Now showing items 1-20 of 351

    • Trace metal contamination of discharge water in the northeast Mediterranean Sea

      Gurlek, Ozlem Guner; Ergenler, Ayşegul; Turan, Funda (2023-12-26)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      The contamination with trace metals brought on by anthropogenic activity is one of the main issues impacting the health of the environment. The inherent pressures on marine ecosystems and the individuals who depend on marine ecosystems for nourishment, industry, and advantage are both being seriously threatened by trace metal pollution in coastal and marine habitats. This study aimed to find out the accumulation of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seasonal water samples taken for a year from the Ceyhan River's discharge point into the Northeast Mediterranean. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of water were performed using an appropriate trace metal-based approach. The relative mean metal concentrations in the water column were in the following order at the sample site: Zn > Fe > Ni > Cr > Cu > Pb> Mn > Cd > Co > Hg. The highest value of Zn in the water column was observed at 90.05810.605 g L-1. The levels of contaminants in the water when compared to international and national water quality standards have been judged to be within the safe drinking range.
    • Heavy metals risk assessment for consumption of wild Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 along Samsun Coasts of the Black Sea

      Bat, Levent; Yardım, Öztekin; Arıcı, Elif; Hasançavuşoğlu, Zeynep; Öztekin, Ayşah (2023-12-26)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      The present study aimed to determine the concentration of metals in the soft tissue of wild mussels in coastal of Samsun and to assess human consumption. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the quantities of cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, iron, and zinc in Mytilus galloprovincialis were measured. The heavy metals found in Mediterranean mussels are arranged in the following ascending order: Cd < Hg < Pb < Cu < Fe < Zn. Concentrations of toxic metals were safe according to European Commission guidelines and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. According to the estimated daily intake (EDI), eating Mediterranean mussels poses no risks. The target hazard quotients (THQs) in metals are also found <1, which implies no threat to consumers. In conclusion, the current study confirmed that the concentration of heavy metals in the Mediterranean mussels is safe for people intake in terms of their toxicity.
    • First record of alive Asterigerina (Foraminifera: Rotaliida) with note on its distribution and abundance from the coastal area of Pakistan, Northern Arabian Sea

      Gopang, Anila; Farooq, Sumera; Ali, Qadeer Mohammad (2023-12-31)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Foraminifera is an important group of organisms which is widely used as indicators of environmental change. Not much work on foraminifera has been done on the Arabian margin running along the Pakistan coast. Information on the diversity and distribution of foraminifera is very limited and no information is available from the Balochistan coast. This study is an attempt to explore the diversity and dynamics related to foraminifera at the coast of Baluchistan. This very part of the study is designed to collect information about the zonation, vertical distribution and abundance of the genus Asterigerina at the beach of Ormara, Balochistan. The fossilized form of Asterigerina was previously reported from the sediments of upper Quetta region. This is the first report on the occurrence of alive Asterigerina in the coastal areas of Pakistan.
    • Sexual seasonal growth and mortality of Scaldback, Arnoglossus kessleri Schmidt, 1915 (Pleuronectiformes: Bothidae), caught by experimental beam trawl in the Black Sea, Turkiye

      Bilgin, Sabri; Onay, Hatice (2023-12-26)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      The scaldback, Arnoglossus kessleri, is a small fish that belongs to the Bothidae family and its biology is unknown in the Mediterranean Sea including Aegean Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Marmara. To describe first information on the seasonal von Bertalanffy growth function parameters (SVBGF) using length frequency data for A. kessleri, and also to present first information on indirect methods to estimate natural (M) and total mortality rates (Z), a total of 12 months samplings were conducted between December 2012 and November 2013 in the south-east Black Sea. The overall sex ratio of females: males skewed towards males (χ2, P < 0.01). The SVBGF parameters, computed from monthly length frequency distribution analysis (LFDA), were estimated as L∞ = 8.25 cm total length (TL), K = 0. 549 year-1 for females and as L∞ = 8.44 cm TL, K = 0.490 year-1 for males. The seasonal oscillation in growth rate for females (C = 0.340) was larger than it was for males (C = 0.260). The slowest period of growth corresponded to December both females and males. The seasonal growth of the scaldback was most probably initiated by photoperiod and accelerated with decreasing water temperatures. Total instantaneous mortality rate, Z, was estimated as 0.853 yr-1 for females and 0.774 yr-1 for males. Instantaneous natural mortality ratio, M, was estimated a bit higher for females (M = 0.714±0.129) than for males (M = 0.655±0.098). The exploitation rate, E, of both sexes was also lower than the optimum exploitation (E = 0.5) criterion, which is indicative of non-exploited and/or lightly exploited of A. kessleri population. The results of this study were offered as biological input parameters for management of Black Sea stocks of the scaldback species.
    • Biometric indices of Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich, 1825) from the coastal waters of Rivers State, Nigeria

      Dienye, Henry Eyina; Olopade, Olaniyi Alaba; Philip, Rejoice Upadi; Aiyeloja, Joy Osaretimi; Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria (2023-12-26)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Length-weight relationships (LWRs), length-length relationships (LLRs), and condition factor of Pseudotolithus elongatus from the coastal waters of Rivers State, Nigeria, were studied. Specimens were collected from the catches of fishermen using various fishing gear. The dominant length ranged from 20 to 26 cm, with a mean length of 22.65±3.06cm. The monthly length-weight relationship was estimated separately for male and female, with the b values indicating positive allometric growth (b > 3.00) in November, January, and February for both male and female. The females experienced negative allometric growth (b < 3.00) in December, March, and April, while the males exhibited a negative allometric growth pattern in April. The combined b value of LWRs (TL vs. BW) indicates positive allometric growth, and SL vs. BW indicates negative allometric growth. Also, the b value of LLR (TL vs. SL) indicates negative allometric growth. The condition factors varied for both sexes, ranging from 0.35 to 1.2 in males and 0.57 to 1.14 in females, while the combined condition factor ranged from 0.35 to 1.2. The present findings will provide useful information for a well-organized and significant exploitation and regulation of Sciaenid species following the aftermath of massive fish kills and continuous exploitation of fish species in the study area.
    • A review of aquatic toxicology investigations in Turkish waters.

      Bat, Levent; Hasançavuşoğlu, Zeynep; Öztekin, Ayşah (2023-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Aquatic toxicity studies have been conducted for many years, and their importance has been understood for some time. The need for aquatic toxicity studies arises from the widespread use of chemicals in many different industries, such as agriculture, manufacturing, and energy production. These chemicals can enter aquatic environments through various means, including runoff from fields, discharges from factories, and spills or leaks from storage tanks or pipelines. Once in the aquatic environment, these chemicals can have harmful effects on aquatic life, including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and algae. By conducting aquatic toxicity studies, researchers can gain a better understanding of the potential harmful effects of chemicals on aquatic life and ecosystems and can inform decisions about their use and regulation to protect the environment. This review summarizes the available aquatic toxicity studies in Turkish waters.
    • Metal causing DNA damage in lion fish Pterois miles from the northeastern Mediterranean.

      Ergenler, Ayşegül; Turan, Funda (2023-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      The influence of trace metal contamination on marine ecosystems and marine waters is a complex construct. Metal concentrations can cause carcinogenic and toxicogenic harm in marine environments. With a variety of sizes, ages, and trophic levels, fish are excellent markers of pollution from heavy metals for the identification of genotoxic factors in freshwater as well as marine systems. The current study used the damage frequency (%), arbitrary unit (%), and genetic damage index (%) in the gill and liver cells of P. miles to assess DNA damage brought along by toxic metals. Under the constant levels criteria used in this investigation, the levels of Cr, Hg, Fe, and Zn in the surrounding water are only slightly above the tolerance level. According to our findings, the frequency of damage in the lionfish's gill and liver cells was 53.66 to 73.512% and 39.33 to 45.033%, accordingly. The gill tissue had a higher frequency of injury than the liver tissue. Furthermore, Pb, Hg, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni, and Cu contents in seawater were shown to have a positive correlation with DNA damage levels in P. miles. As a result, our study revealed the first time genotoxic damage resulting from metal contamination in P. miles.
    • Characterization of long-spined sea urchin Diadema setosum shell and potential usage areas.

      Doğdu, Servet Ahmet; Turan, Cemal; Depci, Tolga; Bahçeci, Ersin; Turan, Funda (2023-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      The long-spined sea urchin Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) is the most common seashore sea urchin in the tropical Indo-Pacific and also this species is distributed in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we characterize the shell of the long-spined sea urchin Diadema setosum using FTIR and XRD analyses. The powdered shell of D. setosum was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It was determined that 714 cm-1 and 871 cm-1 peaks from the formed peaks determined the amorphous and crystal structure, respectively. The results of the XRD analysis of the long spiny sea urchin shell overlap 91% with calcite with chemical formula Ca5MgC6O18 and 9% with periclase chemical formula Mg4O4. Analysis results show that D. setosum shell was found to be in calcite structure, and can be used in many areas such as paper, paint, plastic, construction, food, ceramics, and pharmaceuticals. When combined with other studies as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant, it has been revealed to contain amorphous and crystal structures that are useful for different biomedical industries. High availability and accessibility of the long-spined sea urchin, can become a very economical product for these sectors, and in this way, an invasive species will be brought into the economy.
    • Elemental accumulation in macroalgae Treptacantha barbata (Stackhouse) Orellana & Sansón, 2019 from Sinop, Türkiye.

      Arıcı, Elif (2023-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      In this study, the contamination profile of heavy metal levels (Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Zn) of Treptacantha barbata (Stackhouse) Orellana & Sansón, 2019, seawater and sediment samples were analyzed by ICP-MS and reference materials were used to determine the reliability of the analysis. All samples were collected from the Sinop coast (Türkiye) from August 2021 through April 2022. As a result of the study, metal levels were found in the following sequence: Hg < Cd < Pb < Cu < Zn < Fe for seawater and T. barbata and Hg < Cd < Cu < Pb < Zn < Fe for sediment. Among the metals, Cu was bio-accumulative in biota; Cd and Hg metals in the sediment are micro concentrator by T. barbata.
    • Brine shrimp provides a rich-high energy food for migrating birds: A case study of an artificial pond in Basrah, Iraq.

      Ali, Malik Hassan; Mohammed, Hanaa Hussein; Abdulla, Dawood Salman; Ahmed, Huda Kadhim (2023-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      A case study focusing on the attraction of migrating birds by brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) into an artificial pond in Basrah, Iraq. A dump area had constructed at the intertidal mudflat’s zone of Khor Al-Zubair Channel, Basrah, Iraq. Basra Gas Company implemented a dredging operation to increase the channel depth in 2019 to use the dump area as a disposal place for the company’s benthic sediments, which are usually mixed with seawater, converting the dump area to a large hypersaline artificial pond. Unexpectedly, the pond became a habitat for many shorebird species a few months later. The pond has been surveyed five times between March 2019 and January 2020. For each survey, frequent environmental and biological events were observed. Due to high temperature during most summer months (30-50°C), the water level decreased dramatically to (< 0.5 m), which ultimately led to increase levels of salinity in the pond (80 psu). Moreover, growth of blue-green algae was observed and appearance of brine shrimp A. franciscana. During autumn and winter surveys, an abundance of live A. franciscana and their cysts was observed. Birds appeared to forage primarily on A. franciscana in the pond. The abundance of brine shrimp attracts migrating birds to exploit this prey. 11 species of migrating birds were detected in the pond. These species were flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber, flocks of avocet Ricurvirosta avosetta and Shelduck Tadorna tadorna. Therefore, this site with abundant food resources could provide a rich-high energy food for migrating birds and staging area for a long flight.
    • Studies on the morpho taxonomic variations of four Centropagidae species (Crustacea: ‎Calanoida) with note on their abundance collected from Sonmiani Bay, northern ‎Arabian sea

      Mubarak, Shumaila; Ali, Qadeer Mohammad (2022-12-31)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Centropagidae is comparatively a larger family to other families of order calanoida. The ‎quantitative data revealed that the copepods of the genus Centropages are the ‎dominant component in the zooplankton samples from the designated station in ‎Sonmiani bay, a coastal lagoon at Balochistan coast, northern Arabian sea. Four ‎epipelagic species of family Centropagidae, Centropages (Centropages dorsispinatus ‎Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903, Centropages tenuiremis Thompson I.C. & Scott A., ‎‎1903, Centropages furcatus (Dana, 1849) and Centropages orsinii Giesbrecht, 1889 ) ‎were identified. Male and female specimens were distinguished on their characteristic ‎features of antennules, thoracic segments and fifth legs. Identified specimens were ‎described briefly with their microscopic illustrations. Centropages dorsispinatus and ‎Centropages tenuiremis were frequently found in zooplankton samples throughout the ‎sampling season.‎
    • Morphometric relationship of Perna viridis Linnaeus, (1758) from the Manora Channel, ‎coastal waters of Pakistan

      Naz, Farah; Afsar‎, Nuzhat; Abbas‎, Ambareen; Siddiqui, Hafsa Hoor; Diljan, Salman; Sherazi, Syed Ibtehaj (2022-12-31)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Perna viridis (Green Mussels) is characterized by fast-growing, found in large clusters, ‎one of the dominant bio-fouling organisms, native to West Indo Pacific region and ‎commonly distributed along the Southeast Indian and Asian coast. They are found in ‎the shallow sublittoral water up to a depth of 15 m and be able to tolerate an extensive ‎range of environmental situation i.e. tolerate temperatures range of 15-32.5C. Green ‎mussels were collected from the navigation buoy in Manora Channel and brought to the ‎research laboratory. Samples were washed to remove the sand, vegetation, and other ‎particles. Morphometric measurements were measured to the nearest gram. The result ‎revealed that the shell length ranged between 0.60-7.4 cm, the width range between 0.10-‎‎2.9 cm, and the weight range between 0.037-15.549 g. In all morphometric relationships, ‎the validation of the “b” values was significantly different from the isometric value. ‎Significant correlation variation was observed in all variables whereas the highest ‎correlation values were observed in the length-width (n-224, r2 = 0.966) and the lowest ‎was observed in width-total weight (n-224, r2 = 0.85). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) ‎revealed that all variables showed significantly different (DF=1, p<0.000).‎
    • Estimation of population structure, growth and condition of Lates calcarifer (Bloch, ‎‎1790) in the Bay of ‎Bengal

      Ilah‎, Nur-E-Farjana; Abedin‎, Md. Joynal; Rahman‎, Md. Ashekur; Azad‎, Md. Abul Kalam; Khatun‎, Most. Taslima; Asadujjaman‎, Md.; Samad, Md. Abdus; Habib, Kazi Ahsan; Ali, Md. Nowsher; Sarmin, Most. Shakila (2022-12-31)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      The current study illustrates the life-history traits; including length frequency distribution ‎‎(LFD), length-weight and length-length relationship (LWR and LLR), condition factors ‎‎(allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; relative condition, KR; relative weight, WR), and natural ‎mortality (Mw) of Lates calcarifer from the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. A total of 103 ‎individuals were randomly collected from January to December 2021 using traditional ‎fishing gear including Koral net and gill net. For each individual, total length (TL), ‎standard length (SL), and total body weight (BW) were measured with measuring scale to ‎‎0.1 cm and digital balance to 0.1 g precision, respectively. The TL size class 84.0 cm was ‎a numerically dominant group in the population. The b value of LWR (TL vs. BW) ‎indicated positive allometric growth (b=3.28) pattern in the Bay of Bengal. Likewise, the ‎b value of LLR indicated also the same growth pattern. Among the four types of ‎condition factors, KF is the best-suited tool for evaluating the well-being of L. calcarifer. ‎Additionally, WR exhibited significant divergence from 100 (P< 0.0001), defining an ‎imbalanced habitat. The calculated Mw was 0.23 year-1 for L. calcarifer. Therefore, these ‎findings would be used in the future for the improved management of this species in the ‎Bay of Bengal as well as for connecting ecosystems.‎
    • A new species of Philometra reported from the ovaries of edible fish Epinephelus ‎bleekeri (Vaillant, 1878) of the Karachi coast

      Rizwana, A.G.; Zulfiqar, Sumbul (2022-12-31)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Nutritionally, fish meat is identified as healthiest meat all over the world. Nutriments that ‎are essential for healthy diet can be easily drive from fishes. Beside fish meat there are ‎various type of derivatives that we can obtain from them. Economically fish industry is ‎considered as backbone for any country. Approximately, 45,000 species of helminth ‎parasites cause pathogenicity in vertebrate hosts that are known to man. Parasite that ‎belong to family Philometridae usually invade different body organs and cavities of ‎various fishes. Parasite that cause pathogenicity in reproductive organs of fish ultimately ‎cause disturbance in their release of reproductive hormones, mating behavior, difficulty ‎in spawning and ultimately number of fry production is declined.‎ This research was conducted on the nematode parasites of marine fish Epinephelus ‎bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) from Karachi coast during January,2021 to December,2021. In ‎this one year research, a new species of nematode Philometra bleekerii n.sp. was ‎recorded from the reproductive organs of marine fish Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant ‎‎1878).‎
    • Effect of freezing period on chemical composition, microbial load and some pathogenic ‎bacteria of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)‎

      Yagoub, Hassan M. (2022-12-31)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      This study evaluated the effects of freezing periods on nutritional values, microbial ‎loads, and some pathogenic bacteria in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). 8 kg.‎‏ ‏Samples were collected from El-mawourda Fish Market in Khartoum State, for four ‎experimental treatments. The treatments were conducted on the period 0 day, 7 days, 15 ‎days and 21 days.‎‏ ‏It is noticed that the freezing period effect on the nutritional value, ‎microbial load and some pathogenic bacteria of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ‎revealed that the lowest average nutritional assessment of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis ‎niloticus) observed for protein 20% at the third period of freezing (21 days), and ‎minerals were calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium and potassium (5.6 – ‎‎2.7%, 4.8 – 2.9%, 2.6 – 2.9%, 1.1 – 0.71%, 4.5 – 2.8%) respectively. The‏ ‏result of this ‎study clarified that the freezing period has a considerable consequence (p ≤ 0.05) on the ‎chemical composition, microbial load and same pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and ‎Salmonella) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).‎
    • Modelling current and future distribution of the invasive silver-cheeked toadfish ‎Lagocephalus sceleratus in the Mediterranean Sea

      Turan, Cemal; Doğdu, Servet Ahmet (2022-12-31)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      The progress in species distribution modeling has brought new insights into biological ‎invasion management. The present study aims to model the potential current geographic ‎distribution and future expansion of silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus in ‎the Mediterranean Sea. Coordinates of 98 occurrence records of L. sceleratus in the ‎Mediterranean were used, and marine climatic variables were collected from the global ‎databases. Fifteen modeling techniques were tested, and weighted ensemble averaging of ‎the model replicates was built. AUC values for each model ranged from 0.61 for rpart to ‎‎0.99 for rf, and TSS values varied from 0.41 for mlp to 0.95 for rf. Based on the cutoff ‎values of TSS and AUC, the seven modelling algorithms were used for ensemble ‎modeling. The maximum seawater temperature at minimum depth explained strong ‎biological importance to the current adaptation, and the salinity contributed the most to ‎the future adaptation. The ensemble forecasting of suitable habitats of L. sceleratus for ‎current distribution modeling revealed that L. sceleratus dominantly occurred in ‎the middle and eastern parts of coastal areas of the Mediterranean. The future ‎distribution was extended to the western part of coastal areas of the Mediterranean, ‎classifying the high suitability of these areas for its future distribution. The suitable ‎bioclimatic envelope of L. sceleratus under the present study is predicted to widen ‎because of climate change. The likely regions of invasion and the areas at risk for a ‎potential future invasion of L. sceleratus indicate that prompt, effective practical actions ‎by resource managers should be undertaken to mitigate its impacts and spread.‎
    • Length-weight relationship and condition factor in Sarda orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) (Family-Scombridae) fish from Karachi fish harbour.

      Muzaffar, Kanwal; Yousuf, Farzana; Shaikh, Iqra (2022-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Sarda orientalis (Family-Scombridae) of assorted length (cm) and weight (gm) were obtained from Karachi fish harbor during January to December (2019) for measurement of length-weight relationship (LWR’s) and Fulton‘s condition factor (K). The range of length (57-60.8) and weight (2123-2641) were estimated. Total mean length (cm) (gm) (59.14±0.94) and weight (gm) (2336.32±114.21) were measured. LWR was estimated as W = 0.08166134 × L 2.5149 (log W = -1.088 + 2.5149log L). The highest mean of condition factor (K) (1.15±0.02) were measured in post-monsoon season. Assorted (ANOVA) analysis indicates that there is a significant correlation between weight, length, and season (p0.05).
    • Molluscans species diversity and protein expression analysis in Lunella ‎coronate spp of family Turbinidae from the Manora Channel Karachi, ‎Pakistan‎.

      Afsar‎, Nuzhat; Naz‎, Farah; Saher‎, Noor Us; Ibrahim‎, Shafaq; Sadiq‎, Hafiza Mahzaib; Ahmed‎, Urooba; Mughal‎, Ramsha; Bint e Ahmed‎, Syeda Zainab; Jabbar, Sonia Abdul (2022-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Manora rocky shore characterize as a shore having moderate to strong wave exposure, ‎zonation pattern characterize by intertidal habit, different communities of invertebrates ‎and algae bands dominated by molluscan diversity and associated fauna. The current ‎study contribute the species diversity of molluscs from the Manora rocky ledge, coast of ‎Pakistan. A total of 11 species were recorded pertaining to 9 families and 11 genera ‎including family Turbinidae: Turbo bruneus, Lunella coronata, family Cerithiidae: ‎Cerithium caeruleum, family Babyloniidae: Babylonia spirata, family Neritidae: Nerita ‎albicilla, family: Chilodontaidae Euchelus asper, family Veneridae: Circenita ‎callipyga, family Arcidae: Barbatia obliquata. Family Pectinidae, Mimachlamys ‎townsendi, family Chamidae: Chama sp, family Littorinidae and Sub family ‎Trachycardiinae V. assimile. In addition, Protein expression analysis of L. cornata was ‎also observed through Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic. L. coronata was previously ‎reported from the coastal water of Pakistan with some morphological variation in the ‎shell shape and the results reveled that electrophoretic patterns of proteins in L. cornata ‎spp 1 and L. cornata spp2 differentiate from each as seen in morphological characters.‎
    • Benthic assemblages for ecological evaluation of Lake Borollus, Mediterranean Sea, ‎Egypt.‎

      El Komi, Mohamed Mohamed (2022-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      Lake Borollus is one of the largest and oldest Egyptian lakes, whereas it is located in the ‎far north of the Delta and mediates between the two branches of Rosetta and Damietta. ‎It is connected to the Mediterranean Sea through Boghaz El Borollus and to the Nile ‎through the Bermbal Canal, which was established in 1926 to feed the lake with ‎abundant quantities of Nile water and Nile fish. Central coordinates: latitude 31°30' N ‎and longitude 30°49' E with an area has decreased from 160,000 acres to 108,000 acres. ‎The present work provides an ecological study on the regional and temporal distribution ‎of benthic communities in particular along the wetlands lakes waters. Indicated that, the ‎effective sediment and water variables which significantly correlated with the distribution ‎and abundance of the identified benthos assemblages of vegetation and animal’s groups ‎include sediments structure, water quality (pH, S%, DO, BOD, temperature. Overall, 10 ‎taxa and 27 species of macroinvertebrates were identified. They were exclusively ‎associated with submerged vascular plants Potamogeton pectinatus while only 10 were ‎alive forms and the rest were represented by calcareous shells of molluscs. The benthic ‎flora and fauna were estimated in the Lake Botollus, Egypt is subjected to the influx of ‎sewage effluents, agriculture drainages and industrial wastes. Also considerable amounts ‎of drain water are constantly discharged along the southern drains. Quantitative hauls ‎were performed at the different habitats during winter and summer, 2017 covering 12 ‎sampling sites and 9 drains discharged directly to the lake which bottom sampling was ‎collected by grab sampler were selected to represent the covering the different ‎environments. The dredged area per each station was 225 cm2 per haul. Results ‎illustrated that the distribution of benthos in the estimated area is greatly affected by the ‎degree of pollution as well as the prevailing hydrological conditions. The aquatic ‎submerged vascular plants Potamogeton pectinatus appeared as the most common ‎species in the lake in addition the bottom animals appeared more- sensitive to pollution ‎than submerged vascular; thus, their lowest counts were recorded at the most sites and ‎the fauna was mainly represented by the Nematoda, Oligochaeta, Polychaeta, Insects ‎larvae, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Barnacles, and juvenile larvae of Mollusca. Sediments in ‎some areas consist of organic materials (sludge) is composed of waste sewage and ‎agricultural and industrial and others of sandy silt (silt), calcareous shells are mainly of ‎molluscs’ and therefore it can determine some environments prevailing in the lake. ‎Results indicated for examining configuration qualitative benthic macro during the study ‎period were recorded 27 species, including 9 species of living benthic macro organisms ‎include one type of aquatic submerged vascular plants of species Potamogeton ‎pectinatus. Although higher values of taxonomic richness, the Shannon and index (H`) ‎and evenness (J`) were obtained with the water Potamogeton pectinatus habitat as well ‎as Ostracoda Sclerochilus contortus were most abundant.‎
    • Description of the first to fourth zoeal stages of Macrobrachium equidens (Dana, ‎‎1852) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).‎

      Ghory, Farhana S.; Kazmi, Quddusi B.; Kazmi, M. Afzal (2022-06-30)
      Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences
      An ovigerous female of Macrobrachium equidens (Dana, 1852) collected from near ‎shore of Sandspit back waters (Karachi, Pakistan) (Long. 66° 54’ 24”E Lat. 24° 50’ ‎‎24”N) on 19, October, 2009, and kept under the laboratory conditions. Larvae were ‎hatched out after 13 days. Zoea I to zoea III stages passed within 6 days at room ‎temperature 31°C, water temperature 29°C, in filtered seawater of a salinity of 37 ‰ and ‎pH 7.9. The Zoea IV of the same species was collected from planktonic sample of ‎Manora Channel, Karachi (Long. 66° 59’ E Lat. 24° 48’ N) on 1995. The larvae of this species are described and illustrated along with comparisons to ‎those described previously.‎