ‎imbalanced habitat. The calculated Mw was 0.23 year-1 for L. calcarifer. Therefore, these ‎findings would be used in the future for the improved management of this species in the ‎Bay of Bengal as well as for connecting ecosystems.‎
  • A new species of Philometra reported from the ovaries of edible fish Epinephelus ‎bleekeri (Vaillant, 1878) of the Karachi coast

    Rizwana, A.G.; Zulfiqar, Sumbul (2022-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Nutritionally, fish meat is identified as healthiest meat all over the world. Nutriments that ‎are essential for healthy diet can be easily drive from fishes. Beside fish meat there are ‎various type of derivatives that we can obtain from them. Economically fish industry is ‎considered as backbone for any country. Approximately, 45,000 species of helminth ‎parasites cause pathogenicity in vertebrate hosts that are known to man. Parasite that ‎belong to family Philometridae usually invade different body organs and cavities of ‎various fishes. Parasite that cause pathogenicity in reproductive organs of fish ultimately ‎cause disturbance in their release of reproductive hormones, mating behavior, difficulty ‎in spawning and ultimately number of fry production is declined.‎ This research was conducted on the nematode parasites of marine fish Epinephelus ‎bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) from Karachi coast during January,2021 to December,2021. In ‎this one year research, a new species of nematode Philometra bleekerii n.sp. was ‎recorded from the reproductive organs of marine fish Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant ‎‎1878).‎
  • Effect of freezing period on chemical composition, microbial load and some pathogenic ‎bacteria of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)‎

    Yagoub, Hassan M. (2022-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    This study evaluated the effects of freezing periods on nutritional values, microbial ‎loads, and some pathogenic bacteria in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). 8 kg.‎‏ ‏Samples were collected from El-mawourda Fish Market in Khartoum State, for four ‎experimental treatments. The treatments were conducted on the period 0 day, 7 days, 15 ‎days and 21 days.‎‏ ‏It is noticed that the freezing period effect on the nutritional value, ‎microbial load and some pathogenic bacteria of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ‎revealed that the lowest average nutritional assessment of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis ‎niloticus) observed for protein 20% at the third period of freezing (21 days), and ‎minerals were calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium and potassium (5.6 – ‎‎2.7%, 4.8 – 2.9%, 2.6 – 2.9%, 1.1 – 0.71%, 4.5 – 2.8%) respectively. The‏ ‏result of this ‎study clarified that the freezing period has a considerable consequence (p ≤ 0.05) on the ‎chemical composition, microbial load and same pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and ‎Salmonella) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).‎
  • Modelling current and future distribution of the invasive silver-cheeked toadfish ‎Lagocephalus sceleratus in the Mediterranean Sea

    Turan, Cemal; Doğdu, Servet Ahmet (2022-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    The progress in species distribution modeling has brought new insights into biological ‎invasion management. The present study aims to model the potential current geographic ‎distribution and future expansion of silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus in ‎the Mediterranean Sea. Coordinates of 98 occurrence records of L. sceleratus in the ‎Mediterranean were used, and marine climatic variables were collected from the global ‎databases. Fifteen modeling techniques were tested, and weighted ensemble averaging of ‎the model replicates was built. AUC values for each model ranged from 0.61 for rpart to ‎‎0.99 for rf, and TSS values varied from 0.41 for mlp to 0.95 for rf. Based on the cutoff ‎values of TSS and AUC, the seven modelling algorithms were used for ensemble ‎modeling. The maximum seawater temperature at minimum depth explained strong ‎biological importance to the current adaptation, and the salinity contributed the most to ‎the future adaptation. The ensemble forecasting of suitable habitats of L. sceleratus for ‎current distribution modeling revealed that L. sceleratus dominantly occurred in ‎the middle and eastern parts of coastal areas of the Mediterranean. The future ‎distribution was extended to the western part of coastal areas of the Mediterranean, ‎classifying the high suitability of these areas for its future distribution. The suitable ‎bioclimatic envelope of L. sceleratus under the present study is predicted to widen ‎because of climate change. The likely regions of invasion and the areas at risk for a ‎potential future invasion of L. sceleratus indicate that prompt, effective practical actions ‎by resource managers should be undertaken to mitigate its impacts and spread.‎
  • Length-weight relationship and condition factor in Sarda orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) (Family-Scombridae) fish from Karachi fish harbour.

    Muzaffar, Kanwal; Yousuf, Farzana; Shaikh, Iqra (2022-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Sarda orientalis (Family-Scombridae) of assorted length (cm) and weight (gm) were obtained from Karachi fish harbor during January to December (2019) for measurement of length-weight relationship (LWR’s) and Fulton‘s condition factor (K). The range of length (57-60.8) and weight (2123-2641) were estimated. Total mean length (cm) (gm) (59.14±0.94) and weight (gm) (2336.32±114.21) were measured. LWR was estimated as W = 0.08166134 × L 2.5149 (log W = -1.088 + 2.5149log L). The highest mean of condition factor (K) (1.15±0.02) were measured in post-monsoon season. Assorted (ANOVA) analysis indicates that there is a significant correlation between weight, length, and season (p0.05).
  • Molluscans species diversity and protein expression analysis in Lunella ‎coronate spp of family Turbinidae from the Manora Channel Karachi, ‎Pakistan‎.

    Afsar‎, Nuzhat; Naz‎, Farah; Saher‎, Noor Us; Ibrahim‎, Shafaq; Sadiq‎, Hafiza Mahzaib; Ahmed‎, Urooba; Mughal‎, Ramsha; Bint e Ahmed‎, Syeda Zainab; Jabbar, Sonia Abdul (2022-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Manora rocky shore characterize as a shore having moderate to strong wave exposure, ‎zonation pattern characterize by intertidal habit, different communities of invertebrates ‎and algae bands dominated by molluscan diversity and associated fauna. The current ‎study contribute the species diversity of molluscs from the Manora rocky ledge, coast of ‎Pakistan. A total of 11 species were recorded pertaining to 9 families and 11 genera ‎including family Turbinidae: Turbo bruneus, Lunella coronata, family Cerithiidae: ‎Cerithium caeruleum, family Babyloniidae: Babylonia spirata, family Neritidae: Nerita ‎albicilla, family: Chilodontaidae Euchelus asper, family Veneridae: Circenita ‎callipyga, family Arcidae: Barbatia obliquata. Family Pectinidae, Mimachlamys ‎townsendi, family Chamidae: Chama sp, family Littorinidae and Sub family ‎Trachycardiinae V. assimile. In addition, Protein expression analysis of L. cornata was ‎also observed through Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic. L. coronata was previously ‎reported from the coastal water of Pakistan with some morphological variation in the ‎shell shape and the results reveled that electrophoretic patterns of proteins in L. cornata ‎spp 1 and L. cornata spp2 differentiate from each as seen in morphological characters.‎
  • Benthic assemblages for ecological evaluation of Lake Borollus, Mediterranean Sea, ‎Egypt.‎

    El Komi, Mohamed Mohamed (2022-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Lake Borollus is one of the largest and oldest Egyptian lakes, whereas it is located in the ‎far north of the Delta and mediates between the two branches of Rosetta and Damietta. ‎It is connected to the Mediterranean Sea through Boghaz El Borollus and to the Nile ‎through the Bermbal Canal, which was established in 1926 to feed the lake with ‎abundant quantities of Nile water and Nile fish. Central coordinates: latitude 31°30' N ‎and longitude 30°49' E with an area has decreased from 160,000 acres to 108,000 acres. ‎The present work provides an ecological study on the regional and temporal distribution ‎of benthic communities in particular along the wetlands lakes waters. Indicated that, the ‎effective sediment and water variables which significantly correlated with the distribution ‎and abundance of the identified benthos assemblages of vegetation and animal’s groups ‎include sediments structure, water quality (pH, S%, DO, BOD, temperature. Overall, 10 ‎taxa and 27 species of macroinvertebrates were identified. They were exclusively ‎associated with submerged vascular plants Potamogeton pectinatus while only 10 were ‎alive forms and the rest were represented by calcareous shells of molluscs. The benthic ‎flora and fauna were estimated in the Lake Botollus, Egypt is subjected to the influx of ‎sewage effluents, agriculture drainages and industrial wastes. Also considerable amounts ‎of drain water are constantly discharged along the southern drains. Quantitative hauls ‎were performed at the different habitats during winter and summer, 2017 covering 12 ‎sampling sites and 9 drains discharged directly to the lake which bottom sampling was ‎collected by grab sampler were selected to represent the covering the different ‎environments. The dredged area per each station was 225 cm2 per haul. Results ‎illustrated that the distribution of benthos in the estimated area is greatly affected by the ‎degree of pollution as well as the prevailing hydrological conditions. The aquatic ‎submerged vascular plants Potamogeton pectinatus appeared as the most common ‎species in the lake in addition the bottom animals appeared more- sensitive to pollution ‎than submerged vascular; thus, their lowest counts were recorded at the most sites and ‎the fauna was mainly represented by the Nematoda, Oligochaeta, Polychaeta, Insects ‎larvae, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Barnacles, and juvenile larvae of Mollusca. Sediments in ‎some areas consist of organic materials (sludge) is composed of waste sewage and ‎agricultural and industrial and others of sandy silt (silt), calcareous shells are mainly of ‎molluscs’ and therefore it can determine some environments prevailing in the lake. ‎Results indicated for examining configuration qualitative benthic macro during the study ‎period were recorded 27 species, including 9 species of living benthic macro organisms ‎include one type of aquatic submerged vascular plants of species Potamogeton ‎pectinatus. Although higher values of taxonomic richness, the Shannon and index (H`) ‎and evenness (J`) were obtained with the water Potamogeton pectinatus habitat as well ‎as Ostracoda Sclerochilus contortus were most abundant.‎
  • Description of the first to fourth zoeal stages of Macrobrachium equidens (Dana, ‎‎1852) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).‎

    Ghory, Farhana S.; Kazmi, Quddusi B.; Kazmi, M. Afzal (2022-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    An ovigerous female of Macrobrachium equidens (Dana, 1852) collected from near ‎shore of Sandspit back waters (Karachi, Pakistan) (Long. 66° 54’ 24”E Lat. 24° 50’ ‎‎24”N) on 19, October, 2009, and kept under the laboratory conditions. Larvae were ‎hatched out after 13 days. Zoea I to zoea III stages passed within 6 days at room ‎temperature 31°C, water temperature 29°C, in filtered seawater of a salinity of 37 ‰ and ‎pH 7.9. The Zoea IV of the same species was collected from planktonic sample of ‎Manora Channel, Karachi (Long. 66° 59’ E Lat. 24° 48’ N) on 1995. The larvae of this species are described and illustrated along with comparisons to ‎those described previously.‎
  • Morphometric relationships and meristic characteristics of Megalaspis cordyla ‎‎(Linnaeus, 1758) from the Bay of Bengal.

    Sarmin‎, Most. Shakila; Rahman, Md. Ashekur; Khatun‎, Mst. Shefaly; Sarker‎, Biplob Kumer; Rahman, Md. Ataur; Sabbir, Wasim; Asadujjaman, Md.; Samad, Md. Abdus; Habib, Kazi Ahsan (2022-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Megalaspis cordyla is one of the Carangid fish species commonly found in marine areas ‎of the Sundarbans and the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh. This study described the ‎morphometric relationships including length-weight and length-length relations (LWRs ‎and LLRs) and meristic characteristics of M. cordyla. A total of 100 individuals were ‎collected from commercial fishers’ catch in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh during ‎January-December 2021. For each individual, a total of fourteen various lengths were ‎measured by measuring board with 0.01 cm and body weight (BW) was taken by digital ‎balance with 0.01 g accuracy. Fin-ray numbers from all fins as well as scutes were ‎counted by a magnifying glass. Total length (TL) varied from 17.0-36.5 cm and the total ‎body weight (BW) ranged from 75.0-416.6 g. All LWRs were significantly related (p < ‎‎0.001), with r2 values ≥ 0.910. Based on r2 value (0.979), LWR by BW vs. TL (W= a × Lb) ‎was the best fitted model among 14 equations. Besides, the LLRs were also significant ‎with r2 values ≥ 0.908. According to r2 value (0.995), LLR by TL vs. FL (TL = a + b× FL) ‎was the best fitted model among 14 equations. The fin formula of M. cordyla is: first ‎dorsal, D1 I+VII; second dorsal, D2 I/14-18+6-8 finlets; pectoral, P1 20-26; pelvic, P2 I/5; ‎anal, A II+I/12-16 +5-7 finlets. This study provided knowledge on morphometric and ‎meristic features that would be very useful for species identification and stock ‎assessment of M. cordyla in the Bay of Bengal and other marine ecosystems.‎
  • Estimation of condition factor of Bengal Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus cynoglossus) in the Bay of ‎Bengal, Bangladesh.‎

    Tanjin, Sumaya; Rahman, Md. Ashekur; Uddin, Minhaz; Sarker, Biplob Kumer; Sarmin‎, Most. Shakila; Mawa‎, Zannatul; Rahman‎, Md. Ataur; Rahman, Obaidur; Samad, Md. Abdus; Habib, Kazi Ahsan; et al. (2021-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    The Bay of Bengal is rich with its biological diversity, which plays an important role in ‎the country's economic and social development. This study describes the condition ‎factor of Cynoglossus cynoglossus in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Samples were ‎collected from the Bay of Bengal during January to December 2020. Body weight (BW) ‎of fishes were taken by an electric balance with 0.01 g precision, and total length (TL) ‎was measured using a measuring board to the nearest 0.1 cm accuracy. The Fulton’s ‎condition factor was estimated by the equation: KF =100 × (BW/TL3). Total length and ‎body weight ranged from 10.0-38.7 cm (mean ± SD = 24.24 ± 6.30) and 9.1-280.6 g ‎‎(98.44 ± 57.79), respectively. The value of Fulton’s condition factor was observed as ‎‎0.6469 (SD = 0.1148), indicating unstable physiological condition of fish in Bay of ‎Bengal. The outcomes of this study will be helpful for sustainable management of C. cynoglossus in the Bay of Bengal and use as baseline information for further studies.‎
  • Re-discription of Calappa exanthematosa Alcock and Anderson, 1894 (Crustacea: Decapoda: ‎Calappidae) from the coastal waters of Pakistan.‎

    Osmani, Hamid Badar; Naz, Farah; Saher, Noor Us (2021-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    The box crab Calappa exanthematosa Alcock and Anderson, (1894) re-described ‎from the coastal waters of Pakistan. C. exanthematosa was collected as a bycatch during ‎the shrimp trawling. This species previously synonymised under C. japonica ‎Ortmann, (1892) from the Bay of Bengal, (type locality Japan), since 1937 to till date ‎‎(Galil, 1997; Spiridinov and Apel, 2007). Ng et al., (2011) re-described and illustrated the ‎C exanthematosa after comparison of freshly collected specimen of Calappa japonica ‎from the Gulf of Oman and India and revealed that the both species have resemblance ‎to each other, but few marked differences exist between both species. Current study re-‎described the morphological characteristic of C. exanthematosa from the coastal waters ‎of Pakistan.‎
  • Estimation of growth pattern and form factor of Torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, ‎‎1758) in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh.‎

    Sarmin‎, Most. Shakila; Tanjin‎, Sumaya; Rahman‎, Md. Ashekur; Hasan, Md. Rabiul; Sabbir, Wasim; Asadujjaman, Md.; Mondol‎, Md. Rashedul Kabir; Habib‎, Kazi Ahsan; Hossain, Md. Yeamin (2021-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    The horse mackerel, Megalaspis cordyla is one of the commercially valuable fish species ‎in the Bay of Bengal. This study was defined the growth pattern and form factor (a3.0) of ‎M. cordyla in the Bay of Bengal. Total of 105 specimens were analyzed, caught from ‎the Bay of Bengal during January to December 2020. Total length (TL) was measured ‎by measuring board with 0.01 cm and body weight (BW) was taken by digital balance ‎with 0.01 g accuracy. The TL and BW varied between 16.8 to 41.0 cm and 67.15 to ‎‎544.0 g, respectively. The length-weight relationship (LWR) was significantly related (p < ‎‎0.0001), with r2 value 0.984. The evaluated allometric co-efficient (b) was 2.50 that ‎indicated negative allometric growth (< 3.0) in the Bay of Bengal. The estimated a3.0 was ‎‎0.0102 for M. cordyla in the Bay of Bengal. The assessed a3.0 was varied from 0.0069 to ‎‎0.0182 in worldwide waterbodies. The computed median (0.0102) and 95% confidence ‎limit (0.0099-0.0132) specified that M. cordyla poses the typical torpedo body shape ‎‎‘fusiform’. This study will provide information on growth pattern and form factor as well ‎as body shape alternation between geographic distributions which would be effective for ‎its stock assessment and management in the Bay of Bengal and else-where.‎
  • The first assessment on metal contamination in the critically endangered Sawback Angel Shark ‎‎(Squatina aculeata) from north-eastern Mediterranean.‎

    Turan, Funda; Yola‎, Mehmet Lütfi; Ergenler, Aysegul; Turan, Cemal (2021-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    A Sawback angel shark (Squatina aculeata) classified as “Critically Endangered” Global ‎Red List by the IUCN (2017) and CITES (2017) is one of the threated elasmobranch ‎groups and the increased pollution in the marine environment negatively impact angel ‎shark species. Despite this, limited information exists about the effects of toxic chemical ‎contamination in angel sharks. Therefore, present study was conducted to elucidate ‎heavy metal accumulation in Squatina aculeata captured from the Iskenderun Bay, ‎North-Eastern Mediterranean by electrochemical technique. Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg), ‎Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Mangan (Mn) were found by electrochemical ‎analyzer. Among the gill and liver tissue samples of S. aculeata, Fe and Zn were detected ‎as highest concentrations followed by As, Hg, Mn and Cu; Among the muscle tissue of S. ‎aculeata, Fe and Zn were detected as highest followed by Hg, As, Mn and Cu. Average ‎total arsenic contents in S. aculeata was 7.5416±0.6548 μg g-1, which exceeded ‎maximum limit legalized for any kind of food. Similarly, Total mercury average content ‎in S. aculeata was 19.9942±1.6116 μg g -1, which exceeded the proposed limit value ‎which is 0.2-2 μg g-1, confirming that the consumption of S. aculeata is a high risk ‎threating the health of consumer. These results confirmed that the metal contamination ‎in North-Eastern Mediterranean area may pose a potential threat to the sustainability of ‎S. aculeata in marine ecosystem and the concentrations detected is the above the safety ‎limits for angel shark that should be taken into consideration regarding human ‎consumption.‎
  • Winners and losers: Post conflict biodiversity in the stressed ecosystem of Khor al-Zubair, Iraq

    Ali‎, Malik Hassan; Fawzi‎, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Mohammed‎, Hanaa Hussein; Helmuth, Brian; Dwyer, Amanda M. (2021-12-31)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    A rapid assessment of biodiversity in the immediate wake of civil conflict and other ‎disasters is critical to inform recovery efforts. We report on the first surveys of aquatic ‎biodiversity in Khor Al-Zubair (KAZ) in southern Iraq, following the cessation of recent ‎violence in the region. This site is in the midst of ongoing environmental changes due to ‎climate change and reductions in water flow from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which ‎have led to increases in salinity in the KAZ. Monthly surveys of biodiversity were ‎conducted in 2017-2018 and compared to historical data from the site obtained from a ‎literature survey. Results indicate a loss of 80% of species richness, suggesting a ‎fundamental and potential catastrophic decline in species diversity resulting from largely ‎anthropogenic drivers.‎
  • Benthic assemblages for ecological evaluation of Lake Manzala, Mediterranean Sea, ‎Egypt.

    El Komi, Mohamed Mohamed (2021-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Lake Manzalah one of the northern Nile Delta in Egypt is the largest lake, which lies ‎between the lakes Borollus and Bardaweel and connects to the Mediterranean Sea. It ‎has an area of current 250 thousand acres. It contains many islands particularly along ‎the south-western region forming of semi-enclosed basins and it is characterized by dense ‎submerged hydrophytes as Pomatogeton pectinals; Ceratophyllum demersum and ‎floating hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes. Seven major drains are loading directly in the ‎south to the west. Lake Manzalah-bottomed shallow (0.5-1m), brackish water (3-18‰ ‎and is suffering from the phenomenon of high nutrition (eutrophication) due to increased ‎rates of nutrients and organic matter. So some sources of wastes discharges such as ‎sewage and industrial waste and agricultural activity pour directly into the lake, ‎especially the southern region (Bahr El Baqar Drain). The study aims to study the ‎distribution of benthic organisms in the lake and knowledge of the relationship between ‎the types and aggregates benthic food ecosystem as the important food sources' for ‎some aquatic organisms, especially economic fish and crustaceans in study stations. ‎Bottom sediment samples were collected from 11 sites by grab sampler covering ‎different environments lake and from 4 drains consists mostly of organic materials ‎‎(sludge) is made up of waste sewage, industrial, agricultural waste plants, and calcareous ‎shells empty. Results indicate for examining configuration qualitative macro benthic ‎recording the 16 species of aquatic plants and invertebrates where empty calcareous ‎shells were more frequent. The abundance of macrobenthic organisms at different ‎sampling sites along Lake Manzala can be ranked as follows: Ostracoda (45.4%, 1010 ‎ind/m2) > submerged plants (12.9%, 287 tufts/m2) > Amphipoda (9.2%, 207 ind ∕m2) > ‎Polychaetes (7%, 110 ind ∕m2) Bivalves (5.9%, 132 ind ∕m2). The biomass of benthic ‎assemblages at different sampling sites can also be ranked as follows: at ST5 (18.1%, ‎‎4433 ind ∕m2) > St6 (11.3%, 2772 ind ∕m2) > ST8 (9.8%, 2405 ind ∕m2) > ST3 (9.2%, 2247) ‎‎> ST7 (8.7%, 2122 ind ∕m2). The biomass of benthic assemblages at different sampling ‎sites can also be ranked as follows: echinoderms (52%) > molluscs (27%) > crustaceans ‎‎(16%) > polychaetes (2%) > other groups (3%). Due to the increase of pollutants ‎extensively loaded into the drains are the possible factors having affecting the ‎constituents’ structures of benthos. Sites of sampling study were evenly spread (J’ > 0.8) ‎only at sites 6 and 8, moderate diversity (H’ > 1.00) was at most sites and show lower ‎value at sites 3 and 11 and 0 at site 1. The abiotic environmental effects in the lake are ‎general to those generally observed in other areas influenced by organic wastes, namely, ‎changes in the physic-chemical properties of the sediments and low oxygen ‎concentrations in the bottom water due to the decomposition of organic materials.‎
  • Growth and dispersal of razor clam Solen dactylus in the mudflats of Indus Delta, Sindh ‎Coast (Northern Arabian Sea)‎.

    Pirzado, A.A.; Mahar, M.A. (2021-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    The Razor clam Solen dactylus is being harvested for the last 10 years from mudflats in ‎creeks of district Thatta. The results of water and soil quality samples indicate the ‎suitability and support for growth, dispersal, production and reproduction of Solen ‎dactylus occurring in Indus delta eco-region. Water quality parameters of creeks ‎indicated the ranges of temperature of water and air 11 to 30 ℃ and 12 to 42℃, pH of ‎water between 8.2 to 8.9, alkalinity of water 267 to 480 mg/l, hardness of water 620 to ‎‎1150 mg/l, salinity of water from 22 to 33 ppt. The soil samples of mudflats indicated silt ‎clay 15 to 30%, sandy clay 20 to 40% and fine sand 30 to 40%. Spring, summer and ‎early winter seasons are suitable timing for harvesting razor clam. However, winter cold ‎and rainy seasons are not suitable for razor clam fishing. In winter, the animals become ‎inactive and remain in deep barrows and do not come to the surface. In period of rainfall ‎the razor clam holes were filled with fine silt thus large number of razor clam were ‎affected and even deaths may have been caused if mudflats were exposed at the time ‎of rain. ‎ The recorded mature size of razor clam ranged between length of 6 to 3.5 cm and weight ‎‎12 to 40 grams. A trained person dig-out 1.5 to 3 kg of razor clam in 12meter square in ‎‎20-40 minutes. Thus a person can exploit 10-20 kg of razor clam in a period of 3- 4 ‎hours, hence 15 - 20 kg of live razor clam can be harvested in a day or night by a person ‎when mudflat become exposed after tidal action. Coastal communities inhabiting creek ‎areas are engaged in its harvesting using traditional techniques of using salt and probing ‎with thin sticks and hauling razor clams from burrow during low tides when mudflats ‎become exposed. It is concluded that Razor clam is an ecologically important group of ‎marine organism, lives in mudflats and creek systems. Although the razor clams are not ‎locally consumed by native people of Pakistan but it is a fishery having export value ‎which foreign exchange earned by exporting it to South East Asian countries.‎
  • Investigation of Haemogregarina in Sawrow fish (Trachurus mediterraneus) in Zliten ‎coastal area, Libya

    Ahmed, Samia H.; Yousif, Ramzy A.; Eldehidya, Radwan; Elaakary, Salim (2021-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean ‎intensity of Haemogregarina infection on Sawrow fish (Trachurus mediterraneus) from ‎Zliten coast, Libya. A total of 12 specimens of Sawrow fish species were collected ‎randomly, the length (19.23 ± 0.72cm) and the weight (110.25 ± 7.88 g). The fish were ‎transported immediately alive to the laboratory in the Department of Fish Biology and ‎Fish Culture, College of Marine Resources, Asmarya University, where they were ‎maintained alive in well aerated glass aquaria (1x2x4 m). The gills, fins, and skin were ‎examined for ectoparasitic protozoa using a light microscope. The results showed ‎positive effect of haemogregarina in the Sawrow. Blood recorded the highest prevalence ‎and abundance among all the other organs in Sawrow fish followed by kideny, liver and ‎spleen respectively. The results provide a significant difference at (p<0.01), and the ‎results were discussed with other studies in the haemogregarinidae.‎
  • Form factor of Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791).‎

    Rahman, Md. Ashekur; Ohtomi, Jun (2021-06-30)
    Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
    Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus is a large-scale commercial fish found ‎in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Form factor (a3.0) is used widely for comparison of the ‎fish body shape between geographic locations. The present study was aimed to estimate ‎the form factor of N. Japonicus from available literature based on empirical model. ‎Assessed a3.0 ranged from 0.0035 to 0.0270. The median (0.0143) and 95% confidence ‎limit (0.0130-0.0168) indicated that N. Japonicas poses the typical torpedo body shape ‎‎‘fusiform’. Findings on the form factor of N. japonicus will be effective for perceiving ‎further body shape alteration between geographic distributions.‎

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